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Full text of "The Parliamentary or constitutional history of England, from the earliest times, to the restoration of King Charles II"

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O R 

Hiftory of England, 

From the earlieft TIMES, 

T O T H E 

Reftoration of King CHARLES II. 


From the RECORDS, the ROLLS of Parliament, the JOURNALS 
of both Houfes, the Public LIBRARIES, Original MANU- 
SCRIPTS, fcarce SPEECHES, and TRACTS ; all compared 
with the feveral Contemporary Writers, and conne&ed, 
throughout, with the Hiftory of the Times. 



From the Commencement of the Commonwealth in February, 1648, 
to the Marching of the Scots Army into England, under the Com- 
mand of King Charles the Second, in Auguft, 165 i. 


printed for J. and R, TONS ON, and A. MILLAR, in the 
Strand ; and W. S A N D B Y, in Fleet-Jlrtet. 




TH E great Number of fcarce Tradts and Ma- 
nufcripts, which have been communicated to 
the Authors, relating to the Proceedings of the 
Commonwealth and the Protectorate, as they have 
greatly increafed our Labour in digefting them, fo 
have they no lefs contributed to enrich the Work. 
Upon this Occafion give us Leave, more particu- 
larly, to return our grateful Acknowledgments 
to the Rt. Hon. the Lord Vifcount Royjlon, for 
the Ufe of" a complete Set of a curious and valua- 
ble Journal, publifhed by Authority of the Coun- 
cil of State, in French, for the Information of 
Foreigners, intituled, Notruelles Ordinaries dc 
Londres, which contains a very accurate Account 
of all Tranfadtions in Parliament, and other Mat- 
ters, from July 1650, to January 1660-1 ; as alfo to 
the Univerlity of Cambridge, who were pleafed 
to pafs a Grace, in Senate, for the Loan of feve- 
ral valuable Volumes out of their Public Library. 
The Rev. Dr. Birch, Secretary to the Royal So- 
ciety ; the Rev. Dr. Zachary Grey -, and the late 
Robert Hoblyn, Efq; Member of Parliament for 
Briftol, have been greatly aiTillant in furnifhing Ma- 
terials for this Part of the Work ; which has been 
alfo much improved from the Collections of th 
late William Petyt, Efq; (formerly Keeper of the 
Records in the 'Tower] confifting of above Eighty 
' VOL. XIX. a 2 Volumes 

Volumes of Parliamentary Tracts, relating to the 
Period above-mentioned. 

When the Propofals for this Work were firft 
Offered to the Public, the Intention was to have 
concluded with the Reiteration ; but the Authors 
having fince been favoured, by the Reverend 
the Dean of Exeter, with the Minute Book be- 
longing to a Member of that Convention 
which reftored the King, found in the Lytelton 
Family, containing an exact Diary of the De- 
bates of that AlTembly, from April 1660, to their 
Diflblution in December following, they have 
been advifed to continue the Work to this latter 
Period > a Crifis the more interefting, becairfe, 
in this Interval, the Reader will find the principal 
Actors in the Civil Wars called to Account; and 
the Tables turned upon thofe who had fo long 
lorded it, with fuch defpotic Sway, over the 
Lives and Fortunes of their Fellow- Subjects. 


Parliamentary Hiftory 

b F 


] '" 

Republican Party m the Houfe of 
Commons having, by the Afliftance of 
the Army, excluded all thofe Members jby, 
wno refufed to concur in the late Pro- 
ceedings againft the King; having alfo 
abolifhed both Monarchy and the Peerage, and 
refolved to erect a Council of State, for the Go- 
vernment of England and Ireland, who were to 
act under the fole Authority of that Houfe ; the firft 
Thing they did this Day, February 8, was to pafs 
the following Refolutions touching the Difpofal gf 
the late King's Body, viz. 

Refolded, * That the Houfe doth approve of ReJ r ] ut ; OJ13 ^ 
Windfor for the Place of the late King's Burial, the commons 
and that he be carried there To-morrow for that concernin s the 
Purpofej alfo that the Duke of Richmond, ACiJSu "* 
Marquis of Hertford, the Earl of Lindfey, the Earl 
of Southampton, and Dr. Juxon, with three Ser- 
vants each, may attend the Funeral : That it be left 
VOL. XIX, A to 

2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

to the Duke of Richmond to take Order for the 
Place of the late Kind's Burial at Windfor^ either 
in Henry the Eighth's Chapel, or the Choir there, 
February. ^ s ^jj bg tnou gh t fit ; the Circumftances and 
Manner of the Interment to be wholly left to the 
faici Duke of Richmond ; and a Sum not exceed- 
ing 500 /. to be allowed for the Expences of the 

The feveral Perfons in whofe Cuftody the Seals 
of the Exchequer, King's Bench, Common Pleas, 
and Duchy, the Seals for Statutes, &c. having, ac- 
cording to an Order of the Houfe, delivered them 
up to a Committee appointed to confider of the 
Alteration of Seals, in different Offices ; the Com- 
They order the mons next proceeded to nominate a large Corn- 
Great Seal to, who were ordered to infpecl: all the Corn- 
broken, and millions of the Peace in England and Wales^ 
e and.give in the Names of fit Perfons to be trufted 
with new Commiflions, under their own Great 
Seal. This Mark of Sovereign Authority, lately 
ordered to be made, was brought into the Houfe, 
this Day, by Sir Thomas Widdrington and Mr. IFhit- 
locke y two of the Commifiioners for the late Great 
Seal% which was broken and defaced whilft the 
Houfe was fitting, and the Pieces thereof given to 
the faid two Commiffioners. Then an Act was 
pafled for authorizing and eftablifhing the new 
Great Seal ; as alfo another for making it High 
Treafon to counterfeit it ; and it was committed to 
the Cuftody of Mr. Wbitlocke^ Mr. Ltflf t and Mr. 
Serjeant Keeble, who were to continife Lords Com- 
miffioners of the Great Seal quamd'iu bene fe gef- 
ferint b . 


a The two other CcmmiflToners were the Earl of Kent, and Lord 
Grey of fVarke. 

b Mr. Wbitlockt remarks, That it was debated whether they 
fhould be /imply ftyled Commijfior.ers, or Lcrdt CommiJJior.t t -s ; the 
Word Lordi being lefs acceptable at this Time than formerly : Yet, 
that the Houfe might not feem to lefien their own Authority, nor 
the Honour of the Offices by them constituted, they voted the 
Title to be Lordi Commijjknen, and the Aft was pafled accordingly. 

Memorials, p. 374. 
A Salary of jooo /. fer Anr.n<n was alfo voted to each of them. 


Sir Thomas Widdrington had been nominated as 
a Commifiloner, but urging his ill State of Health, 
and fome Scruples in point of Confcience, he ob- 
tain'd his Excufe : However, the Commons or- 
dered, as a Mark of Honour, and an Acknow- 
ledgment of his former faithful Difcharge of that 
Truft, notwithstanding his Objections to their 
Authority, that he mould be allowed to practice 
in all the Courts of JVeJlminfter within the Bar J 
and have Precedency in Place next to the Com- 
miffioners of the Great Seal. 

Mr. Whitlocke has left us a Copy of the Speech" 
made by himfelf, in the Houfe, dn this Occafiori: 

Mr. Speaker, ... , 

* T AM now to declare myfelf whether I will Mr. Wh!tl6cfe=*3 

I accept or refufe the higheft Place of ordinary ^^iS 
Judicature in the Kingdom, to which your r a- one of the Com- 
vour and good Opinion hath been pleafed to name miffionete there- 
me. , * 

* I fliall plainly lay before you the Motives that 
occur to me, both for the Acceptance and Refufal 
of it, and my humble Suit upon them ; and I (hall 
fubmif all to yourPleafure and Judgment. 

' The Motives I fliall confine myfelf unto are 
Jfour of either Sort. 

i. * Fof my Acceptance of it : May be the Ho- 
nour of the Service, the Greatnefs of the Place, 
which may fwav much with forrre others, but not 
with me, whofe Ambition is of a lower Stature. 

* I never affe&ed great Place?; it is fufficient 
Honour to me to be a Member of this Honourable 
Houfe, I defire no further Honour ; and if Ho- 
nour be in honorante, good Actions will render a 
Man more honourable than the Ceremonies and 
Pageantry of high Places, which may take with 
fome of gayer Spirits more than it doth with me. 

2. The fecond Motive for Acceptance is the Pro- 
fit of the Place ; and that is very confiderable with 
moft Men : I blefs God, he hath given me Means' 
convenient for me, and I hope he will blefs that 
A a to 

4 Thf Parliamentary HISTORY 

ntcr-rfpmim. to me, and keep me from wafting that which rriuft 
164*. oe a Provifion for many Children. 

1 *.'~ J * And to me, Mr. Speaker, this is not fo great 

)1>udr >'' a Motive as it may be to others, becaufe thole that 
know my Courfe can teftify, that the Benefit of 
my Practice was more than the Salary of this Of- 
fice, though I acknowledge your Bounty to your 

3. * The third Motive is the Command which 
this great Officer hath over the Perfons and For- 
tunes of Men ; which is a pleafing Thing, and 
much fought after by Men in this World, the Spi- 
rit of Domination being natural to us. 

* But, Sir, in this I am of my Lord of St. Albaris 
Judgment, , who holds that Men. in great Places 
are fo f.;r from having Command, that they are 
very Slaves themfelves ; Slaves to great Men, and 
Slaves to Bufinefs, and cannot command fo much 
as their own Time. 

4. 4 The fourth Motive is the End of the Ser- 
vice; which is to do Right and Juftice to Men, to 
relieve the Opprefled, to ferve God, and ferve you 
and my Country, which will be done by a due 
Performance of the Duty of this Place. 

4 And this to me, efpecially at this Time, is 
the greateft and ftrongeft Motive of all other*. 

4 Yet give me Leave, Sir, on the other Side, to 
lay before you the Motives for my Refufal of this 
Employment, which, in my humble Opinion, do 
far overbalance the other. 

I . * The firfl of thefe Motives is the Trouble 
of the Place, which hath the greateft and mbft 
conftant Labour in it of any other Place in Eng- 
land \ thrs Shop of Juftice muft be always open, 
Nullus recedat a Cancellaria fine Remedio. 

4 The Bufinefs of the Chancery is certainly 
more than of any other Court ; the Trouble muit 
needs be the greater, and the Burden the keavier, 
too heavy for me to bear. 

4 It is Trouble enough, and no eafy Duty for one 
Man to attend the Service of this Houic ; it is 



more than doubled by being; a Commiffioner of the Inter-reg 

Great Seal, whereof I have fonie Experience ; and 

it hath brought me to be of the Poet's Opinion, Y^^t 

Beat us Hie qul procul Negotiis ; a Condition longed 

for by me. 

2. ' The fecond Motive for my.Refufal, is the 
Danger of this Employment, through the. Envy of 
Men, more in thefe Times than others, and thro' 
the Importance of the Bufmefs, in the which, as 
in War, Non licet bis peccare. 

4 There will be Watchmen enough for one Fail- 
ing ; and one Party, almoft in every Caufe deter- 
mined by him, will be ready to accufe and con- 
demn him ; no Man can fit in this Place, but he 
muft expofe his Per ion and Fortune to no little 

3. The third Motive is the Difficulty of this 
Employment; fome will labour to conceal or ob- 
fcure the Truth as much as Eloquence, Learning, 
and Subtilty can invent ; and it is hard to difcern 
the clear Truth through thefe Shadows. 

* The Judges of the Common Law have certain 
Rules to guide them ; a Keeper of the Seals hath 
nothing but his own Confcience to direiSt him, and 
that is oftentimes deceitful. 

' The Proceedings in Chancery are fecundum 
Arbltrlum boni Viri^ and this Arbitrium diftereth as 
much in feveral Men as their Countenances differ. 

* That which is Right in one Man's Eyes is 
Wrong in another's ; nothing is more difficult 
than to fatisfy in Judgment : And this leads me to 
the laft and ftrongeft Motive for my Refufal of 
this Employment ; which is, 

4. ' My Unfitnefs and Want of Ability to un- 
dergo it ; I mention not my Want of Ability of 
Body, though this Place requires much Pains, La- 
bour, and continual Attendance ; and my Health 
is not a little impaired, and my bodily Infirmities 
increafed by my late Services, but I hold myfelf 
obliged to lay down my Life to ferve you. 

' I may more infift upon my Want of Abilities 
of Mind to perform this great Charge, and this i$ 
A 3 . beft 

6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. bed known to myfelf ; though I confefs it hath 
been too much likewife difcovered to you, both 
upon former Occafions, and at this prefent ; and 
it were not fit to honour me by this Place, and 
to dimonour yourfelves by my weakExecution of it. 
' Perhaps it may be objected, That thefe are but 
Pretences, whereof you are the moft proper Judges. 
I do acknowlege, $hat it will not become me to 
oppofe' my Judgment to yours ; but I am moft 
confcious to myfelf of my own Difabilities, a^id beg 
your Confideration of them. 

* A greater Objection is, That if I decline this 
Service at this Time, it will be a kind of Difown- 
ing your Authority, as unwarrantable and illegal ; 
and a giving of my Judgment againft your Pro- 
ceedings, upon the prefent Alterations made by 

' This, Sir, is far from me ; and I fuppofe I 
have given my Teftimony otherwife, in the Par- 
ticulars mentioned by my worthy Colleague that 
fpake laft, in which I have owned your Authority c . 

4 And for a ftrict formal Purfuance of the or- 
dinary Rules of Law, it hath been hardly to be 
difcerned in any of the late Proceedings on either 
Side, in all our great and weighty Tranfactions. 

* Unavoidable Neceflity hath put us upon thofe 
Courfes, which otherwife, perhaps, we {hould not 
have taken. 

' I am fure my fitting and acting here is accord- 
ing to the known Laws of England, and that my 
Protection at this Time is only from you ; there- 
fore my Obedience is only due to you, and there 
is no other vifible Authority in Being but your- 

4 Thefe are fufficient Reafons to juftify an O- 
bedience to your Authority ; which truly, Sir, I 
do own; and not fcruple at all, as Things now 
are, to act by that Authority. 


e In figning a Warrant for a Writ to adjourn Hilary Term, 
and bringing irt the new Great Seal, without the Concurrence of the 
pther two Comroifiioneri, who had been appointed by the Houfe of 
torts, H'titlocke, p. 372, 


' I only fcruple my Undertaking this great Inter-regnum, 
Charge, knowing my own Want to perform it as 164.8. 
I ought to do ; this Place requires quick Appre- 
henfion, general Learning, and deep Judgment, 
all which are wanting in me ; but I fee many 
worthy Gentlemen within thefe Walls, of much 
greater Abilities, and more compleatly furnifhed 
for the Execution of this Charge, than I am. 

4 My humble Motion therefore to you is, That 
you will be pleafed to think of fome Perfon more 
fit and worthy of this great Truft than I am ; and 
to excufe me from being one of your Commiflioners 
for the Great Seal of England, which is a Place 
too high for me.' 

But all this was a nolo epifcopari with Mr. PFhit- 

The Speaker had been ordered to found all the 
Judges, whether they would accept of new Com- 
miflions under the prefent Powers ; and this Day he 
reported their Anfwers, That Baron Trevor^ Ju- 
ftice Bacon, Juftice Crejkeld, Baron Jit kins, Juftice 
Brown, and Juftice Bedingfield, defired to be ex- of new Com- 
cufed from accepting of new Commiffions to be miflions 
Judges ; and that the two Lord Chief Juftices, 
[Rolle and St. John] the Lord Chief Baron, \lVylde\ 
Juftice Jermyn, Juftice Pbejant, and Baron Gates, 
were willing to accept of them ; but defired the 
Houfe to declare, That the Judges ftiould proceed 
according to the Laws and Statutes of this King- 
dom. Hereupon a Declaration was agreed to in 
beec Verba, * That the Parliament of England do 
declare, That being fully refolved to maintain the 
Fundamental Laws of this Nation, for the Good 
of the People ; and having appointed Judges for 
the Adminiftrztion of Juftice, in Execution there- 
of; they do expecl that they mould proceed ac- 

This Declaration was ordered to be forthwith 
printed and pubHfhed ; and the Name of the King's Alteration 
Bench was directed to be changed into that of t 
Upper Bench: The Commons alfo ordered that&c? 


8 Tlx Parliamentary HISTORY 

luu-.-regnum. their Clerk be required, from henceforth, to fub- 
1648. fcribe all A6h, Orders, and Proceedings of that 
*"7T~* Houfe, by the Name of Clericus Parliaments 

February, ' 

Feb.- 9. This Day the Commons pafs'd an Act 
for reftraining and prohibiting the printing and 
publiming of the Paliages and Proceedings of the 
High Court of Juftice ; another for repealing the fc- 
yeral Cjaufes and Branches, in the A6ts of the firft 
Year of Queen Elizabeth, and the third of King 
"James, touching the Oaths of Allegiance, Obedi- 
ence, and Supremacy. They alfo agreed to the 
following Oath to be taken by all the 'judges mu- 
tatis mutandis: 

/ V Jhall fwear that well and truly ye /hall ferve 
te taken by the the Parliament and People , in the Office of Chief 
Judges. 'Juftice of the Upper Bench formerly call'd the King's 

Bench : You Jhall not give any Counfel or AJfent to 
any Thing, which may turn to the Damage of the 
Parliament and People by any Way or Colour : Ye 
/hall do equal Law and Execution of Right to. all 
the People, rich and poor : Ye Jhall not take by you, 
Or by any other Perfon, privately nor openly, any Gift 
or Reward, of Gold or of Silver, or any other Thing 
which might turn you to Profit, of any Man that 
JJxill have any Plea or Procefs hanging before you, as 
long as before yourfelf the Pleas and Procejfes Jhall 
i>e hanging; nor after, for that Caufe : Ye Jhall 
take no Fees nor Livery of any Perfon as long as 
ye /hall be Juftice, but of the Parliament, and by 
their Allowance : And in cafe any Perfon or Perfons 
come before you in your SeJJions or Ajfizes, with Force 
and Arms, or otherwife againft the Peace, to difturb 
the Execution of Juftice ; or do menace the People, 
that they may twt profecute the Law, ye Jhall caufe 
them to be arrejhd, and put them in Prifon : And 
in cafe they be fuch as ye may not arrejt, ye Jhall 
then certify the. Parliament, or the Council of Stale 
l>y their Authority appointed, of their Names anj 
f their MiJ doings : Ye Jhall not maintain by your - 
elf, nor by none other 3 privily nor openly, any Plea cr 


Of E N G L A N D. 9 

Quarrel^ banging in the Courts at Weftminfter, or 
el] e where In the Country : Ye Jhall not delay any Per- 
fon common Right for any Letters or other Caufi ; 
but jhall proceed to do the Law^ the fame notwitb- 
Jlanding: Ye fiull procure the Profit of the Com- 
momvedlih in all Things ye tnay reasonably do : A$ 
God ye help. 

Feb. 10. Several more Erafements appear again 
on the "Journals, in this and the fucceeding Days, 
all vacated by Order of February 22, 1659, upon 
the Reflitution of the Secluded Members. 

Feb. 12. Letters came this Day from ftdmburgh, The Scots pro- 
ad vifmg that Prince Charles was proclaimed King claim Pri " nce 
of Scotland by the whole Parliament there, wit 
great Solemnity; who had alfo refolyed to fend a burgh. 
Committee of four, confiding of one Earl, one 
Baron, one Buigefs, and one Divine, to invite him 
thither ; upon Condition that, before he be admit- 
ted to the Exercife of his Royal Power, he fhould 
give Satisfaction to the Kingdom of Scotland in 
thofe Things that concern'd the Security of Religi- 
on, the Union of the two Kingdoms, and the Good 
and Peace of that Kingdom, according to the Na- 
tional Covenant, and the Solemn League and Co- 
venant ; for which End they were refolved, witb. 
all poffible Expedition, to make their humble antf 
earneft Addrefles unto his Majefty. 

Feb. 13. The Commons ordered that no pri- 
vate Bufmefs Ihould be admitted to be debated 
there till the 26th of this Month. Then 

Mr. Sco.t reported, from the Committee appoint- 
ed to nominate a Council of State, the following 
Inftru&ions for their Direction ; which were a- 
greed to by the.Houfe, and are as follow : 

I. ' 'VTOU, or any of you, are hereby autho-^^uaionn for 

* j[ rized and required to oppofe and fupprefs s^ te C uni:il 
6 whomfoever (hall endeavour to go about to fet 
* up or maintain the pretended Title of Charts 



10 T6e Parliamentary His TOR v 

4 Steiuart, eldeft Son to the late King, or any 
,' other of the faid late King's IflTue, or claiming 
' tinder him or them ; or the pretended Title or 

* Claim of any other fingle Perfon whomfoever, 
' to the Crown or" England or Ireland, Dominion 
' of Wales, or to any of the Dominions or Terri- 

* tories to them, or either of them, belonging. 

II. * You, or any * of you d , are hereby autho- 
' rized and impowered to order and direct all the 
6 Militias and Forces, both by Sea and Land, of 
t -England and Ireland, and the Dominions to them, 

* or either of them, belonging, for preferving the 

* Peace and Safety thereof ; and for preventing, re- 
' lifting, and fupprefling all Tumults and Infurrec- 

* tions that (hall happen to rife in them, or either 
' of them, or any Invafions of them from abroad : 
t An<j alfo, upon any Emergencies, to raife and 
' arm fuch Forces as you (hall judge neceflary for 

* the Ends above exprefs'd ; and to give Commif- 

* fions, under the Seal of the Council, to fuch Of- 

* fleers as you fhall judge neceflary for the leading, 
' conducing, and commanding of the faid Forces ; 
f and for the Profecution and Purfuance of thefe 
' Inftru&ions, or of any other Inftru6tions you 
' fhall receive from the Parliament. 

III. * You are hereby authorized and required 
' to life all good Ways and Means for the redu- 
' cing of Ireland, the Ifles of 'Jerfey, Guern/ey, 
Scilley, and the Ifle of Man ; and all other Parts 

* and Places belonging to the Commonwealth ot 
' England, not yet reduced. 

IV. You, or any * of you, fhall take Care that 
' the 'Stores and Magazines of all Military Provi- 

* fions, both for the Land Service and for the Sea, 

* be, from Time to Time, vHl and fufficiently 
c furniflied ; and that the fame 1-- iffued, as you, 

* or any * of you, (hall, by Warrant, Direct : And 
* you, or any * of yau, are alfo, irom Time 

* to 

<J Thefe Inflru6\ion5 are thus enter'd in the Journah : But, on 
{he jyth of this MonUi, it was refolved, Thut every Inftruftion 
ihpuld go on in the general, Tau are hereby eittkorixed, without 
Mention of 


* to Time, to take Care of the Repair of the Ship- Inter-regnum. 
4 ping belonging to the Commonwealth j and to 

* build fuch others as you fhall judge neceflary 
4 for the Defence and Safety thereof. 

V. * You, or any * of you, are to ufe all good 
Ways and Means for the Securing, Advancement, 

* and Encouragement of the Trade of England 
4 and Ireland, and the Dominions to them belong- 
4 ing ; and tp promote the Good of all foreign 

* Plantations and Factories belonging to this Com- 
4 monwealth, or any of the Natives thereof. 

VI. 4 You, or any * of you, fhall advife, order, 
4 and direct concerning the entertaining, keeping, 
' renewing, or fettling of Amity and a good Cor- 

* refpondency with foreign Kingdoms and States ; 

* and for preferving the Rights of the People of 
4 this Nation in foreign Parts, and compofmg of 
4 their Differences there ; and you are hereby au- 
4 thorized to fend Ambafladors, Agents, or Mef- 

* fengers to any foreign Kingdom or State ; and 

* to receive Ambafladors, Agents, or Meflengers 

* from them for the Ends aforefaid 

VII. 4 You are to advife and confult of anjf 
4 Thing concerning the Good of this Common- 

* wealth, and report your Opinions concerning the 
4 fame, as you find Occafion, to the Parliament. 

VIII. * You, or any * of you, are hereby au- 
' thorized to fend for any Perfon or Perfons what- 

* foever, to advife with them, in purfuance of 
4 thefe or any other Instructions that fhall be given 
4 unto you. 

IX. 4 You, or any * of you, have hereby Power 
4 and are authorized to fend for any Records, Wri- 
4 tings, Accounts, Books, or Papers that you fhall 
4 think fit for your Information, in any Caufe, Mat- 
4 ter, or Thing in Agitation before you, in pur- 
4 fuance of thefe or any other Instructions that 

* fhall be given you by the Parliament. 

X. 4 You, or any * of you, have Power, and 
4 are authorized, in cafe of Danger to the Com- 
4 monwealth, to adrr.inifter an Oath to any Per- 

* fon or Perfons for the Difcovery of the Truth. 


12 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

XI. You, or any * of you, are hereby autho- 
1648. < rized and impowered to fend for and imprifon, 

*-^v -' * or otherwife to fecure, by taking bound in Recog- 
February. < n j 7 , :1 nce, any fuch Perfon or Perfons as {hall be 

* Offenders againft thefe or any other Inftrtictions 
4 which you {hall receive from the Parliament; 

* and all fuch as {hall contemn, or be refractory 
4 to any your Commands, Directions, or Orders 
4 in purfuance of the faid Inftructions. 

XII. 4 You, or any * of you, have hereby 
4 Power, and are authorized to charge the Public 
4 Revenue, by Warrant under the Seal of the Coun- 
4 cil, with fuch Sum and Sums of Money, from 
4 Time to Time, as you {hall find neceflary for 
4 defraying all Charges of foreign Negotiations, 
4 Intelligence, and other Incidencies ; and for the 
4 Salary of fuch fubordinate Officers and Attend- 
c ants as you {hall judge fit to employ ; and for the 
4 effectual carrying on of the Service by thefe In- 
4 ftructions committed to you, or by any other In- 
4 ftructions hereafter to be given you from the Par- 
4 liament. 

XIII. ' You are alfo, or any * of you, to ob- 
4 ferve and put in Execution fuch further Orders 

* as you {hall receive from Time to Time from 
4 the Parliament. 

XIV. ' The Power hereby committed to this 

* Council of State {hall continue for the Space of 
4 one Year from the Day of palling hereof, unlels 
4 it be otherwife ordered by the Parliament.' 

Feb. 14. The Houfe, according to a former Or- 
der, went upon the Nomination of Perfons tocon- 
ftitute their new Council of State; when the fol- 
lowing Lords and Gentlemen were named : 
Tbe Names of Sa fl* Earl of Denb k h -> Henry Rolle, Lord Chief 
tMV that con- Edmund, Earl of Mid- Juftice of the Upper 
flitutedit. grave, Bench, 

Philip,Kw\ of Pembroke, Oliver St. Join, Lord 
William, E. of Salifbury, Chief Juftice of the 
William, Lord Grey of Common Bench. 

Of E N G 

John Wylde, Lord Chief 
Baron of the Court of 

John Bradjhaw, Serjeant 
at Law, 

'Thomas, Lord Fairfax, 

Thomas, Lord Grey of 

Oliver Cromwell, Efq; 

Philip Skippon, Efq; 

Henry Martin, Efq; 

JJaac Pennington, Alder- 
man of London, 

Su Gilbert Pickering, Bt. 

Rowland Wilfon, Alder- 
man of London, 

Anthony Stapeley, Efq; 

Sir William Mafiam, Bt. 


LAND. 13 

Buljlrode Whitlocke, Efq> Inter-regnum, 

Sir Arthur Heflerig, Bart- r6 4- 8 - 

Sir James Harrin? ton, Kt- * --v ' 

Robert Wallop,^; Februar >'' 

"John Hutchinfon, Efq; 

Sir Henry Vane, }un. Kt. 

J)ennis Bond, Efq; 

P<W//>, Lord Life, 

Alexander Popham, Efq; 

Sir y<?^ D'Anvers, Kt. 

Sir William Armyn, Bart. 

Valentine Wauton, Efq; 

Sir //?r}> Mildmay, Kt. 

Col. P*r/*y, 

Sir William Con/table, Bt. 

'Jones, Efq; 

//7er, Efq; 
Col. Edmund Ludlow, 
Thomas Scot, Efq; 

The Houfe divided, 50 againft 25, for the Earl 
of Pembroke, and 23 only againft 20, for the Ear! 
of Salijlury. AH the reft were agreed to without 
Divifion ; but a Motion for Commiffary-General 
Ireton and Col. Harrijcn to be of this Council of 
State, pafs'd in the Negative : However, the next 
Day, the Houfe having refolved, That the Num- 
ber of Perfons to be of the Council of State fhould 
confift of forty-one, and no more, Cornelius Hol- 
land and Luke Robinfon, Efqrs. were added to the 
foregoing. It was likewife ordered, That nine of 
the Perfons above-named, and not under, fhould 
conftitute the faid Council of State, to acl: accord- 
ing to Inftruclions. But a Queftion being propo- 
fed, That there {hould be a Loixi Prefident of this 
Council, it paffed in the Negative, by 22 againft 
1 6 : So jealous was the Houfe, at this Time, of 

the Rule of a fingle Perfon in any Shape whatfo-^. 

' r TheAmbaffrfors 

Cvcr - from the States 

General admitted 

Feb. 15. The Commons being informed that the^ an Audience, 
Lord Paw and the Lord. Joachimi, Ambaffadors " 1 


14 Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Ordinary and Extraordinary from the States Ge- 
neraJ of the United Provinces, were ready to re- 
ceive an Anfwer from the Houfe to their Papers, 
formerly prefented to them, the Serjeant, by Com- 
mand, went with his Mace to attend them from 
the Court of Wards : And when they were enter- 
ed withiri the Houfe, they uncovered their Heads j 
Mr. Speaker and the Members of the Houfe, be- 
ing likewife uncovered, flood up; and, from the 
Bar, the Matter of the Ceremonies and the Serjeant 
attended them, the one on the Right Hand, the o- 
theron the Left, to two Chairs placed on the North 
Side of the Houfe, with two Cufhions and Foot- 
ftools ; where being fet, Mr. Speaker read the An- 
fwer of the Houfe to them in thefe Words : 

IIT*^ tne Commons of England, afiembled 
to a Letter, for- ' Y y in Parliament, upon due and ferious 
inerly prefented t Confederation of your Lordfhips Addrefs made to 

by thofe Ambaf- , \- TI r \ i_ r <v in. J 

fadors, interced- tms Houfe the 2gth of January lair, and your 

Ing for the late c Papers prefented the 3oth of the fame Month , 

King's Life* < J O) ; n t ^ e fi r fl. Place, return our many and hearty 

Thanks unto the High and Mighty Lords the 

' States-General of the United Provinces, for their 

* fundry goodDefircs, friendly Acknowledgements, 

* Well-wiflies, and fair Refpects to the Parliament 

* and People of England, in thofe Papers contain- 

* ed ; earneftly defiring, on our Parts, a firm and 
' durable Continuation of the antient Amity and 

* Alliance, formerly made and often renewed, be- 

* twixt both thefe Nations : W hereunto we hold 

* ourfelves obliged, as having well weighed and 

* obferved that no Leagues or Confederacies have 

* at any Time been made upon Foundations of 
c more joint and common Intereft, in every Re- 
4 fpet, than thofe of the People of England with 
' the Netherlands : And therefore it is our moft 

* earneft Defire, that a firm Pe,ace, and right Un- 
4 derflanding, and good Correfpondency may be in- 
' violably maintained betwixt both Nations for the 

* prefent, and moft exa<Slly obferved for the future. 


Of E N G L A N D. 15 

And whereas your Lordftiips, in the Name of inter-rcgnura, 

* the States-General, do gravely advife us concern- l6 4&- 

* ing the Perfon of the King (who was then in ^-~v "* 
' Part, and hath fmce been more fully, proceeded c luary * 

* againft according to Juftice, in a Court eftablifh- 

* ed by the Supreme Authority of this Nation, for 
4 his tranfcendent Offences, and thofe not commit- 
' ted in a Corner) ; we are confident that both the 
' High and Mighty Lords the States-General of the 
' United Provinces^ and all other States and Princes 

* who have taken Notice of our late Affairs, will 
' find Caufe to believe that nothing hath been done 
' therein but what is agreeable to public Juftice 
' and the Fundamentals of this Nation ; which 

* certainly muft needs be better known to us than 
1 to any other People or Nation in the World. And 
c we (hall defire your Lordfhips would from us af- 
' fure the High and Mighty Lords the States-Gene- 
c rat, that we (hall be ever ready not only to hear, 
' but to contribute with them all good Means and 

* Offices, to fulfil fuch Works as mall be necef- 

* fary for the general Good of Chriftendom, as 

* well as for our own.' 

After reading this Anfwer the Ambafladors rofe 
up, uncovered their Heads, and making a low 
Obeifance, declared their good Refentment of the 
.Parliament's Anfwer and Refpefts to them, and 
were conducted back with the fame Ceremonies. 

The fame Day the Houfe ordered that the Arms 
of the late King, over the Speaker's Chair, be forth- 
with taken down ; and that an Adi: be brought 
in for taking away the fame out of the feveral 
Courts of Wejlminjler, and all other public Places; 
and that the Arms of England be fet up in their 

Feb. 17. Commiflary-General Ireton reported 
the following Declaration, in Anfwer to the Scots 
Commiflioners Letters of the 6th and 22d of laft 
Month, which was agreed to by the Houfe, or- 

16 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

dered to be font to thofe Commiffioncrs, and alfo 
to be forthwith printed and publilhed e . 

February. t yjOW defirous this Houfe and the Well- 
A Declaration ' J |_ affedted of this Nation have been, during 
of the Houfe, t a jj tne j ate Troubles, to preferve a good Under- 
go LeuerTfrorn* ftanding with our Brethren of Scotland, wiil be 
the Scots Com- * eafily difcerned by the Tranfaclions between us 
mifiioners upon * an j them ; wherein, how often and how wil- 
the fame Sub- t ij n gi y> we havc dcp-,, te ,| from our owft Intereft 
to fatisfy theirs, is fufficiently known : And al- 
c though it is notorioully evident to all Men, how 
' all Treaties and Leagues that were between us 
' have been broken and violated by the public Act 

* of the late Parliament of Scotland, in invading 

* this Nation with a great Army ; and that there- 
' fore Obligations from us to them, that had grown 
4 from thofe Treaties and Leagues, are, by that 
Default of theirs, in Juilice, made void, as 

* wemuft, and hereby do, declare them to be; yet 

* we are ftill willing to entertain a Correfponden- 
' cy and good Underftanding, upon the Terms of 
' common and mutual Fricndfhip, with the Well- 

* affected of that Nation ; and therefore we enter- 

* tained, with all fitting Refpeds, their Commif- 
ftoners lately lent hither, upon the Sight of their 

* Letters of Credence ; but having fince received 

* from thofe their Commiflioncrs certain Letters^ 
' dated the fixth and twenty- fecond of January 
' laft, which contain divers Things in relation to 
c our Affairs, hot proper for any of another Nation 
' to take Notice of, at leaft not in fuch a Manner 
< and furh Terms as they do : Although it, there- 

* fore, feems not neceflary for us to give them 

* any Anfwer thereunto ; yet they, or ibme other 
' for them, having taken a Courfe to print and 
publifli the fame, as far as in them lies, to the 

* Prejudice and Scandal of our juit and neceflary 

* Proceedings, we find ourfelves concerned to pub- 

* li(h a juit Anfwer thereunto, for Satisfaction to 

' the 

e From the Original Edition, printed for Edward Hiflandi! f't- 
bruary 22, 1648. 

Of E N G L A N D. 17 

c the World, to the View whereof they have ex- Interregnum. 
' pofed the fame ; and therefore finding their Let- 

* ter of the Twenty-fecond to be little more than ^^^"^ 

* the fuller exprefling, and further urging, the lat- 
' ter Part of that of the fixth of January ^ we mall 
' follow the Order of their firft Letter, and at the 
c lull Paragraph anfwer both that and their other 
c together. 

'"And although, by this Method, we {hall be 
' forced often to fall into fome Repetitions, their 

* Letter having the fame Things almoft in every 

* Paragraph ; yet that nothing may be omitted, we 
' fh all take that Courfe. 

' But, before we come to thofe Particulars, we 

* muft needs take Notice of one Miftake, generally 

* implied in their Letters, and more than once 
c plainly held forth, As if the King's P erf on might 
' not be difpofed of in England, without the Advice 
' and Confent of the Kingdom of Scotland j which 
' AfTertion, in thefe Letters implied, and in fe- 
4 veral Papers of their former Commiffioners ex- 
' prefly mentioned, hath received fo full and clear 
1 an Anfwer, by the Declaration of this Houfe, 
e pafled and publifhed the 28th of November, 1646^ 
' as that nothing need be further faid in that Point; 

* that Declaration having been fent to the Parlia- 

* ment of Scotland, and delivered by our lail Com- 
' miflioners there, and we having not yet feen any 
c Thing publifhed in Anfwer to it : When we fhall 
' find any Thing anfwered, as to that Point, that 

* fhall feem to need a Reply, we fhall be ready to 

* fatisfy any juft Objection ; but, in the mean 
' Time, think it neceflary either to repeat or epito- 
' mize what is there fully declared. 

Next follows a Copy of the Scots Commiffioners 
Letters of the 6th and -iid of January loft, 
already given in our Eighteenth Volume, and 
then the Parliament's Anfwer digefted by way 
of Paragraph, thus, 

As to the firft Paragraph, this being but an 

' Enumeration of fuch Things, about which they 

VOL. XIX B 'were 


18 ^Tbc Parliamentary HISTORY 

* were to prefent Proportions to the King, and to 
c deal with him and the Houfes, viz. Concerning 
' Forms in Religion in this Nation ; and for that 
' we meet with the fame Particulars in moft Parts 
' of their Letter upon feveral Occafions, we mall 
' fay no more here ; but that it is well known to 
' the Commiflioners, what Pains hath been taken 

* already in that Affair, and how much Time fpent 
' about it ; and we doubt not but God will be fo 

* with us, as we (hall do that, for promoting and 
' eftabliming of Religion in this Nation, which 

* God, by his Word, fhall difcover to us to be 
' his Will and our Duty in it. But whatever the 
' Propofitions were, which, they fay, they had to 
' prefent to the King, concerning any Thing to be 
' eftablifhed, prevented, or perfected in this Na- 
' tion, we hope they were not meant to have been 

* prefented to the late King by them alone, with- 
' out the Parliament of England, for that were to 
' have afTumed to themfelves and him a Power of 
' impofing Laws upon this Nation as they pleafed j 

* which were an Infringement of the diftindt Rights 
' and Liberties of the free People of this Nation, 

* contrary to all Treaties, and the Covenant itfelf, 
' and an Ufurpation not to be indured without jufi 

* Indignation on ourParts,and Reparation on theirs ; 

* and yet their Language fcems to import no lefs : 

* But if they meant Propofitions from them, to have 
' been prefented to the Parliament, and then, if 

* approved, to the King, as from both Kingdoms, 

* we have already had Experience enough of ad- 
' mitting the Commiflioners of Scotland to an In- 
' tereft or Communication with us, in Propofitions 

* concerning the Affairs of this Nation; andfartoo 
' much of multiplying Propofitions or Addreffes to 

* that Man, and attending, for our Peace, the Plea- 

* fure of him, who, for the Advancement of his 

* own Will, Power, and Perfonal .Intereft, againft 
' the Public Intereft of the feveral Kingdoms, hath 
' been the chief Author, Continuer, and Rencwer, 

* of all the Wars and Troubles in the three King- 

* doms 3 and hath too abundantly demonftrated, 


Of E N G L A N D. 19 

* That he would not willingly admit of any Peace Inter-regntirru 
' or Settlement, but for thf/ Advantage of his and 

' his Family's Intereft, to the public Prejudice of 

* the feveral Kingdoms, r jr at leaft of this; 

* In Anfwer to the fe cond Paragraph : We are 
' very forry to fee marty Paflages in their Letter, 

* which if we {hould p? .fs over in Silence, we fhould 
c do wrong to the pui dicCaufe in our Hands ; and 

* if we anfwer them, as we ousrht, we muft fpeak 

* the Things we had rather forbear. From whence 

* thefe late Diftra^ .ions, which they fay are grown 

* fo high, had tb eir firft Contrivance, and from 
c whom they wer.e fomented in their Breeding and 
c Infancy, we a; .e not ignorant, though there are 
c thofe of the St :0 ts Nation that know it better than 

* we ; and hoi <v the Kingdom of Scotland did, in 
' the Midft of thofe DiftradYions, invade us with a 

* great Army , is known to all Men ; which, with- 

* out the e- xtraordinary Power of God appearing 

* wonderfu' Jy for us, had overwhelmed us, as the 
' State of our Affairs was then complicated and 

* diftradf ,d by the working of the faid Contrivances, 
' and ra r .fmg of InfurredYtons in moft Parts of the 
4 Land . t and as our Forces were then in feveral 
' Place' 3 divided, and engaged for fupprefling fuch 
Infur r elions : But as God was then pleafed to 
' own our own weak Condition, and execute Judg- 

* me' llt by a handful of Men upon the proud Ene- 
' mi , 9 that had already fwallowed us up in De- 


us in our diftra&ed Condition; and in all o- 

ther Places of the Kingdom was with us, blef- 

* fing our Forces with Succefs, to a happy Ending 

of this fecond and moft dangerous War ; fo we 

hope he will carry us through in the Execution of 

Juftice impartially upon all the principal Authors 

of thefe Troubles and Diftradions, and thereby 

to lay the furer Foundation of a found Peace, the 

Execution of Juftice being the beft Means to e- 

B 2 ' ftablifh 

20 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* ftablifh the Tranquility ar.d Happinefs of an}' 
' People j and without our thus proceeding, even- 

* againft the grcateft Offender, the King, (for 
ebruary. < wnO m this Letter pleaded) we could not expect 

' to fee any End of our Troubles. 

' To what they fay concerning a Force placed 
' upon the Paffages to the Houfes, and the reil that 
c followeth in that Point, we fhould have expected, 

* of all Men, to have heard Icalt of that from thefe 
' Commiffioners of Scotland : It is not fix Months 
c fince that (the Army of the Parliament of Scot- 
' land, which invaded this Kingdom, being, by 
' the Bleffing of God, overcome) thofe that now 
' govern Affairs there, who were before oppreffed 
' by them, raifed Forces of their own Authority > 

* and, by Force, caufed them who had the Parlia- 

* mentary Authority, to fly from Edinburgh ; and, 
' by the Help of our Forces then in the North, in- 
' vitcd to their Afiiftance, did compel the difband- 
' ing of the Forces there remaining that were raifed 
' by the Parliament ; and, having modelled their 
' own Forces, did call another Parliament while, 
' the former was, by Adjournment, continued; and 
' gave fuch Limitations to the new Elections as 
' they judged molt for the Intercft, Safety, and 
4 Peace of that Kingdom ; and that Parliament 

, * hath fince fat under the Protection of thofe Forces. 
.' fo raifed. 

' All which Particulars put together, do certain- 

' ly amount to as much Irregularity and Breach,. 

' in Form, of both Privilege of Parliament, and 

' Freedom of Elections thereto, as that which. 

' our Army (raifed by full Authority of Parliament, 

* for Defence of the Liberties of this Kingdom) 

* hath done, in fecluding fome Members of Parlia- 

* ment, and imprifoning others, who had begun, 

* carried on, and were proceeding, refolvcdly, to 

* finifh fuch a Conjunction with the common Ene- 
' my, as would vifiWy have rendered up thofe Li- 
' berties into his Hands ; debarred that Juflice upon 

* Delinquents, to which even the Covenant did 

* engage; ;:nd defeated the Hopes of that Reform a- 

* tioii 


* tion, and precluded the Coufideration of thofe 

* Matters of Religion, which thefe Commiffioners 

* here plead for, and for which only, or principally, 
' they 'fay, they were employed hither. 

' The Impriloning of fome of which Members 

* is alledged, by the Army, to be, amongft other 

* Things, for Confederacies or Correfpondences 

* with that Party in Scotland, againft whom, and 

* in thofe Engagements and Actings for which, 

* the faid Committee of Eftates there hath fo pro- 
' ceeded as aforefaid ; which we fuppofe will, in 

* due Time, be made appear accordingly. Nei- 

* ther furely can our continuing, without thofe 

* Members, to fit in Parliament, under the Safe- 
4 guard of this Army, be lefs justifiable in Form, 

* than their Committee of Eftates, fitting under 
' the Protection of that Force they had fo raifed as 

* aforefaid, without the Members they had driven 

* away thereby; of than their new Parliament's fit- 
' ting by virtue of thofe Actings, and under Pro- 
4 tec~Hon of the fame Force. 

' We do not mention thefe Things as condemn- 
' ing them, or to recriminate or retort upon them ; 
' nor do we think their Examples to be our or the 
' Army's Juilification ; for it is the Juftnefs of the 
' Grounds and Ends, the Integrity of Intentions, 
' and Neceflity of the Actings in relation to thofe 
' Ends, that only can juftify them or us in fuch 

* Proceedings: But we conceive thefe Commifiion- 

* ers might well have fpared the Mention of thefe 
4 Particulars, both for that they are Strangers to 
' our Intereft, and ought not to interpofe in it ; and 
4 for that they, and the Committee of Eftates that 

* fent them, have a6led higher in the fame Nature 

* themfelvfes, and their Parliament now fits by the 

* Power of thofe Actings. 

* And whereas they fay, The Members were fe- 

* eluded during Transactions of bighejl Moment ; 
' the late Papers from the Army, and our late Re- 
' folutions in relation to that Seclufion, may fuffi- 

* ciently evidence that it was immediately done, 

B 3 'and 

22 *Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regmim. * and is continued, upon occaiion of that Vote of 

1648. * the 5th of December laft; whereupon we leave 

c ^v-^^ < it to be confidered, whether thole Transactions, 

February. < j n re i at j on to w hich the Members were exclu- 

' c|ed, were not their Endeavours of doling with 

' the King, to the deferting of thofe Matters of 

' religious Concernment, for which thcfe Com- 

' miflioners were fent, and do hoc fo much plead ; 

* or whether the Members, fo excluded, were any 

* other than fuch as were guilty of that Endeavour ? 

' And whereas they fay, It bath occafioned many 
( others to withdraw, becaufe they cannot aft as a 

* free Parliament : Whether this be their Judg- 

* ment, or the Commiffioners own, we know not; 

* if fome Members, that are abfent, be of that 
' Judgment, that they cannot act freely, we nei- 

* ther force their Judgments, nor find ourfelves 
' under any fuch Force, as to hinder the free Ex- 

* ercife of our own. We doubt not but ftrong 
< Endeavours are ufed, as they have been, and 

* will be, to overturn all true and thorough Re- 

* formation ; and the Reformation in Scotland 

* hath not wanted Oppofition in their own Na- 
' tion, and Endeavours of Subverfion, as well 

* formerly as now lately, by that wicked Army 

* that invaded us : In which Action had they pro- 

* fpered, thefe Commiflioners, and their Friends 

* there, might furely have expected the utter ex- 

* tirpating of their Reformation, and all that had 
' pretended to it, although that Army profeffed al- 
c fo for the Covenant. But why the Commif- 

* fioners complain of it to us we underftand not, 

* nor are confcious of any Guilt in oppofing Re- 
f formation ; but truft that God will carry on his 

* own Work of a perfect and thorough Refor- 

* mation, according to his own Will, in his own 

* Way, againft all the Endeavours and Oppoft- 
' tions of any Profanenefs or Formality whatfo- 

* ever : And we ti uft alfo that God will make us 
f. * faithful in the Contribution of our utmoft Power 

* to that End, as far as he fhall r.eveal his Will un- 
5 to us concerning our Duty in it. 

* Fct' 

Of E N G L A N D. 23 

* For c aft ing off the Minijiry : We have no fuch Inter-regnum. 
4 Intention, nor know we any fuch Thing in fa& ; l6 4 8 - 

* if any of them find their Audience thinner than < ^j^"* J 
4 formerly, they may do well to examine, whether 

* the Caufe hath not been chiefly from themfelves, 

* by feeking their own Things, more than the 

* Things of Chrift; but for thofe to whom God 

* hath given Grace to be found faithful in the Work 

* of the Gofpel, and continue fo, we know not any 
4 fuch, who want either due Honour and Refpect, 

* or competent Maintenance amongft us : And as 
4 we are refolved, for our Parts, during the Time 
4 of our Truft, fo we are confident it will be the 
4 Care of thofe that (hall fucceed us in the Legif- 
4 lative Power of this Nation, that very comfortable 
4 Subfiftence fhall be provided for all fuch, in what 
4 Way foever it fhall be fettled, for the moft quiet 

* and beft Contentment both of fuch Minifter and 
4 People. 

' For the Toleration of all Religions and Forms of 
( IVorjbip, that their Letter objeits ; we know not 
4 whom they intend in that Charge : As for the 

* Truth and Power of Religion, it being a Thing 
4 intrinfical betwen God and the Soul, and the 
4 Matters of Faith in the Gofpel being fuch, as no 
4 natural Light doth reach unto, we conceive there 

* is no human Power of Coertion thereunto, nor to 
4 reftrain Men from believing what God fuffers 
4 their Judgments to be perfuaded of; but if they 
4 mean only the outward and public Forms of Pro- 

* feflion or Worfhip, we know no fuch univerfal 
4 Toleration endeavoured or intended amongft us, 
4 neither yet do we find any Warrant to perfecute 

* all that do not worfhip God, or profefs to believe 

* in the fame Form that we do. 

4 Neither do we conceive that this were to de- 
4 Jiroy the Caufe ', in ivhicb we have been engaged. 
4 The main Caufe in which we have been engaged 
4 hath been, the Vindication of the Freedom and 
4 Liberties of the Nation from Tyranny and Slave- 
4 *y j which, we hope, by the Blefling of God, 

* will 

24 Ibe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Xnter-rcgnum. * will be effected ; and without this (being the 

1648. * Foundation of all the other Superftrudtures) it 

>l ~\ L ~ ' *> were in vain to pleale ourfelves with Apprehen- 

* fions of that Reformation and thofe Formalities, 
4 which would be in the Power of an uniubdued 

* Tyrant to abolifh, whenfoever it fhould be found 
4 inconfiftent with his other Defigns. But a free 

* Condition of a juft Liberty being once fettled in 
4 the Nation, it will be then capable of receiving all 
4 the Additions of a bcne eJTe either in civil Things, 

* or thofe of Religion: ds for fruftrattng the Ends of 
' the Covenant, "with private or fenijier Ends any 
4 may have had therein (which perhaps they may 

* fear will be fruftrated) we know not 5 -but, as to 

* any public vilible Ends of it, nothing hath pafled 
4 from us to the Fruftration thereof ; we wiih we 
4 could fay fo of the late Parliament of Scotland, or 
4 of Commifiioners that have been lent from them ; 

* or that there had been lefb Swearing, and more 

* Performance, toward all honeft and godly Ends. 
' And if, upon fuch a complex Engagement to fe- 

* veral Things (which may not always be confiftent) 

* any Actions which may bear a Colour of Failure, 

* as to one or other Particular have been neceffi- 
4 tated to be undertaken, for the preferving of the 
4 higher and more principal Ends engaged ; we 
4 hope fuch Things, which fome are apt to render 
4 as Breach of Covenant, and tending to fruftrate 

< the Ends of it, will yet, before God and good 
' Men, be found the moil real Performance and 

< fulfilling thereof. 

4 And thus we might leave their Fears, expref- 
4 fed in the Remainder of this Paragraph, to abate 

* together with their prqmifed Grounds, which we 
4 have feverally anfwered : But that thefe Things 

* enumerated (tho* they were as true and foul as 

* they are reprefented) fhould alone be the Matter 
*. of fuch Fears, as thence they infer, we cannot al- 

* together agree. We muft acknowledge there are 

* manyotherThings that have been, and ?.rz,Mat- 

* ter of high Provocation to the Wrath of God, and 

4 whereby 

Of E N G L A N D. 25 

* whereby Dijhonour bath been done to his Name, and Inter-regnum. 

* Reproach brought upon Religion; and we do much 

* rejoice to fee any tender Heart fo really fenfible 

* of his own Fault or Failing, as to ftir him up to 

* the moft effectual Endeavours after an univerfal 

* Change and Reformation ; and we earneftly de- 
4 fire that God will give us all fuch a Senfe and fuch 

* Efre&s of it, and that a general Reformation in 
4 this Kingdom may be rather the genuine and na- 

* tural Refult of our changed Minds, drawing near 
4 to God, than the external Drefs of an impofing 
4 Law. 

4 If there be fuch Divifeon as to weaken us y we 

* hope the Caufe {hall not be on our Parts ; how 
4 any of the Bands of Union between us and Scot" 
4 land have been broken, we are well able to give 
4 the World an Account ; and this Nation is very 

* fenfible how much we fuffered to have prevented 
4 it. 

* If we underftood how any Thing we are about, 

* mould invite foreign Enemies againjl us, we mould 

* do our beft to avoid it : We are at prefent in 

* League with all our tranfmarine Neighbours, and 
4 mall endeavour to deal juftly with them accord- 
4 ing to our Treaties, and to keep the Articles of 
4 our feveral Alliances ; and we hope they will not 
4 efpoufe a Quarrel foreign to them, to the Inter- 
4 ruption of mutual Commerce with us, wherein 

* they are more concerned. 

* For the promoting of the Popi/h Intereft, and 
4 deftroying the Reformed Religion , and the Peace 
4 and Happinefs of the Kingdoms ; we know not 
4 why fuch Suggeftions came into this Catalogue of 
4 ill Confequences, as objected to us, unlefs, as f 
4 many of the reft, that the Paper being publifhed, 
4 might caft the greater Odium upon our prefent 
4 Tranfadtions : Neither can we underftand any 
4 other Reafons why the lofeng of Ireland mould 
4 be thruft in amongft thofe Confequences : But as 
* to that poor Kingdom, which thefe Commifiion- 
4 ers would feem fo felicitous for, we cannot but 

4 bc 

26 The Parliamentary HISTORV 

* be fenfible of any Lofs there, as ours more im- 
* mediately, and not theirs: And what Lofs or 

' Prejudice hath of late Years been incurred there, 
' hath been chiefly occafioned, either by the fail- 
' ing, or evil Carriage, of the Scots Forces, enter- 
' tained and pretending to ferve us there, or elfe 
' through Inckequin's Revolt j whom the prevail- 
' ing Faction of thofe corrupt Members lately a- 
c mongll us (in whofe Behalf thefe Commiffioners 
c are now fo zealous) had put into the Capacity of 

* doing us and Englijh Proteftants there fo much 
' Mifchief j yet we hope God will carry us on in 
' fuch Counfels and Ways, whereby thofe Lofles 

* may be recovered, and that miferable Country 
c timely relieved, notwithftanding the Interruption 

* given by thefe Papers, and the Difcontents there- 
by endeavoured to be raifed to the Hinderance of 

* that Service. 

' To the third Paragraph, which contains what 
' the Kingdom of Scotland hath done for this King- 

* dom, and what they have undertaken, we fay, 

* Whatever the Well-affeaed in Scotland did, in 
' their brother-like Affe&ion to this Nation, when 

* our Preffures were heavieft upon us, we fhall not 

* forget: We deny not their firft coming into Eng- 
* land was an Occafion of the calling of this Par- 
' liament; and we were not unthankful to them 

* for what they then did ; but, out of a brotherly 

* Acknowledgment of the Benefit, gave them for 
their brotherly Afiiftance 300, ooo/. We defire 

* alfo the Commiflioners may remember, that the 

* laft Parliament before this fuffered itfelf to be bro- 

* ken up, without any vifible Hopes of ever feeing 
? another, rather than contribute Monies to the 

* King, when they faw it would have been em- 

* ployed to the oppreffing and ruining of the Scots 
* Nation : And, long before this, tho' we fhould 

* forget it, the People of Scotland have left it upon 

* Record, with much Gratitude and Truth, that, 

* under God, they were delivered by the Forces of 

* this Nation, in the very Infancy of their Refor- 

' mation 


' mation, from the French and therewith the Popifh Interregnum. 

* Yoke, which nothing, under God, then hinder'd 

* from putting on, but that ieafonable and effectual 

* Afiiftance they received from hence. We know 
' alfo they cannot forget fo foon, that we have not 

* been wanting to our Friends in Scotland, who now 
' have the governing Power there, when they wers 

* brought low by the Power of the Army ; which, 
' by Order of the Parliament of Scotland, invaded 

* this Nation, to the Breach of all Leagues and 

* Treaties between us : And when that Army, by 

* the juft Hand of God againft them, were deftroy- 
' ed; and that Lieutenant- General Cromwell, in 
' purfuance of that Vitory, with our Forces, 
c marched to the Borders for the Recovery of the 
4 Towns treacheroufly taken from us, he entered 
4 not Scotland in Hoftility, and without Difcrimi- 
' nation, to retaliate the Injuries and Spoil this Na- 

* tion fuffered from that invading Army; but came 

* to the Affiftance of the Well-affecled there, up- 
' on their Defire; and we, out of a Senfe of the 
4 Oppreflion of our Friends, before we had heard 

* either from him or them, gave Order that, upon 

* their Defire, he ftiould afford them all feafonable 
4 Relief and Affiftance; and accordingly fuch of 
6 our Forces were left there, as thofe our Friends 
4 judged neceffary, for the finifhing their Work, 
4 and fettling their Security againft thofe who had 
4 oppiefled them and invaded us, and forthwith 

* marched the reft out of that Kingdom that they 

* might not be a further Charge and Burthen there- 

* to. So as, we truft, we have given fufficient 

* Demonftration, that we have not, for that na- 

* tional Invafion, deferted our Friends and the ho- 
4 neft Party in that Nation ; but affiiled and ftood 

* by them, and given them our beft Help to put 

* Affairs again into their Hands. 

* For the Epitome of the Covenant, that is the 

* Matter of the reft of this Paragraph, we conceive 

* there is little Reafon for them to object the break- 

* ing thereof unto us, being wholly broken, and 
- all Treaties with it, by that national Invafion ; 

' which 



28 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* which had not God almoft miraculoufly blafted 
4 and brought to nought, all the Particulars they 

* have enumerated had been buried in the Over- 

* flowings of Tyranny and Profanenefs ; only be- 
' caufe the dividing the King from his People is one 
' Particular urged, we would have it remembered 
' who protefted againft the King's pafling four Bills 

* at the Ifle of Wight, about the End of December^ 

* 1647, which fhould have been the Aflurance of 

* a following Treaty ; not only ufurping therein 

* a Negative Voice upon the Legiflativc Power of 
' England, but being thereby the vifible Caufe of 
' not proceeding then to a Treaty ; and whether 
' this was not more truly a Means of dividing the 
King from the People, we leave to the Judgment 
of all Men. 

' As for preserving Peace and Union between the 
6 Nations ; we wilh they would have let this pafs ; 
' for we blufh to repeat fo often that it was broken 
' by that national Acl, we being invaded by their 
' Army, fet out by the Authority of their Parlia- 

* ment. And to this Particular we fhall add thus 
' much more, That we were fo tender of keeping 
6 the Treaties, and fo defirous of maintaining the 
c Union that was by them begun between the two 
' Nations, that although we knew well by what 

* Spirit the Affairs of Scotland were then acted, and 
c what Affection they who were in Power had to 
' Peace ; and were not ignorant that a War was 
' determined, and Forces levied againft us early 

* laft Spring ; and that many of our own Delin- 
' quents and Malignants did daily flock into Scot- 
' land, and were entertained there, and would not 
' be delivered to Punifhment, though required ac- 

* cording to the exprefsTerms of the Treaty, by our 

* Commi0ioners there refident, by our Special Or- 

* der to them for that Purpofe ; yet we forbare not 

* only to put Garrifons into the Towns of Berwick 

* and Cartijle, becaufe it feemed againft the Great 

* Treaty ; but did not fo much as bring any to the 

* Borders, (as we might have done, and laid them 

* at iuch Diitancc as might have prevented the Sur- 

4 prize 


' prize of thofe Towns) becaufe we would not give 
' Alarm to that Nation, or caufe any Apprehen- 
' lion in our Friends there, that we had any In- 

* tentions of Hoftility againft them; but we rather rebruar y- 
' chofe to have a Breach made upon us, than to 

' make it j and to have our Towns taken from us, 

* which we forefaw was like to happen, rather than 
' to do any Thing that might be interpreted, to 
' tend to a Breach of Union, or of the Treaties : 

* And we repent not ourTendernefs therein, tho* 
' we are not infenfible of what we fuffered by it r 

* God having owned our Caufe, and borne witnefs 
' to our Defire of Peace, by ftretching out his 

* Hand upon that Hypocritical and Faith-breaking 
' Army, and their Adherents, and by reducing 
' them to a Neceflity of ordering the Reititution of 

* our Towns. 

'In the fourth Paragraph, they fay what the 
' Houfes and their Nation have declared; and here 
' again reckon tip Reformation of Religion^ Extir- 
4 pat ion of Popery' and Prelacy, and SuppreJJion of 
' Herefy and Scbifm j and to this we ftill fay, We 

* fhall endeavour, with all that Power that God 
'hath given us, that Religion maybe reformed 
' according to the Word of God, which is the 
' Rule of Truth, and that which is fo reformed 
' according to the bed Reformed Churches ; for the 
< very Rule of their Reformation is alfo the Scrip- 

* tures, 'to which what Church foever draws moft 
f near in its Reformation, that is the beft reformed 
' Church. And if we fhould acknowledge any one 
' Church to be fo well reformed, as it might ob- 
' trude its Reformation for a Pattern, which others 
' might neceflarily follow, though its Conformity 
' to that fupreme Rule be not evident to thofe up- 
' on whom fuch Uniformity is obtrudqd, it were 
4 juflly to be accounted a Part of that Popery which 

* we have declared to extirpate. 

4 For Prelacy ; we know not why that is in the 
' Paper, we conceiving that all their Jurifdi&iou 

* is taken away, and a great Part of their Lands 
' fold ; and they know very well to what Pur- 

* pofc 

30 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* pofe a great Part of the Money was employed ; 

* and we wifn them and all Covenanters, as to this 

* Point, to confider whether what they fo complain 

* of, in behalf of fccluded Members, were not done 
' in reference to their endeavoured Conjunction 
' with the King, on fuch Terms as would have left 
' to Prelacy a remaining Root and Foundation in 

* this Nation. 

e By Popery we Conceive they mean Popifh Doc- 

* trine or \Vorfhip, for the Jurifdiction of it, they 

* know, hath been long extirpated out of this Na- 
' tion ; and, for that Doctrine or Worfhip, we 

* give it no Allowance of public or private Teach- 
' ing or Practice : And as it is a Matter of Opinion 

* in the Minds of particular Men, we have found 

* that all the Sharpnefs of our Laws, which have 

* been fufficiently fevere againft them, hath not 
f been able to extirpate it ; and, as thefe the Com- 

* miflioners well know, all that hath been done in 

* Scotland againft Popery, in purfuance of their Co- 

* venant, hath not yet wrought fuch Effects, but 
' that many of that Profeffion are ftill living among 

* them : And, indeed, that fome Tares, both of 
' evil Men and Mifworfhippers, will be left in the 
4 Field of the World till the Harveft, notwith- 

* Handing the good Seed fown by the Mafter, and 
' all the Care of the Servants, we find it not barely 

* foretold, but the violent plucking of them up for- 

* bidden, and a plain Injunction added, That both 

* Jhould be let grow together imtill Harve/f ; which 

* certainly were intended as Rules to the Servants, 

* at leaft, in relation to fuch Weeds and to fuch 

* Ways of plucking up, where there might be 

* Danger with the Weeds to pluck up the Wheat 

* nlfo : And therefore, as to Herefy^ Schifm^ c5V. 
firft we muft defire all Men to take Notice, that 
4 the Covenant doth not engage abfolutely that we 

* will extirpate or fupprefs, as thefe Commiflioners 
' render it (which were an high Prefumption) j 

* but that we will endeavour it, in our feveral 

* Places and Callings, and by all lawful Ways and 
Means ; which certainly is to be underftood, 


Of E N G L A N D. 31 

* that, to the feveral Things to be endeavoured, Inter-regrram, 

* fuch Ways and Means ihould be ufed as, accord- 

* ing; to the Nature of the Things feverally, are 

i * f i A t 11 

' proper and lawful : And, next, we declare that 
' the beft Way for the Extirpation and Suppref- 
' fion of Herefy and Schifm, as we conceive, is, 
' to hold forth the Truth in Love ; which, fo held 

* out, will beget I/ove, and thereby gain the bet- 

* ter Reception in them that hear it. And it fhall 

* be our Care to provide for thofe who may fo hold 
' it out, and then wait for an effectual Bleffing from 

* God upon thofe Means. 

' To what they tell us of our declaring, That 
4 we will maintain the Fundamental Government of 

* this Kingdom, by King, Lords, and Commons ; we 

* defire to know what Intereft Scotland hath in the 

* Government of England, that there fhould be 

* any Interposition in it. What Government the 
' People of England fhall chufe, we know none 
6 that have any Negative upon it : The Legiflative 
' Power being in them originally and fundamen- 

* tally, and exercifed by thole that reprefent them, 

* what Laws they declare or enact they have Power 

* alfo to annul and repeal when they fhall judge it 

* to be no longer for the Good and Safety of the 
' People, which is the higheft Law, to which all 

* other Laws and Declarations muft fubmit ; and 
' there can be no foreign Judgment of that Safety. 

4 To that they fay in this Letter, That, by Con- 
' fent of both Kingdoms, the King was to come to 

* Holdenby; and to that in their fecond Letter, 

* That it will be a great Grief to their Hearts, and 
' lie heavy upon their Spirits, to fee their trujling 

* of his P erf on to the Parliament of England made 
' ufe of to his Ruin, it hath been fo fully cleared in 
' the aforefaid Declaration of this Houfe of the 

* 28th of November, 1646, that the Kingdom 

* of Scotland had no Right of difpofmg of the Per- 

* fon of the King in England, as that we fhall add 

* nothing to it: We (hall only fay, That they did 

* not truft the King with the Parliament of Eng- 
f land- t for he was not at all in the Power of the 


32 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

lotcr-regnum. * Kingdom of Scotland, for he was not then in 

1648. < Scotland; neither was the Army of Scots in Eng- 

*--"7v-"-' < land, the Kingdom of Scotland, nor the Army of 

:uary * c Scotland: It was indeed an Army of the Scots 

' Nation ; but it was the Army of England in their 

* Service, and in their Pay ; and to whom fhould 
' they deliver the King of England, coming into 

* their Power in England, while they were in the 

* Service and Pay of England, but to the Parlia- 

* ment of England? 

* Befides, how can they affirm the common Enemy 

* was fubdued, as in the next Words before, if he 
' was then in an Army, that had Right to defend 
' him ftill againft this Parliament, and not deliver 
' him up at their Commands ? What other com- 

* mon Enemy was it, who made all thatWar againft 

* this Nation, was it not he ? And was it not by 

* his Commifiions and Commands ? And how was 
' he thenfubdued, if the Army, confifting of the 
' Scots Nation in the Pay of England, might have 
defended him, and fought for him ? And if they 

* thought they might refufe to deliver him, why did 

* not that Army carry him with them into Scotland? 
' Was it becaufe they knew they had no Authority 
' fo to do, or becaufe they knew or feared his Pre- 

* fence and the Peace of that Place, wherever he 
' fliould come, would be incompatible ? 

' To what they fay, That this Parliament did 
1 then declare that Rejpetf Jheuld be had to the Safety 
' and Prefervation of his Perfon, in the Preferva- 

* tion and Defence of the true Religion and Libcr- 
' ties of the Kingdom ; and that they would join to 

* procure his AJ/ent to the Propofitions, &c. And In 

* cafe the King Jhould not affent, yet they will jlill 

* maintain the Union between the two Kingdoms, ac- 
' cording to the Covenant and Treaties ; we fay, 
' that meeting with thefe Things fo often repeated, 

* they force us again to aflc, Who broke the Union ? 
' Was it according to the Treaty and Covenant 
' to invade England with an Army, and that by 

* the Authority of the Parliament of Scotland? Or 

* can they think that we were bound and they at 


Of E N G L A N D. 33 

Liberty to keep it, or require it to be kept, as far inter-regiiufti 
4 only as it mould ferve the Intereft of Scotland? J M- 
* And for joining to procure the King's Ajfent to *>- ' v"~ '* 

* Proportions ; whereas it was then deiired but for Februa T 

* once more, hath it not fmce been fulfilled many 
4 Times over on the Part of the Parliament of Eng- 
4 land? Were not the Propofitions, agreed to by 

* their Commiflicners, fent fince that Time unto 

* the King at Hampton- Court , and again refuied 
' by him ? And was there not afterwards an Addrefs 

* made to him, at the Ifle of Wight ^ with four Bills, 
' concerning only three of thofe many Things con- 
4 tained in the large Propofitions, with an efiential 
4 Precaution in order to Treaty, viz. That the Par- 

* liamcnt might adjourn itfelf to fuch Place as they 

* Jhould find moft convenient and jafe, and art Offer 

* to treat with him for the reft of the Things con- 
4 tained in the Prapofitions ? And did not, as we 
' faid before, the CommiiTioners ofScotlandthen and 
4 there proteft againft thefe Overtures (Oh that ! ) 

* in Behalf of the King, and for his Intereft, a- 
gainft the Judgment, not only of the Parlia- 

* ment of England, but againft what was the 
c Judgment of the Kingdom of Scotland alfo, in 
' their former Addrefies with us, wherein the fame 
' Things, for the main, were infifted on with many 

* more f But if Scotland had never join'd to infift 

* on any of thofe four Things, yet, unce they con- 

* cerned the Security of this Nation, was not the 
4 Parliament of England competent to demand of 

* him Things of that Nature, without the Allow- 

* ance of the Scots Commiflioners ? Have we at 

* any Time interpofed to hinder them in any of 

* their Addrefies for Things concerning Scot/and? 
4 Have we not left it wholly to themfelves, to 

* pitch upon what Demands they thought ne- 
4 ceflary for that Kingdom, and been ready to af- 

* fift and join with them, whenever they have de- 

* fired us, to further the procuring of them ? 

4 As to the Matter of RefpecJ to be had to the 

* Safety of his Perfon, in Defence of the true Reli- 

* gion and Liberties j can any Man underftand 

VOL. XIX C ' thofe 

34 Tfo Parliamentary HISTORY 

Xnter-regnum. ' thofe Words not to intend fome Limitation of 
1648. < that Refpedl ? And, underftanding them fo, (to 

* v ^** * fay nothing of the Inconfiftency of that Refpect 
February. t w j^ ^ Security of true Religion, wherein them- 
' felves fay, in their fecond Letter, bis latejl and 
' large ft ConceJJions were fo unfatisfaffory) we an- 
' fwer ; as to our Liberties, there hath fince then 
' been a fecond War, raifed by him againft this Na- 
' tion, wherein the Power of Scotland aflifted ; 
' which, if God had not mightily aflifted us, had 
' for ever ruined our Liberties : And mould there 

* ftill have been a Refpeft had to the Prefervation 
' of his Perfon, who was reftlefs and endlefs in his 

* Endeavours and Defigns for the Deftru&ion of 

* the Liberties and Happinefs of this Nation ? ' Put 
' the Cafe he had gotten into the Head of fome 

* one of thofe feveral Armies, by his Influence 

* raifed the laft Summer to difturb our Peace, and 

* deftroy our Liberties, muft we have given them 
c Leave to fhoot Bullet, and return them only 
' Powder, left we fliould perhaps hurt his Perfon f 

* As to the Declarations of the Kingdom of 

* Scotland, which the laft Part of the fourth Para- 

* graph of their Letter mentions ; as we are no 

* Parties thereto, fo we have no more to fay to it, 
' fave that we muft and mall ever difavow any Au- 
c thority or Colour of Right in them, to determine 

* or declare the Succeffion of the King's Pofterity 

* to the Government of this Nation ; nor do we 

* know any Authority they have to declare or de- 
' termine any fuch Thing concerning any other 
4 Kingdom than their own. 

* In the laft Paragraph of their Letter of Janu- 

* ary 6th, we have the Epitome of their whole large 
' Letter, and a Profeflion of their Opinion what 

* is their Duty to endeavour. To that Part which 

* concerns Religion ; we have before declar'd our 

* Opinion, as we have alfo to what is the Power 
e of this Nation in the Fundamentals of Govern- 
e ment : And if Scotland hath not the fame Power 
' or Liberty, as we do not go about to confine 
e them to us, fo we fhall not limit ourfelves to 

4 diem ; 

Of E N G L A N D. 35 

e them ; but, leaving them to aft in relation to inter-regnum r 
' theirs as they fliall fee Caufe, refolve to maintain l6 4 8 - 
' our own Liberties, as God mall enable us : And * ~v- ^ 

* as we are far from any Thought of impofmg Februai 7 
' upon them, fo we fhall not willingly fuffer Im- 

* pofitions from them, while God gives us Strength 

* or Lives to oppofe : And therefore, both to this 

* Paragraph of their firft, and to their whole 
' fecond Letter, we fhortly make this Anfwer, 
c That after a long and ferious Deliberation of our 
' own intrinfical Power and Truft, derived to us, 
' by the Providence of God, through the Delega- 
' tion of the People ; and upon like Confideration 

* of what we and this Nation have fuffered from 

* the Mifgovernment and Tyranny of that King^ 

* both in Peace and by the Wars j and confider- 

* ing how fruitlefs, and how full of Danger and 

* Prejudice, the many AddrefTes to him for Peace 

* have been ; and being confcious how much we 

* have provok'd and tempted God by the Negleft 
' of impartial Execution of Juftice, in relation to 

* the innocent Blood fpilt and Mifchief done in 

* the late Wars ; we have proceeded to fuch a 

* Courfe of Juftice againft that Man of Blood, as- 
we doubt not, the juft God, who is no Refpe&er 

* of Perfons, doth approve and will follow with hift 
' Bleffing upon this Nation j and though, perhaps* 

* we may meet with many Difficulties before our 

* Liberties and Peace be fettled, yet we hope we 
c (hall be preferved from Confufion, by the Good- 

* will of him that dwelt in the Bum, which burnC 

* and was not confumed ; and the Courfe we have 
taken with the late King, and mean to follow 

* towards others, (the Capital Enemies of our 
' Peace) is, we hope, that which will be for the 

* Good and Happinefs of both Nations ; which 
if that of Scotland fhould think fit to make Ufa 

* of, and vindicate their own Liberty and Freedom, 

* which lies before them if they give it not away, 

* we fhall be ready to give them all friendly and 

* neighbourly Affiftance in the eftablifhing thereof 5 

* and defire they would take it into their moft ferioua 

C 3 Con- 

36 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' Confederation, before they efpoufe that Quarrel, 
' which can bring them no other Advantage, than 
Februa ' ' t ' ie entanin g u P cm them and their Poiterities a 
' lafting War, with all the Ivliferies that attend it, 
' and Slavery unto a Tyrant in the Iffue.' 

The Commons The fame Day that the Commons pafs'd the 
order two Seals foregoing Declaration, they ordered that the Coun- 
Jhe Ufeof the cil of St * te ft ul . d Prepare two Seals', a greater and a 
Council of Statejlefs, for their Ufe; each of them to have engraved 
thereon the Arms of England and Ireland^ with this 
Infcription, The Sfui cf the Council of State, ap- 
pointed by the P#rtt#fnfftt f England. Ordered^ 
alfo, That Whitehall be prepared for this Council 
to meet in. 

The Commons continuing tp apply themfelves, 
And fettle new with great Aiftduity, to the eoniiituting of their 
Forms of Wnts, new ommon wealth, much Time was employed 
in fettling the Forms of Writs, Oaths, fefr. Copies 
of which are enter'd in the "Journals. The main 
Alterations were the fubftituting, inftead of the 
Kirg'i Name, thefe Words, The Keepers of the Li- 
berty of England by Authority of Parliament. And 
indeed the Houfe were fq taken up with fettling 
their new Plan of Government, that very little Mat- 
ter of any other Kind now occurs in their Jour- 

An Engagement A Form of an Engagement having been drawn 
up ' for the Members ot the Council of State to fign 
before they acied in that Connmiflioh, whereby they 
were required to declare. ' That they approved of 
' what the Houfe of Commons and the High 
* Court of Juftice had dona againft the King j alfo 
' of -their abolifhing of Kingly Government and 
' the Houfe of Peers ; and that the Legifiative and 
' Supreme Power was wholly in the Houfe of Com- 
' mons,' on the iQth of this Month Lieutenant- 
General Crcmivell reported to the Houfe, * That 
leveral Members met on Saturday Night laft, where 
thirteen of them fubicribed that Engagement j 
and, upon their Sabfcription, did no other Aft but 


Of E N G L A N D. 37 

order the reft of the Members to be fummoned to Interregnum, 
be there that Morning ; where others alfo fubicri- 
bed, in ail to the Number of nineteen, viz. the 
Lord Grey ofGroby, Sir John D' drivers, Col. Hen- 
ry Martin, Mr. HeVtninghAm, Col. LufUow, Col. 
William Perfoy, Sir IViUiam Conftalle, Mr. Stape- 
/<?>, Mr. Holland,M.t. Robinfon, Mr. Scot*. Colonel 
Wanton^ Mr. Lijle, Mr. Hutchhfon, Mr. 'Jones, 
Alderman Perimngton, Sir Henry Mildtnay^ Mr. 
Wallop, and himfelf. He alfo reported, That this 
Day the Lords who were named of that Council 
gave in the following Anfwers, as to .their fubfcri- 
bing this Engagement, viz. 

The Earl of Denbigh faid, < He took it as a 
great Honour to be named by the Houfe of Com- 
mons for this Service : That he hath formerly had 
the Honour to be employed, by the late King to the 
State of Venice and other States, and ferv'd therein 
faithfully : That he was fince employed, by both 
Houfcs, in Arms, and. was alfo faithful in that : 
That now there is no other Power in England but 
that of the Houfe of Commons, in whom the Li- 
berty and Freedom of the People is fo'^fnvolv'd, he 
is refolved to live and die with them ; and doth ac- 
" knowledge them the Supreme Power of this Nation; 
and that what Government they fhall fet up and 
appoint he will faithfully ferve, to the befi: of his 
Power, with his Life and Fortune : But that, in 
this Engagement, there are fome Particulars that 
look backward, which he conceives he cannot, 
with Honour, fubfcribe ; as being contrary to what 
he then ated as a Peer in the Houfe of Lords, 
then acknowledged a third Eftate of this Kingdom, 
and to which he was fubordinate as a Member of 
that Houfe, by a particular Relation of Duty and 
Obedience : But faith, as before, that he will for 
the future ferve them with the beft of his Power.' 
The fame Anfwers, as to the general Matter, were 
given by the Earls of Pembroke^ Salijbury^ and Mul- 
grave, as alfo by the Lord- General Fairfax ; only 
the Lord Grey of Warke faid, * That he was al- 
ways willing tp do Service in any Thing which he 
C 3 was 

38 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

was commanded by both Houfes ; but this coming 
on jy f rom one Houfe, he defired to be excufed.' 
~Z~? r ~*^ Lieutenant- General Cromwell having alfo report- 
ed the Names of fome other Perfons, nominated 
to be of the Council of State, as were not fatisfied to 
fubfcribe the faid Engagement 11 , after orderingCan- 
dies to be brought into the Houfe, it was refolved, 
That no Member do go forth without Leave. 
And then the Queftion being propounded, That it 
be referred to all the Perfons nominated to be of 
the Council of State, except the Lord Grey of 
Warke, to confer among themfelves upon the Mat- 
ter had in Debate in the Houfe this Day, touch- 
ing the Engagement, and to report their Opinions 
what they conceive fit to be further done therein, 
it patted in the Affirmative by 45 againft 22. Ac- 
cordingly three Days after General Cromwell re- 
ported the following Form, agreed on by way of 
Expedient, which was approved by the Houfe c . 

7heFormthercf I" A, B, being nominated a Member of the Council 
f. J- of State by this prefent Parliament, do tejlify 

that I da adhere to this prefent Parliament, In the 
Maintenance and Defence of the Public Liberty and 
Freedom of this Nation, as it is now declared by this 
Parliament, (by whofe Authority I am conjiituted a 
Member of the faid Council) and in the Mainte- 
nance and Defence of their Resolutions concerning the 
fettling of the (government of this Nation for the 


b The Lord Fairfax (who, with Col.Rt'cb, on the xyth of thif 
Month, had been declared duly elected Members for Cirencejler, after 
the Return had lain above two Years dormant^ defired to be excufed 
fubfcribing his Approbation of what was part : But he and the reft 
of the Refufers affirm' d, That for the future, if the Parliament 
thought them worthy to be employed, they would join with them. 
Mr. Wbitlocke fcrupled that Part of approving the Proceedings 
of the High Court of Juftice, becaufe he was not privy to them, 
nor did know what they were in particular, nor ever did hear any 
Report of therp made to the Houfe j and, not knowing what they 
were, he could not fign that Paper to approve of them. The like 
was faid by divers others. Memorials, p. 377. 

c The Refolution of the Houfe, of February 22, concerning thi* 
Engagement, is erafed in the Commons Journals by an Order ot 
March 1 3, 1659. The Copy of it here given is fupplied from Wai". 
ktr 1 * Hijitry of Independency, p, 130. 

.Of E N G L A N D. 39 

future, in way of a Republic, without King or Houfe Inter-regnum* 
of Peers ; and I do promife in the Sight of God, that t l6 4- 8> 
through his Grace, I will be faithful in the Perform- ^T^^ 
ance of the Trujl committed to me as aforefaid, and 
therein faithfully purfue the Inftruftions given to the 
faid Council by this prefent Parliament ; and not re- 
veal or difclofe any Thing, in Whole or in Part, di- 
recJly or indirectly, that jhall be debated or refolved 
upon in the Council, without the Command or Direc- 
tion of the Parliament, or without the Order or Al- 
lowance of ihe major Part of the Council, or of the 
major Part of them that Jhall be prefent at fucb 
Debates or Refolutions. In Confirmation of the Pre- 
mifes 1 have hereto fubfcribed my Name. 

Feb. 20. The next material Bufinefs reported to 
the Houfe from this Council, was, That it W'JJ 
their Opinion the Ordinance for conftituting thef, om t h e office 
Earl of Warwick Lord- High- Admiral of England, of Lord High. 
fhould be repealed. The Houfe agreed to this, and Admiral 
ordered an A6r. to be brought in for that Purpofe ; 
and that the Council of State fliould have and exe- 
cute all fuch Power and Authority, as any Lord- 
Admiral or Commiffioners of the Admiralty have 
had, or ought to have had, and exercifed. Pro- 
vided, That the faid Council fliould take Care that, 
by the repealing of the Power of the Lord- Admi- 
ral, no Prejudice might come to the Common- 
wealth. Several more Ads were ordered in for the 
Encouragement of Officers, Mariners, and im- 
prefs'd Seamen, and other Regulations in the Na- 
vy, in this and the next Day's Proceedings. And 
foon after Col. Edward Popham, Col. Richard 
Dean, and Col. Robert Blake, were appointed by 
the Parliament to command the Fleet, with an 
Appointment of 9 /. per Diem, to be equally divi- 
ded amongft them. 

The Prince Elector Palatine having taken Leave The PrinwElee. 
of the Parliament, they ordered the Arrears of his tor an <! D"**- 
Allowance of 8ooo/. per Annum (being 6500/0 toSE ~~ 
be forthwith paid him. On the 20th his Highnefs turn home. 


40 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. went by Water to Grave fend, and embark'd for Ho/- 
l6 4 8 - land on his Return home, under Convoy of a Man 

C r7 v ~"~"' of War appointed by the Houfe for that Purpofe; 
as did alib the Lord Paw, Amb-'iTador Extraordina- 
ry from the States Genera!, on the 23d. 

Several Days now pafs'd without any remarkable 
Article entered in the Journals ; except that the 
Houfe, in order to a little Relaxation from Attend- 
ance on the public Bufmefs of the Nation, agreed 
to fit only on Mondays, ffadnefdays, and Fridays in 
every Week, but Committees every Day. 

It has been already obferved, that the Parliament 
of Scotland had proclaimed Prince Charles for their 
King, and fent a Deputation to inform him of it; 
and that the Houfe had imcc publifliod their Anfwer 
to the Scots Commiffioners Letters prefented in 'Ja- 
nuary laft. On the 24th of this Month thofeCom- 
iniflioners fent another Paper, fubfcribed by them 
all, and direded to the Speaker; which is not gi- 
ven us in the Journals, nor do we find a Copy of 
it in any Contemporary Writer : Mr. JVbitlocke^ 
indeed, tells us, * That the Speaker acquainted the 
Houfe this Day with a Letter the Scots Commif- 
fioners fent- him, at their going away, which was 
without taking Leave.' And adds, ' It was full of 
Bitternefs ag.inft the Parliament and their late 
Proceedings againft the King, the Houfe of Lords, 
and the fecluded Members : But gives no Particu- 
lars thereof. This ETeficiency is luckily fupplicd 
by a printed Copy of the original Letter at large, 
lately fallen into our Hands, in ban: Verba d . 

February 24, 

A Remonftrancec -r jj t ^ c Year 1642, and afterwards in the Year 
1*' 1 1643, when the Popilh, Prelatical, and Ma- 
fioners in Lon- * lignant Party did grow prevalent in this Kingdom, 
don, to the Par- < the Honourable Houfes of Parliament did com- 
IhTTate 3 Pro- ' municate feve r al Declarations and Papers to the 
seeding* j ~ ' Kingdom of Scotland e , thereby to inform their 

^ Printed for Mattbcw S:mtncns, in Aldet -fgate-Jireet. 
e D^cJaration aad Account to all the World, slugujl, 1642, 


4 Judgments of the State of the Differences here, inter-regnum. 
' and to gain their Affiftance, and invite their Forces l6 4 8 - 
' to come into this Kingdom ; in which Declara- * "~~^~~ ~~* 

* tions and other Papers they affirm and declare, e tudrj " 

' That the Army of the Houfes of Parliament 

* was raifed for Maintenance of the true Religion, 
' the King's Pet-fa:, Honour , and Efiate, Privileges 

* of Parliament, Rights and Liberties of Subjects, 

* and for tic Prevention of the Alteration of Re- 
' ligion : That their Enemies Dcfign was to corrupt 
' and alter Religion throughout the whole Jjland\ 
' that they begun zwY/; Scotland, /<?;;?' "well that the 

* fame Fate attended both Kingdoms : Thai they have 
' only inverted the Manner of their Proceedings, con- 
' ceiving it an eafier IVay to dejlroy them, if they may 

* fi r ft prevail over the Parliament and Kingdom of 
* England : That ivhcnfocvcr Religion is- jubvertcd 
( or changed in one Kingdom, it will be eajjily accom- 
' plijhed in the other ; Religion being the Band and 
' Foundation of the Happinefs of both : That ivhat 
' Corruptions take Roct in England, will quickly 

* fpread their Venom and Infection to their 3\ T cigb- 
' b our Church of Scotland. b 

4 They declare jfce true State of the Quarrel to 
' be Religion ; in Reformation whereof they are 
' fo forward and zealous, as there is nothing ex- 

* prefTed in Scotland's former or later Declarations, 
' which they have not feriouily endeavoured to ef- 

f c a. 

' They earneftly intreat the General AfTembly 

* to further and expedite the Afliflance defircd by 
' both Houfes from the Kingdom of Scotland, up- 
6 on this Ground and Motive, That thereby they 
' faatt do. great Service to God, and great Honour 
' may redound to thenif elves in becoming the Injlru- 
' ments of a glorious Reformation, not only through - 
' out this IJIand, but from thence pojjibly to be fprer.d 
' to other Churches, opprefod under the Antichriftian 
' Bondage and Tyranny of the Pcpift) and Prelatical 

* Faftion. c 

* They 

b Englljh Commiflioners, Augufl, 1643. 

Declaration, Sept. 1643, in Anfvver to the Scots Declaration. 

42 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

They commend the Prudence and Faithfulnefs 
' of the General Aflembly of the Church of Scot- 

1 land) in propounding thofe Things which may con- 
February. < ^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ g j- g Q ^ ^ m jj n j on O j- t fo e twff 

* Churches and Nations of England and Scotland ; 
' in preferring and maintaining the Truth and Pu~ 

* rity of the Reformed Religion, not only againjl 

* Popery, but all Superjiitions, Seels, and Innova- 
' tions whatfoever ; and declare, That the Houfes 

* of Parliament have ever made the Reformation of 

* Church Government and Difcipline their chiefeji 

* Aim, though they have been frequently interrupted, 

* and powerfully oppos'd t in theProfecution andAccom- 

* plijhment of it ; and however they continue Jlill in 

* their Storm andConjUtt^yet they take the Peace, Li- 

* berty^ and Prefervation which God hath afforded 

* Scotland, as a Pledge of the like Mercy intended 

* to them, in his good Time ; hoping that God will 
' pfrfett their Dejigns and Endeavours of a full 
4 Reformation in all Things pertaining to Religion ; 

* They profefs their earneft Defires/cr Unity of Re- 

* ligion, in all fubjiantial Parts of Doirine y Wor- 

* Jhip) and Difcipline, that both Kingdoms might be 

* more Jtrittly united t and enjsy the Advantages of 

* his Majejiy's mtre eafy, fafe, and comfortable Go- 

* vernment ; the People a more free Communion in 
' all holy Exercifes and Duties ofWor/hip ; and that 

* there might be a more conftant Security of Religion, 

* again/} the bloody Practices ofPapijls, and deceitful 
' Errors of Sectaries. They remonftrate, d That 

* it is far from their Ptirpofe or Dejire to let loofe 

* the golden Reins of Difcipline^ and Government of 
' the Church ; to leave private Perfons, or particu- 

* lar Congregations , to take up what Form of Divine 

* Service they pleafe ; but do hold it requiftte that 

* there Jhould be, throughout the whole Realm, a 

* Conformity to that Order which the Laws enjoin, 

* according to the Word of God. They proteft, in 

* the Prefence of the All- feeing Deity, 6 That the 
' Services which they have been deferous to perform 

* Remonilrance in Dumber, 1641. May, 164;. 

Of E N G L A N D. 43 

* to their Sovereign Lord and King, and to his Church Inter-regnnns- 
and State, in providing for the Public Peace, Pro- 

* fperity of his Majejly and all his Realms, to have 
c been, and Jl ill to be, the only End of all their 

* Counfels and Endeavours ; wherein they have re~ 
t folved to continue freed and enlarged from all pri- 

* vote Aims, perfonal Refpefts, or Pajftons whatfo- 
' ever. They oft mention the Proteftation taken 

* by every Member of both Houfes, promifmg, in 

* the Prefence of Almighty God, to defend his Ma- 
' J e fy ' an ^ difclaim the having any Purpofe to offer 
' the leajl Violence to his P erf on, which bath and 
' ever jhall be dear unto them. They declare f , 

* That they expeft the Help and AJJiftance of Scot- 

* land, in Defence of the Caufe ; which, if the Po- 
' pijh Party prevail, muji needs either involve them 
' in that Alteration ofRelig\on, which will be made 

* here t or engage them in a War againft this $ing* 
c dom t to defend their own Religion and Liberty $ 

* and they profefs, before the ever-living God g , the 

* Safety of Religion* Laws, and Liberties, in this 

* and all other his Majejly s Dominions^ to he the 
6 chief End of all their Counfels and Refolutions with" 
' out any Intention or Dejire to hurt or injure his 

* Majejly ', either in his Perfon* or in his juft Power: 

* That they reft aj/ured, both God and Man will ab- 

* hor and abominate that monftrous and injurious 
c Charge, laid upon the Reprefentative Body of this 

* Kingdom, of deftgning the Ruin, not only of his 

* Majejlfs P erf on, but of Monarchy itfelf; and 
' appeal to all the World, whether worfe Words 
' than thefe can be given them. 

' Thefe Declarations and folemn Engagements 

* were communicated to the Kingdom of Scotland^ 

* before they did join in the War with the Houfes 

* of Parliament ; and alfo both Kingdoms entered 

* into a Solemn League and Covenant, for Refor- 
' motion and Defence of Religion ; forUniformity tit 

* one ConfeJJion of Faith ^ Form of Church Govern- 

* ment 9 

f Declaration, OElcber, 1642, in Anfwer to the King's, concern- 
ing Keinton Battle. 

Declaration and Froteftatioo to all the World ia 1642, 

44 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * went, DircRory for Wcrjhip and Catechiftrtg ; for 
1648. * Extirpation of Pcpcry,SupcrJiition,Herefy, Schifm, 

^~~ v ~ ' ' Profanenefs, find ivhatjoever Jkull be found con- 
' trary 10 jound Dofirine and the Power of God- 
' li fiefs 5 for Prefervation of the Rights and Privi- 
6 leges of Parliament, and Liberties of the Subjctt ; 

* for the Honour and Happinefs of the King and bis 
' Pojlerity, and the Peace and Safety of thefe King- 

* doms. 

In the Year 1646, after the Power and Strength 

* of the Enemy was broken, the Houfe of Com- 

* rnons did, upon the I jth of April, publifh a De- 

* duration, which the}' likewife caufed to be fet up 
' and affixed in every Pat lib-Church, wherein they 
' vindicated themfelves from fcveral Mifconfrruc- 

* tions and Mifreprefentations of theirProceedings; 
' As that they Jhould have any Intention or Dejir: to 
c make Uje of t he great Succejs Gcd had given them, 

* contrary to their fortner Profeffions ; cr to exceed 
' or fwerve from their fir ft Aims and Principles t in 
' the- undertaking this I Far ; and to recede from the 
e Solemn League and Covenant, and Treaties betwixt 

* the Kingdo?ns ; or to prolong thefe uncomfortable 

* Troubles and bleeding Dijiraftions, in order to al- 

* ter the Fundamental Conftitution and Frame cf this 
' Kingdom^ and to leave all Government in the 
' Church loofe and unjettled ; or themfelves to exer- 
e cife the fame arbitrary Power over the Perfons and 
< Eftates of the Sub/efts, which the prefect Parlia- 
4 ment bad thought fit to abolij}), by taking aivay the 

* Star-Chamber, High-Commillion, and other ar- 
' bitrary Courts^ and the exorbitant Poiver of the 

* Council-Table. And further they declare, That 

* their true and real Intentions are^ and thetr En- 

* deavours Jhall be^ to fettle Religion in the Purify 
' thereof, according to the Covenant ; and to main- 
4 tain the antient and Fundamental Conjiitution and 

* Government of this Kingdom^ by King, Lords, and 
' Commons. 

' In November 1647, wr!en a Petition was pr'e- 

* fentcd to the Houfe of Commons, ftyling them 
6 the Supreme Authority of tie Nation, together 

* with 

Of E N G L A N D. 45 

1 with a printed Paper annex'd, intitled An Agree- Inter-regnum. 
4 ment of the People^ for a firm and prefent Peace, l6 4 8 - 
'upon Grounds of common Ri?bt, (which A<rree- V T"! V ""^' 1 ' 

r> r i r i i February. 

4 ment., as we have found upon rerufal of both, is 
4 the fame for Subftance with the Agreement lately 
4 publiflied) the Houfe of Commons did declare, 
4 That the Matters contained in thoje Papers were 
4 deftrucli-ve to the Being of Parliaments , and to the 
4 Funda?nental Government of the Kingdom; and ap- 
4 pointed a Letter to be written to the General, to 

* examine the Proceeding of that Buimefs in the 
4 Army, and to return an Account thereof to the 
4 Houfe : And when another Petition, dire&ed To 
4 the Supreme Authority of England, the Commons 
4 in Parliament ajjembled, was presented the 23d 
4 of the fame Month, they voted that Petition 
4 a /editions and contemptuous Avowing and Profe- 
4 cution of the former Petition and Paper annex' d y 
'Jlylcd An Agreement of the People, formerly ad- 
4 judged to be deJJrufiive to the Being of Parliaments 
4 and Fundamental Government ; and another Let- 
4 ter was appointed to be lent to the General, to 
4 take Notice of his Proceedings, in the Execution 
4 of a mutinous Perfon (who was an Abetter of 
4 that Agreement) at the Rendezvous near Ware ; 
4 and to give him Thanks for it, and defire him 
4 to profecute the Examination of that Bufmefs to 
4 the Bottom, and to bring fuch guilty Perfons as 
4 he fliall think fit to condign and exemplary Pu- 
4 nifhment. 

' All which Declarations, Proteftations, Oaths, 
4 Covenants, and folemn Engagements notwith- 
4 ftanding, we find, to our great Grief, Wonder, 
4 and Aftoniihment, that, contrary to the Diflent 
4 and Proteftation of the Kingdom of Scotland, his 

* Majefty is removed out of this Life, by a vio- 
4 lent Death : That Orders are publiflied in Print, 
4 intitled, Acis of Parliament, prohibiting the pro- 
4 claiming of the Prince of Wales as Kingofthefe 

* Kingdoms : That the Commons, which now fit 

* at Weftminfter (after many Members of that 

* Houle have been imprifoned, fecluded by Force, 

4 or 

46 lie Parliamentary HISTORY 

* or neceflitated to withdraw, becaufe they cannot 

< aft as i n a f ree Parliament) have voted away the 
' Kingly Office and the Houie of Lords, and claim 

ruary * ' the Authority of a Parliament; and, under Co- 
' lour thereof, the Power of repealing all Oaths of 
' Allegiance and Obedience whatfoever ; even 

* without Exception of the Solemn League and 
8 Covenant, from which the Confcience cannot be 
' abfolved by all the Powers on Earth. 

4 We fee likewife ftrong Endeavours ufed, and 

* Refolutions taken, to maintain a licentious Li- 

* berty and ungodly Toleration, in Matters of Re- 
c ligion, as appears by a Paper lately publifhed, 

* commonly call'd An Agreement of the People ; 
' againft which, upon the 26th of 'January laft, 

* we did prefent a Teftimony of the Commiflioners 
of the General Aflembly of the Church of Scot- 

* land) approved of by the Eftates of the Parliament 

* of that Kingdom. 

' If the Honourable Houfes of the Parliament of 

* England^ who made the Declarations and En- 

* gagements aforefaid, had been permitted to fit 

* and acl with Freedom, we know there would 
c have been no fuch Proceedings as we have alrea- 

* dy feen, nor Caufe to fear fuch dangerous Evils 

* and ftrange Alterations as are now carried on by 

* Will and rower. We may confidently fay, they 

* would have been more mindful of their many De 
' clarations and the Solemn League and Covenant, 

* and more ready to hearken to the Advice of their 
' Brethren of Scotland. And however no Regard 
hath been had, by thofe who rule, to what we 

* have formerly faid, and fo we have fmall Hopes 
' that any great Notice {hall be taken of what we 
fliall further fay; yet, in purfuance of the Inftruc- 

* tions we have received from the Parliament of 
' Scotland^ we hold it our Duty to defire, that 

* there may be no Toleration of Idolatry, Popery, 
Prelacy, Herefy, Schifm, or Profanenefs : That 

* there be no Change of the Fundamental Confti- 

< tution and Government of this Kingdom, by 

* King, 

Of E N G L A N D. 47 

c King, Lords, and Commons : That there may be Inter-regnum. 

* nothing done which may wrong King Charles the ^J^ 4 ^ 

* Second in his Succeffion, as righteous Heir of the p^ruT*^ 

* Crown of thefe Kingdoms ; but that, by the free 

' Councils of both Houfes of Parliament, Refor- . 
' mation of, and Uniformity in, Religion may be 
' fettled according to the Covenant ; and particu- 
' larly that Preibyterian Government, the Confef- 
' fion of Faith, Directory for Worftlip, and Ca- 
c techifm, may be eftablifhed: That the juft Right 
' and Title of King Charles the Second to the 

* Crown of thefe Kingdoms may be acknowledg'd; 

* and, upon juft Satisfaction given to both King- 

* doms, he may be received and admitted to the 
4 Exercife of his Government j and if, notwith- 
ftanding all our earneft Defires and Endeavours 
' to the contrary, the Commons now fitting at 

* Wejimmjler (hall proceed otherwife in all or in 

* any of the Particulars aforefaid, we do hereby, 
' in the Name of the Parliament and Kingdom of 
' Scotland, diflent from the fame ; and folemnly 
' proteft, That they may be free, before God and 
' Man, of the Guiltinefs, Evils, Confufions, Mi- 
' feries, and Calamities that may follow thereupon 
' to thefe diftracled Kingdoms. 


How highly the Commons were affronted at this 
Remonftrance fufficiently appears from the follow- 
ing Declaration, pafs'd on the 26th of this Month, 
which they ordered to be forthwith printed and 

' '"AH E Parliament having received a Paper, Which theHbufc 

* dated February 24, 164!, fubfcribed by refolve to be 
the Earl of Lothian, Sir John Chiejley, and Mr. 

* Glendinningy in the Name of the Kingdom of 

* Scotland, and taking the fame inco their ferious 
' Confideratign : 


48 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

< They do declare,- That the faid Paper doth 
4 contain much fcandalous and reproachful Matter 

* againlt the juft Proceedings of this Parliament ; 

* and an AfTuming, on the Behalf of that Kingdom, 
' to have a Power over the Laws and Government 

* of this Nation, to the high Dishonour thereof; 
' and laftly, a Defign in the Contrivers and Sub- 
' fcribers of it, to raife Sedition and lay the Grounds 
' of a new and bloody War in this Land ; that, 

* under the fpecious Pretences in that Paper con- 
' taincd, they may gain Advantages to fecond their 

* late perfidious Invafion. And 

e It is further declared, That all Perfons what- 
' foevcr, refiding in England or Ireland, or the Do- 
' minions thereof, that fhall join with, or adhere 

* unto, or voluntarily aid or aflift, the faid Con- 
' trivers and Subfcribere, or any whofocver of the 
' Kingdom of Scotland, in purfuance of the Grounds 
' by them laid in the faid Paper, for raifnig Sedi- 
' tion and a new and bloody \Var in this Land, are 
' Rebels and Traitors to the Commonwealth of 

* England ; and fhall be proceeded againft as Trai- 
' tors and Rebels.' 


Befides printing and publifhins; this refentful 
And thereupon Declaration, the Houfe ordered, That the Lord 

order the Scots _ .. c - -* r /or n \\m m > 

Commiflioners Lothian, oir joffH Lhiejley, and Mr. (jlenainning^ 
to be put under Commiflioners of the Kingdom of Scotland, fhould 
anAneft, &c. j, ave a Q uar j f et U p On t h e ; r Lodging, to fecure 
them from Violence.; and alfo to retrain them 
from Communication with any by whom the Sedi- 
tion, contained in their Paper, dated the 24th In- 
jftant, might be promulged : And that none be 
fuffered to have Accefs to them, or to pafs out from 
them, but for their Supply with NeceiTaries during 
their Abode here. 

It was alfo ordered, That a Meflagc, with a 
Duplicate of the foregoing Remonftrance, be forth- 
with fent to the Parliament and Kingdom of Scot- 
land* To know whether they do or will own and 


Of E N G L A N D. 49 

jtiftify what hath been prefented to this Parliament Inter-regnum; 
in their Names j the Care whereof was particularly l6 4 8 - 
referred to the Council of State. V ""T V ""*"^ 

r ebruary. 

The fame Day, Feb> 26, the following Petition 
was prefented to the Houfe, and read, 

To the Supreme intruded Authority of this Nation) 
the Commons ajjembled in Parliament y 

The HUMBLE PETITIO^ of divers ofthewell- 
affeSied Officers and Soldiers of the Army^ under 
the Command of his Excellency Thomas Lord 

c T T T E having ferioufly weighed and confider- A Petition from 

* V V ed tne late Votes of this Houfe, in which feve l Officers 

1 the People are declared to be the Supreme Power, "n^f 6 ^ for 
' and from whom all juft Authority is derived : TheLavrs irfto Eng- 
' Confideration of this hath emboldened us to make li/h > aboli/hing 
' known and difcover our own and the Kingdom's Tythcs>&c * 
" Grievances, which cry aloud forjuftice to be fpee- 

* dily and impartially executed ; without which we 
4 cannot chufe but look upon ourfelves as a dying 
' and ruinated People : All which we apprehend is 
' coming upon us like a Deluge, unlefs Grod be 
' pleafed to appear for us, in railing up of your 

* Honours to (land for us in the anfwering of thefe 

* our juft Defires. 

1. * To make and eftablifh fuch wholfomeLaws, 
' in our native Language, as may preferve the In- 

* tereft and Liberties of this Commonwealth. 

2. ' That all Tythes may be for ever fpeedily 
c abolifhed, and no forced Maintenance come in 
the Place thereof. 

3. That no Punifhment be inflicted upon any 

* Perfon for the Exercife of his Confcience in Mat- 

* ters of Religion, it being deftruclive to the Free- 
' dom of the Commonwealth. And that all fuch 
' as are now in Cuftody for fuch Matters may 

* forthwith be fet at Liberty, and Reparation given 

* them for their unjuft Imprifonment. 

VOL. XIX. D 4, That 

50 T.'he Parliamentary HISTORY 

4. 4 That all Committee-men, Excife-men, and 
all other Perfons whatfoever that have had to 
4 deal in the public Treafury of the Nation, may 
:bruan. t fp ee( jj] v {-,<, ca lj cc { to an Account, for all Monies re- 

* ceived by them ; and that, for the Time to come, 
4 the intolerable Burden of Excife may be wholly 

* taken away from this Commonwealth. 

5. ' That all Perfons, of what Condition or Qua- 

* lity foever, may have a jui'l and equal Admini- 

* ftration of Law, according to the Nature of their 

6. ' That a fpeedy Courfe be taken for the En- 
' largement of all Perfons that are imprifoned for 
4 Debt, and have not wherewithall to fatisfy their 

* Creditors ; and a Courfe alfo taken for the ma- 
4 king fuch Perfons pay their Debts, being able, 
4 that {belter themfelves in a Prifcn, on purpofe to 

* defraud their Creditors, by which Means many 
4 honeft People are brought to Ruin. 

7. * That all Perfons whatsoever, that are now 

* in Prifon for pretended Words or Forgeries, may 
4 be brought to a fpeedy Trial j and as to thofe 
4 whofe Innccency mall appear, Reparation may 

* be given them for their falfelmprifonmcnt. 

8. 4 That fpeedy Provifion may be made for 
' the continual Supply of the Neceffities of the 

* Poor of this Nation, whofe Miferies cry aloud in 
' our Ears for Redrefs. 

9. ' That conftant Pay may be provided to fup- 
4 ply the Neceffities of the Army, that the Soldiery 

* may be enabled to difcharge their Quarters; and, 
4 for the future, prevent that which hath been fo 

* much complained of, viz. Free-quarter. 

10. ' That all the Arrears of the Army, and 

* the reft of the Soldiery of the Nation (who have 
c been in actual Service for the Parliament, and 

* continued faithful therein) may be audited ; and 

* a Courfe taken for the fpeedy Payment of them, 
4 out of the Revenues of the Crown, Deans and 
4 Chapters Lands. 

II. 4 That whereas feveral Soldiers of the Army, 
4 by their tedious and hard Service laft Summer, 

4 and 

Of E N G L A N D 51 

4 and fince they came to London^ have loft and Inter-re9:num 

* fpoiled many of their Horfcs ; and, by reafon of 1648. 

* the Smallnefs of their Pay, are not able to furnifh < "r7 v ~"~" J 

\ r i -i /"< r u i rebruarvi 

' tbemfelves with any more, Courfe may be taken 

* for a fpeedy Supply of our Wants, that we may 
' be enabled to perform that Service that is ex- 
' pecked from us. 

12.' That whereas we, with many others of the 

* Commonwealth, have been much abufed with 

* clipt Money ; therefore we defire fome Courfe 

* may be taken for the fpeedy Prevention thereof. 

13. ' That the Articles of War may now be 
' renewed and mitigated, as being too fevere and 

* tyrannous for any Arnty of free-born RagUjhrneni 
' and that Martial Law may not be fo frequently 

* exercifed, nor in fo cruel a Manner. 

14. ' That the Soldiers may not be put upon the 

* Execution of Civil Orders or Ordinances, as fei- 
' fmg upon unlicenfed Books, or Printing Prefles ; 
' or in diftraining for Monies, or the like, untill, 
c in thofe Cafes, the Civil Authority hath been 

* forcibly refilled ; that fo the People may have 
' no Caufe to complain, as they do, of our Intrench- 
' ment upon their Liberties.' 

All the Notice the Houfe took of this very ex- 
traordinary Petition, was only to order that thg 
General be defired to make Inquiry among the 
Officers of every Troop what Horfes had been 
loft in thelaft Summer's Service, and not been re- 
cruited by Prize- Horfes, or otherwife, in order 
that the Committee of the Army might take pro- 
per Means to fupply the Deficiency : As to all F r which fome 
the other Heads thereof they were only referred of ( , th f n ? are pu ~ 

,. r , . . ' r niflied by a 

to the Committee of Petitions ; from whence we Court-ManiaU 
hear no more of them in the ^Journals. But a Me- 
morialift f of thefe Times informs us, That five 
of the Troopers who had prefented this Petition 
were tried for it by a Court Martial, and fentenced 
to ride the wooden Horfe, on the 6th of March y 
D 2 in 

f Mercuriui Pragmatlcus t N. 47. 

52 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. in the Old Palace Yard, Wejlmlnfter ; the Gene- 
1648. ra j having commanded that no private Soldier 
*"Tr v ~r"" ; Ihould fet on Foot any Petition to Parliament with- 
out the Confent of the Chief Officer of each Re- 

The fame Day alfo a Paper was prefented to 
the Houfe hy Lieutenant- Colonel Lilbourne^ fub- 
fcribcd by himfelf and many others, intitled The 
Jerious Apprehenftons of a Part of the People in 
behalf of the Commonwealth , being Prefentcrs, Pro- 
moters^ and Approvers of the large Petition of the 
nth of September la ft s , which was read. 

This Paper was much to the fame EffecT: as 
the foregoing Petition. 

Feb. 28. In confequence of the before-recited 
Orders touching the iSt-ff/iCommifiioners, the Com- 
mons were this Day inforni'd that they had been 
apprehended at Gravefind, as they were embark- 
ing on their Return home, and were now under a 
Guard : Hereupon the Houfe voted firft a Gratuity 
of 20 /. to Col. Saxbie for his Service done to the 
Commonwealth in fecuring thofe Commiffioners ; 
The Houfe re- and then it being put to the Queftion, Whether to 
folve to fend the f e nd them back to Scotland by Land, fo guarded ? it 
S?C2' P afl * ed in the Affirmative without a Divifion. To 

iioners home n _ _ 

by Land, under a luch a Degree of Contempt was the Scots Nation 
Cturd. at this Time reduced. 

March. The new-erected Council of State ha- 
ving all the public Bufmefs of the Nation now 
before them, the Houfe of Commons, which con- 
ftituted them, had little to do, except to confirm, 
by A61, fuch Proceedings as the other thought fit 
for that Sanction : This Council had alfo taken 
into their Body great Part of the Houfe of Com- 
mons. The High Court of Juftice, now fitting on 
Trials, engaged ftill more ; and by the expurga- 
tive Teft pafied on the firft of laft Month, deny- 
ing Admiffion to every Member who would not 

* Thi* Petition is gi vn in our Seventeenth Volume, p. 451. 


enter his DifTent or Difapproval- to the Vote of Inter-regnant. 

the 5th of December lair, many more were fhut out 

that had eone great Lengths with them before ; ,7*T 

/i r rr -K./T i i rr /- March. 

io that icarce nrty IViembers meeting in the tioule at 
this Time, little Buiinefs, except Petitions and 
other Things of fmall Moment to the Public, was 
done in this Skeleton of a Houfe of Commons. 

March 2. To fhew how great Harmony there 
was between the Houfe and the principal Officers 
of the Army at this Juncture, we ihall mention 
one Petition, prefented this Day hy Col. Whaley 
and others, intitled, The bumble Petition of the Ge- 
neral Council of the Army^ under the Command of 
his Excellency Thomas Lord Fairfax. This, and 
a Letter from the General, recommending it to the 
fpeedy Confideration of the Houfe, were both read. 
We are not told by the Journals what the Sub- 
ftance of it was; nor do we find it in any of our 
Collections of the Pamphlets of thefe Times : But 
Mr. Whitlocke writes that the Heads thereof were 
thefe : 

1. ' That Free-quarter be forthwith totally ta- Another PetJ- 
ken away. tion from the 

* r n r r n T / i A Lord-General 

2. * For Provifion for conftant Pay of the Army. Fair f ax and h ; s 

3. ' For Receivers to account. Council of Wat, 

4. c Abufes of dipt Money to be redrefs'd. 

5. Soldiers Accounts to be ftated, and Deben- 
' tures given out. 

6. ' Security for them by Deans and Chapters 
* Lands, orotherwife. 

7. * For Satisfaction for Soldiers Horfes flain or 
c loft in Fight. 

8. * For Maintenance of maim'd Soldiers and 
Widows of Soldiers. 

9. For Relief of Ireland. 

10. c For the Supply of the Irifl) Officers come 
6 from the Earl of Inchequin, &c.' 

This Petition was fo extremely grateful to the 
Houfe, that they ordered their Speaker to return 
the following Anfwer to it. And, indeed, who- 
ever compares it with that of the 26th of lafl; 
D 3 Month 

54 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Month, in which, amongft many hi^h, and perhaps 
fome not inequitable, Demands, it was required 
that all who had been anywife concenvd in finger- 
ing the Public Money fhould be called to Account 
for it, will be at no Lofs in finding; out a Reafon for 
the different Fate of thefe two Petitions. 

The Anfwer to the latter of them was exprefs'd 
in the following Terms of Approbation and Re- 


For which they c ri^HE Houfe hath read the Letter of the Ge- 

Thinks* of the ' A lief al and your Petition, and look'd over 

Houfe. ' every Part of it : I muft needs fay, and you will 

' wonder at it I fhould tell you fo, this Day will be a 

' Day of much Difcontent ; I mean to all the com- 

* mon Enemies of you and us: But, as to all good 

* Men that have engaged to carry on the Good of 
* the Kingdom with us, it will be a great Rejoicing 

* and Satisfaction by this your modeft and difcreet 
' Petition: And as in yourlelves it {hews your Mo- 
' deration, fo all thofe whofe Mouths are open to 

* Malice and Detraction, will fee that both the 
' Army and Parliament are fo unanimous in pro~ 
< moting the Public Good : The Things them- 
' felves they confider as Matter of great Concern- 
' mem, and iotend to take them into immediateCon- 

. ' fide-ration : And, as you have fhewn yourfelves in 

* ' former Services (for all tha: you and we do is bit 

' Service) forward and faithful, for thefe your dif- 

' creet and ferious Reprefentations they have com- 

* manded me to return you the heartieft Thanks I 
' can : And accordingly I do give you the hearty 
< Thanks of this Houfe ; and clefire you likewifc 
' to return the like hearty Thanks from this Houfe, 
' to the General, and to the whole General Coun- 

* cil of the Army.' 

The Parliament The Parliament now feem'd to be in fome Jea- 
vote an addition- loufy of another Vifit from the Scots; for this Day, 
March 6, they voted an Addition of 4000 Foot to 
the 44,373 already on the Eftabli{hme,nt 


Of E N G L A N D. 55 

in England and Wales * for the better fecuring Eer- Int ^-regn um . 
wick and Carlifie, and the other new Garrifons in ^_J -jLl^/ 
thofe Parts : Likewife an Addition of 1 2,000 Horfe, March. 
Foot, and Dragoons to be forthwith fent into Ire- 
land, i 

On the fecond of laft Month the Commons had Proceedings up- 
refolved to erect a new High Court of Juftice, for on a Petition 

the Trials of feveral Delinquents ; as, James Earl fl th< | Duke . 
en i -j 3 TT v i c TT n j/J T , of Hamilton and 

ot Gavtortage*, Henry Earl of Hol!and,George Lord others, fentenced 
Goring^ Arthur Lord Gapel, and Sir John Given, t Death by the 
who were all included in an A6t made for that Pur- jjj c 0ttrt of 
pofe. The Proceedings againft thefe Lords and 
Gentlemen have been often printed 5 ; it may there- 
fore be fufficient to obferve, that they having been 
fentenced to undergo the fame Fate with their late 
King and Mailer, this Day, March 7, the Commons 
were prefented with Petitions from their Ladies, in 
Perfon, or their neareft Relations, to fpare their 
Lives c . The Houfe ordered the Petitions to be 
all read ; and, on the Queftion, Whether to refer 
them to further Confideration ? it parted, for that 
Time, in the Negative by 38 againft 28. But 

However, next Day, March 8, the Houfe thought 
fit to fhew Mercy to fome of thefe unhappy Vic- 
tims ; for on a Revival of their Petitions, and the 
former Queftion being again put, it was carried in 
the Affirmative by 31 againft 28. The Houfe, 
after ordering Candles to be brought in, and no 
Member fuffered to go out without Leave, pro- 

a The firft of thefe Noblemen was the Duke of Hamilton, Ge- 
neral of the Scots Army, defeated at Prefton, fome Time before j 
but tried now by the Tide of Earl of Cambridge, his Englijh Peer- 

b State Trials, Vol. II. p. I, & fey. 

c The Petitions of the Earl of Holland and the Lord C&ptl were 
prefented by their Countefles in Perfon. The Earl of J^arivick 
alfo prefented a Petition of his own in favour of his Brother the 
Earl of Holland. 

Mr. Ludloiv adds, That the Earl of Denbigh propofed, on behalf 
of the Duke of Hamilton, his Brother-in-Law, to give the Parlia- 
ment a Blank, fign'd by the faid Duke, to anfwer faithfully fuctv 
Qncftions as ihould be there inferted j but that they refufed to 
hearken to the Propfai. 


Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. ceeded next to confider the Petitions feparately ; 
1648. and, after feveral more Divifions, they thought fit 
to refpite the Execution of Lord Goring and Sir 
John Owen ; and even the Earl of Holland's Ex- 
ecution was carried but by one Vote, 31 againft 
30. In the Lord Goring's Cafe the Number was 
equal, 24 and 24, fo the Speaker turned the Scale 
for Mercy, The refpiting of Sir John Owen's 
Execution pafied by a larger Majority, 28 againft 
23. All the reft went for Blood without any Di- 

Mr. IWithcke writes h , c That the Speaker voted 
for Lord Goring^ becaufe he had formerly received 
fome Civilities from him; and fo,by his fingleVote, 
now faved his Life : But when the Earl of Holland's 
came, and the Votes were again even, the Speaker 
gave his Voice againft him. Thus, adds our Me- 
morialift, the Lord Goring^ who had been no 
Friend to the Religious Party, was faved ; and the 
Earl of Holland^ who had been a moft civil Per- 
fon to all, and a very great Friend to the old Pu^ 
ritans, and protected them in the Time of his 
greateft Intereft, by the fame fingle Vote loft his 

General Ludlow informs us, That Sir John 
Owen was beholden to Commiilary-General Ire- 
ton for his Efcape * ; who, obferving no Motion 
made in favour of that Gentleman, defired the 
Houfe to confider that Sir John was a Commoner, 
and therefore more properly to have been tried by 

a Jury. But another Contemporary k accounts 

for this Reprieve in a quite different Manner : For 
he tells us, That the Inhabitants of the Ifle of An- 
gltfey-) hearing that Sir John Owen was certain to 
be condemn'd, procured fome of the Navy Royal, 
then under the Command of Prince Rupert^ to 
land ; and feize upon fome of the Parliament's 
Committees in thofe Parts, whom they fwore to 
hang if Sir John fuffered Death. But leaving Ire- 

Memorials, p. 37?. i Memirs, Vol. 

Mercuriui Pragmaiicus, N. 45. 

P 287. 

Of E N G L A N D. 

ton's real Motives on this Occaiion to the Reader's Inter-regnum. 
Judgment, we (hall only obferve that, in the Com- 
rnons Journals* we find him a Teller in favour of 
Sir John 

March 12. The Houfe ordered that it fhould be 
referred to a Committee to take into oniidera- 
tion the State of the Englijh Prifoners of War, 
whether any more of them were proper to be pro- 
ceeded againft for Life, befides thofe who were 
appointed to be tried, or were triable by a Court 
Martial, for Revolts by Sea and Land ; likewife 
to confider what other of thofe Prifoners were fit 
to be kept in Cuftody, or bani&ed, and their Eftates 
confifcated ; and what other Delinquents, in refe- 
rence to the late Wars, that were formerly except- 
ed from Pardon, were fitteft to continue fo except- 
ed and profcribed. Their Opinions to be report- 
ed to the Houfe. 

The Intereft of Money, which had been long 
at eight Pounds per Cent, was this Day, by Order 
of the Houfe, reduced to Six, to take Place from 
the 29th of September next, 

March 14. Sir Arthur Heflerigge, from the laft 
Committee appointed to draw up an Acl: touching 
Delinquents, reported their Refolutions thereupon, 
and the Rules they propofed for Compofitions. 
The lait Part wa^ referred back to the fame Com- 
mittee that brought it in ; but, after a fmall Hia- 
tus in the Journal, the Houfe proceeded with the Refo ' ut?fH1sasts 
former Part, which was to vote, Thzt Sir J 
Stawelly Knight, and David Jenkin^ Efq; fhould 
be proceeded againft for Life, by Indictments, at 
Common Law, in the feveral Counties where 
they liv'd : That Major-General Laugharne, Col. 
Powely Co\.Poyer, Capt. Linden, and Capt. Bujhell, 
fhould be tried by a Court Martial for revolting by 
Sea and Land : That the Marquifs of Wincbefter 
and Mattheiv Wren> late Bifhop of Efy, fhould 
be excepted againft for any Compofition for their 


j 8 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Eftates, and remain Prifoners during the Pleafure 

1648. of the Houfe. After which, Candles being order- 

*""""rr v T ^ ed to be brought in, the Perfons reported for Ba- 

nifhment and Confifcation of their Eftates, were 

every one particularly put to the Queftion ; when 

it was refolved, 

Names of thofe That Charles Stuart i eldeft Son of the late King, 
Accepted from James, fecond Son of the late King, John Earl of 
K *' Brijiol, William Earl of Newcajile, Sir J^illiam 

Widdrington, George Lord Digby, Sir Philip Muf- 
grave. Sir Marmaduke Langdale, Sir Richard 
Greenville, Sir Francis Dodington, the Earl of Wor- 
ceJJer, Sir John Winter^ Sir John Colepeper, Sir 
John Byron, and George Duke of Buckingham ; as 
alfo all that have been plotting, defigning, or aflift- 
ing in the Irijb Rebellion ; with all fuch Perfons 
as now do hold out any Caftle, Fort, or Ifland 
againft the Parliament, {hall be profcribed as Ene- 
emies and Traitors to the Commonwealth, and 
fliall die without Mercy wherever they {hall be 
found within the Limits of this Nation, their Eftates 
confifcated, and forthwith employed for the Ufe of 
the Commonwealth. Next it was refolved, That 
there be no further Addition of Names to this 
Queftion: Notwithftanding which, on the iyth of 
this Month, Col. Matthew Boynton, late Governor 
of Scarbrough Caftle, and Sir John Morley, were 
added j and Col. Thomas Levefon, on the 21 ft. 

The Houfe had been employed for a confiderable 
Time paft, by Committees or otherwife, in fra- 
ming and perfecting two Bills of a very extraordi- 
nary Nature ; the one called An Act for abolijh- 
ing the Kingly Office in England and Ireland, and 
the Dominions thereunto belonging ; and the other 
Fcr abolijhing the Houfe of Peers. The firft of 
thefe was read a third Time, on the i7th of this 
Month, and parted without any Divifion : The 
htter had the fame Sanction on the igth. Both of 
them were ordered to be forthwith printed and pub- 
liftied 3 and alfo to be proclaimed in Wejiminfler^ 


Of E N G L A N D. 59 

Cheapjtde, and the Old Exchange, by the Lord Jnter-rcgnunu 
Mayor and Sheriffs. l6 4 s - 

Thefe twoAnti-conftitutional Acls were in besc ^~" ^"^^ 

T r , March. 

Verba : 

An ACT for the abolijhing the KINGLY OFFICE 

in England, Ireland, and the Dominions there- 
unto belonging. 

' T IT THereas Charles Stuart, late King of Eng- An Aft for abo- 
. Vy land, Ireland, and the Territories juidjjjjjf ** Mo * 
' Dominions thereunto belonging, hath, by Autho- 
' rity derived from Parliament, been, and is hereby 

* declared to be, juftly condemned, adjudged to 
' die, and put to Death, for many Treafons, Mur- 
' ders, and other heinous Offences committed by 

* him ; by which Judgment he flood, and is here- 
' by declared to be, attainted of High Treafon, 
' whereby hislfiue and Pofterity, and all others pre- 
' tending Title under him, are become incapable 

* of the faid Crowns, or of being King or Queen 
' of the faid Kingdoms or Dominions, or either 
' or any of them : Be it therefore Enacted, Or- 
' dained, and Declared by this prefent Parliament, 

* and by Authority thereof, That all the People 

* of England and Ireland, and the Dominions and 
' Territories thereunto belonging, of what Degree 
' or Condition foever, are difcharged of all Fealty, 
' Homage, and Allegiance, which is or fhall be 
' pretended to be due unto any of the IfTue and Po- 

* flerity of the faid late King, or any claiming un- 

* der him ; and that Charles Stuart, eldeft Son, and 
' James, call'd Duke of York, fecond Son, and all 
' other the IfTue and Pofterity of him the faid late 
' King, and all and every Perfon and Perfons pre- 
' tending Title from, by, or under him, are and 
< be difabled to hold or enjoy the faid Crown of 
' England and Ireland, and other the Dominions 
*. thereunto belonging, or any of them ; or to have 
the Name, Title, Style, or Dignity of King or 
' Queen of England and Ireland, Prince of Wales y 

* or any of them ; or to have ar\d enjoy the Power 

60 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' and Dominion of the faid Kingdoms and Domi- 
' nions, or any of them, or the Honours, Manors, 

* Lands, Tenements, Pofleflions, and Heredita- 
c ments, belonging or appertaining to the faid 

* Crown of England and Ireland^ and other the 
' Dominions aforefaid, or to any of them ; or to 

* the Principality of Wales , Duchy of LancaJJer or 

* Cornwall^ or any or either of them, any Law, 

* Statute, Ordinance, Ufage, or Cuftom to the 
' contrary hereof in any wife notwithftanding. 

' And whereas it is and hath been found by Ex- 

* perience, that the Office of a King in this Na- 

* tion and Ireland^ and to have the Power thereof 

* in any fmgle Perfon, is unneceflary, burdenfome, 
' and dangerous to the Liberty, Safety, and public 

* Intereft of the People ; and that for the moft 

* Part Ufe hath been made of the Regal Power 

* and Prerogative, to opprefs, impoverilh, and en- 
* flave the Subject; and that ufually and naturally 
' any one Perfon, in fuch Power, makes it his In- 

* tereft to encroach upon the juft Freedom and 

* Liberty of the People, and to promote the fet- 
fc ting up of their own Will and Power above the 
' Laws, that fo they may enflave thefe Kingdoms 

* to their own Luft : Be it therefore Enadled and 
' Ordained by this prefent Parliament, and by the 
6 Authority of the fame, That the Office of a 

* King in this Nation, mall not henceforth refide 
6 in, or be exercifed by, any one fmgle Perfon ; 

* and that no one Perfon whatfoever ihall or may 
e have or hold the Office, Style, Dignity, Power, 

* or Authority of King of the faid Kingdoms 
' and Dominions, or any of them, or of Prince 

* of Wales 5 any Law, Statute, Ufage, or Cuftom 

* to the contrary thereof in any wife notwithftand- 

' And it is hereby Enafted, That if any Perfon 

* or Perfons fhall endeavour to attempt, by Force 

* of Arms, or otherwife, or be aiding, affifting, 
' comforting, or abetting unto any Perfon or Per- 

* fons that mall, by any Ways or Means whatfo- 
c ever, endeavour or attempt the reviving or fetting 



* up again of any pretended Right of the faid Inter-regnum, 
Charles, eldeft Son of the late King, James, cal- 

* led Duke of York, or of any other the liTue and 
4 Pofterity of the faid late King, or of any Perfon 

* or Perfons claiming under him or them, to the 
' faid Regal Office, Style, Dignity, or Authority, 
' or to be Prince of IVales j or the promoting of 
' any one Perfon whatfoever to the Name, Style, 

* Dignity, Power, Prerogative, or Authority, of 

* King of England and Ireland, and Dominions 

* aforefaid, or any of them ; that then every fuch 
' Offence fhall be deem'd and adjudged High 
' Treafon ; and the Offenders therein, their Coun- 

* fellors, Procurers, Aiders, and Abetters, being 
' convicted of the faid Offence, or any of them, 

* (hall be deemed and adjudged Traitors againft the 
' Parliament and People of England; and fliall fuf- 
fer, lofe, and forfeit, and have fuch like and the 

* fame Pains, Forfeitures, Judgments, and Execu- 

* tion, as is ufed in Cafe of High Treafon. 

' And whereas by the Abolition of the Kingly 

* Office provided for in this A6t, a moft happy 

* Way is made for this Nation, if God fee it good, 
' to return to its juft and ancient Right, of being 

* governed by its own Reprefentatives or National 
' Meetings in Council, from Time to Time chofen 

* and intrufted for that Purpofe by the People : It 

* is therefore refolved and declared by the Com- 

* mons affembled in Parliament, That they will put 

* a Period to the Sitting of this prefent Parliament, 

* and diflblve the fame, fo foon as may poffibly ftand 
' with the Safety of the People that hath intrufted 

* them, and with what is abfolutely neceffary for 
' the preferving and upholding the Government 
' now fettled in the Way of a Commonwealth ; 

* and that they will carefully provide for the cer- 
' tain chufing, meeting, and fitting of the next and 
' future Reprefentatives, with fuch other Circum- 
c fiances of Freedom in Choice, and Equality in 
' Diftribution of Members to be elected thereunto, 

* as fhall moft conduce to the lafting Freedom and 

* Good of this Commonwealth. 


6 2 Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regmim. < And it is hereby further Ena&ed and Declared* 

j648. c notwithstanding any Thing contained in this Act, 

*^^'^j7 -> ' That no Perfon or Perfor.s of what Condition and 

* Quality fc.ever, within the Commonwealth of 
4 England and Ireland, Dominion of Wales, the 
' Iflands of Gnernfey and Jcrfey, and Town of Ber- 
4 wick upon Tweed, (hall be difcharged from the 
4 Obedience and Subjedtion which he and they owe 
4 to the Government of this Nation, as it is now 
' declared ; but all and every of them fhall in all 
4 Things render and perform the fame, as of Right 
4 is due unto the Supreme Authority hereby decla^ 
4 red to refide in this and the fucceffive Reprefenta- 
4 lives of the People of this Nation, and in them 
4 only.' 

jfn ACT for alaltjbing the Hcufe of PEERS. 

nd of the Peer-' r HUE Commons of England afkmblcd in Par- 
* e * ' X liament, finding, by too long Experience^ 

4 that the Houfe of Lords is ufelefs and dangerous 
c to the People of England to be continued, have 
4 thought fit to Ordain and Enact, and be itOrdain'd 
4 and Enacted by this prefent Parliament, and by 
4 the Authority of the fame, That from henceforth 
4 the Houfe of Lords in Parliament, fhall be and is 
4 hereby wholly abolifhed and taken away ; and 
4 that the Lords fhall not from henceforth meet or 
4 fit in the faid Houfe, called the Lords Houfe, or 
4 in any other Houfe or Place whatfoever, as a 
4 Houfe of Lords ; nor {hall fit, vote, advife, ad- 
4 judge, or determine of any Matter or Thing what- 
4 foever, as a Houfe of Lords in Parliament: Never- 
4 ihelefs it is hereby declared, That neither fuch 
4 Lords as have demean'd thcmfelves with Honour, 
4 Courage, and Fidelity to the Common wealth * 
4 nor their Posterities who fhall continue fo, fhall 

* be excluded from the public Councils of the Na- 
4 tion; but fhall be admitted thereunto, and have 
4 their free Vote in Parliament, if they fhall be 
4 thereunto elected, as other Perfons of Intereit, 
' elected and qualified thereunto, ought to have. 

4 And 

Of E N G L A N D. 63 

* And be it further Ordained and Enaited by the Inter-regnum, 

* Authority aforefaid, That no Peer of this Land, 1648. 

* not being elected, qualified, and fitting in Par- *~M^h 

* liament as aforefaid, (hall claim, have, or make 
' ufe of any Privilege of Parliament, either in re- 
' lation to hisTerfon, Quality, or Eftate ; any Law, 
' Ulage, or Cuftom to the contrary notwithftand- 

* ing.' 

The v Commons having, by the two foregoing 
Acts of their own Houfe alone, abolifhed both 
Monarchy and the Peerage, on the twenty-fecond 
of this Month they publifhed the following Decla- 
ration, pafs'd on the lyth. Two thoufand Co- 
pies thereof were ordered to be printed for the Ufe 
of the Members, who were required to diftribute 
them in their feveral Counties ; befides which it 
was ordered to be tranflated into Latin, French, and 
Dutch ". 

LAND, exprejffing the Grounds of their late Pro- 
ceedings^ and of fettling the prefent Government 
in the way of a free State. 

rT">HE Parliament of England, elected by the The Commons 
* People whom they reprefent, and by them Declaration of 

< trufted and authorized for the common Good, 

* having lone; contended againft Tyranny, and to Commonwealth. 

* procure the Well-being of thofe whom they ferve, 

' and to remove Oppreffion, arbitrary Power, and , 
6 all Oppofition to the Peace and Freedom of the 
4 Nation, do humbly and thankfully acknowledge 
' the Blefling of Almighty God upon their weak 

* Endeavours, and the hearty Afliftance of theWell- 
< affe&ed in this Work, whereby the Enemies 
4 thereunto, both public and fecret, are become 
' unable, for the prefent, to hinder the perfecting 

< And 

n From the original Edition, printed by Edward Hujbandt, 
March 22, 1648. 

64 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. * And, to prevent their Power to revive Tyranny* 

1648. Injuftice,War, and all our former Evils, the Par- 

* -V- * * liament have been neceffitated to the late Altera- 

' tions in the Government, and to that Settlement 

* which they judge moft conducible to the Ho- 
' nour of God and the Good of the Nation, the 

* only End and Duty of all their Labours. 

4 And that this may appear the more clearly and 
4 generally, to the Satisfaction of all who are con- 

* cerned in it, they have thought fit to declare and 
' publifh the Grounds of their Proceedings. 

' They fuppofe it will not be denied, That the 

* firft Institution of the Office of King in this Na- 

* tion was by Agreement of the People, who chofe 
' one to that Office for the Protection and Good 

* of them who chofe him, and for their better Go- 
' vernment, according to fuch Laws as they did 
' confent unto. 

' And let thofe who have obferv'd our Stories, 
' recollect how very few have perform 'd the Truft 
' of that Office with Righteoufnefs, and due Care 
' of their Subjects Good : 

4 And how many have made it their Study and 
' Labour, to fatisfy their particular Ambition and 

* Power, with high Preffures and Miferies upon 
' their Subjects ; and with what horrid Prodigality 
' of Chriitian Blood, upon Punctilio's of their 

* own Honour, perfonal Titles and Diftaftes : 

' And in the whole Line of them, how far the 

* late King hath exceeded all his PredecefTors, in 
' the Deftruction of thofe whom he was bound to 

* preferve ; and inftead of fpreading his Protection 

* to all, fcarce permitting any to efcape the Violence 

* of his Fury. 

* To manifeft this Truth, it will not be impro- 
' per to take a fhort View of fome Paflages in his 

* Reign, wherein he much further out- went all his 
' Forefathers in Evil, than any Example can be 
' found of Punifhment. 

' In the Diflblution of the Parliament in the fe- 
< cond Year of his Reign, and afterwards, he fhew'd 
* an unnatural Foro-etfulnefs, to have the violent 

' Death 


* Death of his Father examined : The fad Bufi- Inter-regnurt. 
4 nefs of Rocbetle, and the Lie of Rbtf t the poor l6 4 8 - 

* Proteftants of France do yet lament : The Loans, ^""^^h 
4 unlawful Imprifonments, and other Opprefiions, 

4 which produced that excellent Law of the Peti- 

* tion of Right, were moft of them again adted, 

* prefently after the Law made againft them ; 
4 which was moft palpably broken by him, almoft in 

* every Part of it, very foon after his folemn Con- 
4 fent given unto it : His Imprifoning and Prole - 
4 cution of Members of Parliament, for oppofing 

* his unlawful Will ; and of divers worthy Mer- 

* chants, for refufmg to pay Tonnage and Pound- 
c age, becaufe not granted by Parliament, yet ex- 
4 acted by him exprefly againft Law ; aftd Punifli- 
4 ment of many good Patriots, for not fubmitting 
4 to whatfoever he pleafed to demand, though ne- 

* ver fo much in Breach of the known Law: The 

* Multitude of Projects and Monopolies eftablifh- 

* ed by him ; his Defign and Charge to bring in 

* German Horfe to awe us into Slavery ; and his 

* Hopes of compleating all by his grand Projedl of 

* Ship-Money, to fubject every Man's Eftate to 

* whatfoever Proportion he only pleafed to impofe 

* upon them : The private Solicitations, Promifes 
4 of Reward, and Threats, from him unto the 
' Judges of the Law, to caufe them to do his 

* Will, rather than equal Right, and to break his 
4 and their own Oaths : The Oppreffions of the 
4 Council-Table, Star-Chamber, High-Commif- 

* fion, Court Martial ; of Wardftiips, Purvey- 
ances, Knighthood, Afforeftations, and many 

* others of the like Nature, need no large Repeti- 

* tion, remaining yet in moft of our Memories. 

4 The exat Slavery forced upon thofe in Ireland, 

* with the Army of Papifts to maintain it, and the 

* Pofition of being loofe and abfolved from all 
' Rules of Government, was but a Pattern for the 
' intended Model here. 

4 The long Intermiflion of our Parliaments, arid 
' the Determination to be troubled with no more, 

* and the great Miftake in firft fending the new 

VOL. XIX E Service- 

66 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* Service-Book into Scotland, raifed their Oppofi- 
' tion again ft him, and gave no Encouragement to 

* the Engltjh to engage againft them ; which, with 

* the Doubtfulnefs of Succefs, produced the laft 
' fhort Parliament, which was only confidered as 
' to fcrve the King's Pleafure, to cloak his Breach 

* of the Pacification with Scotland ; and, with 

* twelve Subfidies demanded by him, to buy out 

* his unlawful and unjuft Exaction of Ship- Money; 

* but failing in his Expectation therein, he fudden- 

* ly and wilfully, to the Terror of moft Men, dif- 

* folved it. 

4 The Scots, upon the King's Breach of his Faith 
' with them, and perceiving the Difcontentsamongft 

* us, came with an Army mtoEngland: TheKing, 

* by many unjuft and unlawful Means, raifed and 
c brought a great Force into the North to oppofe 
' them ; where, being moved by worthy Petitions 
' from feveral Parts, and by the Honourable En- 
' deavours of many Noble Perfons, but principally 

* by perceiving the Backwardnefs of his Subjects of 

* both Kingdoms at that Time to engage in the 

* Deftru<5tion of one another, for which End fuch 

* Numbers of gallant Men were prepared by him, 

* whofe Office was to be the Preferver of them ; 
' and feeing no other Way, he did at laft conde- 

* fcend to do that Part of his Duty to call this Par- 

* liament. 

* Vaft Sums of Money were required and raifed 

* of the People of England, to gratify thofe by 
' whom they had been highly damnified ; and both 

* Armies paid by them, who neither occafioned nor 
' confented to the railing of either. But, above 
c all, the Englijh Army was laboured by the King 
' to be engaged againft the Engli/h Parliament : 

* A Thing of that Grange Impiety and Unnatural- 

* nefs, for the King of England to follicit his Sub- 

* jects of England to {heath their Swords in one 

* another's Bowels, that nothing can anfwer it but 
' his own being born a Foreigner; nor could it 

* eafily have purchafcd Belief, but by his fucceed- 
4 ing vifible Actions in full Purfuance of the fame. 


* The firft Execution of this Defign of Mifery Inter-regnum, 

* fell upon our poor Brethren in Ireland, where fo 

* many Scores of Thoufands of them were with 
c fuch wonderful Cruelty murdered, that fcarce 
' any Bowels but are filPd with Compaflion at it; 
' and yet fome of the Murderers themfelves have 
c not forborne to affirm, That they had the King's 

* Commiffion for their Actions. 

' His late and flender proclaiming of them Re- 

* bels ; his Confent to a Cefiation when the Re- 
' bels gain'd all Advantages, and the Proteftants 
' were deftroyed by it ; his intercepting and taking 
c away Provifions and Supplies going unto them, 
' are no good Teftimonies of his Clearnefs from 
' that Blood which cried loud for Vengeance. 

' But to return to England, where appeared 

* Matter enough of Mourning. 

c Upon the King's coming in Perfon to the 
Houfe of Commons to feize the five Members, 
whither he was followed with fome Hundreds of 
' unworthy debauched Perfons, arm'd with Swords 

< and Ptftols, and other Arms ; and they attend- 

< ing at the Door of the Houfe, ready to execute 
whatsoever their Leader fhould command them : 

* And upon fome other Grounds, (whereby 
Doubts being raifed in the People, that their 

* Grievances would not be redrefs'd, they grew 
into fome Diforders) the King took Occafion 
' from thence to remove from London, where pre- 

* fently Forces appeared for him of his own Com* 

* pany at Kingjlon. 

* From thence he travelled to the North, endea- 
' vouring to raife Forces there; inticed manyMem- 
' bers of both Houfes to defert the Parliament, and 

* Truft repofed in them by their Country, and to 
' join with him in bringing Deftru&ion upon their 

* Brethren and upon themfelves. Inftead of do- 
' ing Juftice, he protected Delinquents from it. At 
'Nottingham he fet up his Standard ; from Wales 
' and the Marches he got together a powerful Ar- 

* my, and gave the firft Onfet of Battle at Edge" 

< hill. 

E 2 'He 

68 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' He pofiefs'd and fortified Oxford, his Head- 

1648. * q uarter ^ an( j m any other Towns and Places of 

_7 V ~ * Strength ; and profecuted a fierce and bloody War 

' againft the Body of all his own Subjeds reprefent- 

' ed, and then fitting in Parliament; a Thing ne- 

* ver before attempted by any King in this Nation, 

* and which all Men have too fadCaufe with much 
' Grief to remember. 

* Their Towns and Habitations burnt and de- 

* molifhed ; their pleafant Seats wafted ; their In- 
c heritances given away to thofe that were moft 
' a<5live in doing Mifchief ; their Servants, Bro- 

* thers, Friends, and Children, murder'd. Thus 
' his own People, whom, by the Duty of his Of- 

* fice, he was bound to protect from all Injury, 
6 were, by himfelf in Perfon, purfued with Fire 
' and Sword, Imprifonments, Tortures, Death, 

* and all the Calamities of War and Defolation. 

' Notwithftanding all this, and in the Heat of 

* it, many Addrefies were made by the Parliament 
' unto the King for Peace ; but in none of them 

* could an Agreement be obtain'd from him, when 

* the leaft Word of his Confent would have ftopp'd 

* that IfTue of Blood and Torrent of Mifery which 

* himfelf had open'd in all Parts of his Kingdom. 

* When the great God of Battle had determined 

* very much in favour of the Parliament, and the 
' King's Strength was almoft fallen away, fo that 

* he thought it unfafe to truft himfelf any longer 

* with his own Forces, yet would he not then 
c vouchfafe to come in unto the Englijh, but ren- 
' der'd himfelf to his Countrymen, the Scots ; gi- 
' ving unto them the Honour both of receiving him, 

* and parting with him again, upon their own 
' Terms. 

' After his Reftraint yet further Addrefles were 

* made unto him by the Parliaments of both King- 

* doms for Peace, with Propofitions, not heighten'd 

* by Succefs ; but thefe would not be granted, 
' there being new and hopeful Defigns of his in 
' Hand, for bringing new Miferies upon his People, 
6 which an Agreement upon thofe Propofitions 

* might 


' might cafily have prevented. After this pa/Ted inter-regnum. 

* the Votes for no further AddrefTes to be made 
' unto him. 

The laft Summer the Effeft of thofe Defigns, 
' even whilft he was under Reftraint, began to 

* break forth ; a new Vein of Blood was opened 
' in the King's Name ; a Plot laid (as the Terms 
' of their own Boafting were) as deep as Hell ; 
' the Army divided into feveral Bodies ; the Fire 
' brake forth in many Parts of the Kingdom at 
' once ; and, for fear left the Numbers of their 

* Englijh fhould be too fmali, or their Compaf- 

* fion to their Countrymen too great, a malignant 
' Party in Scotland is eafily invited hither : And 

* although at firft they underftood die Covenant in 
' that Senfe, and profecuted the Ends thereof, in 
' joining with the Parliament of England, and fight- 
1 ing againft the King's Party; yet now their Judg- 
' ments are rectified to profecute the fame Ends by 

* joining with the King's Party, and fighting againft 
' their Fellow-Covenanters, the Parliament of 
' England. But God will not be mocked ; and 
' though this Cloud of frefh Calamities, both here 
' and from the North, threaten'd the poor Nation j 

* and, in all human Probability, was pouring utter 
' Ruin upon us, yet the vifible Hand of God, as 
' many Times formerly, fo now mightily and mi- 

* raculoufly, appeared for us j and led the Army, 

* whom he was pleafed to make his Inftruments, 

* with that Courage, Wifdom, and Fidelity, as a- 

* mazed and fubdued our Enemies, and preserved, 
' under him, all that can be dear unto us. 

' During thefe Diftraclions, and by what Means 
4 is fuffictently known, and related more fully in a 
' late Declaration, an eighth Addrefa muft be made 
' unto the King, contrived by his Party ; the 
' Votes of Parliament to the contrary revok'd, and 
' Commtflioners fent to the Ifle of Wight ; where, 

* inftead of yeilding to their juft Defires, whilft 
' they were treating with him for Peace, even then 

* was he plotting to raife a new War againft them, 

E 3 * and 

yo The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* and to draw more Blood of his People: To this 
1648. t j nc j his two elder Sons were in Hoftility, and 

""rr v T"""'' c armed with Power of granting Commifiions fur- 
4 ther to deftroy the People committed to his 
' Charge. 

' Upon all thefe, and many other unparalellcd 
' Offences ; upon his Breach of Faith, of Oaths 
' and Proteftations ; upon the Cry of the Blood of 
' Ireland and of England ; upon the Tears of Wi- 
' dows and Orphans, and childlefs Parents, and 
' Millions of Perfons undone by him, let all the 

* World of indifferent Men judge, whether the 
' Parliament had not fuflkient Caufe to bring the 
6 King to Juftice. 

' But it was objected, and it was the late King's 

* own Affertion, That thoj'e in his high Place are 
' accountable for their Atfions to none but God, whofc 

* Anointed they are. From whence it muft follow, 

* That all the Men of this Land were only made for 
' the Sake of that one Man the King, for him to 
' do with them what he pleafeth ; as if they had 

* been all created for no other Purpofe but to fatif- 

* fy the Lufts, and to be a Sacrifice to the perverfe 
Will, of a Tyrant. 

4 This will not eafily be believed to be fo or- 
' dained by God, who punifheth, but never efta- 
' blifheth, Injustice and Oppreflion ; whom we 
' find offended when the People demanded a King, 

* but no Exprcflion of his Difpleafure at any Time, 
' becaufe they had no King. Such an unaccount- 

* able Officer were a ilrange Monfter to be per- 
' mitted by Mankind ; but this Doctrine is better 

* underftood by the prefent Age, than in former 

* Times; and requireth the lefs to be faid in Coa- 
' futation of it, being enough to confute itfelf. 

' For the Fhrafe of Anointed^ no learned Divine 
c will affirm it to be applicable to the Kings of 

* England, as to thofe of Judah anu Ifrae!, or more 

* to a King than to every other Magiftrate or Ser- 

* vant of God ; or that the Words, touch not mine 
6 Anointed^ were fpoken of Kings, but unto Kings ; 

' who 

Of E N G L A N D. 71 

* who were reproved and enjoined to do no Harm inter-regnum. 
Vto the Prophets and Saints of God, there under- 1648. 

* ftood to be his Anointed. < v > 

* Another Objection was, That to bring a King Marcl1 ' 

* to Trial and capital Punijhmcnt is without Pre- 

* cedent. 

' So were the Crimes of the late King ; and cer- 

* tainly the Children of Ifrael had no known Law 

* or Precedent to punifh the Eenjamites for their 
' odious Abufe of the Lcvitis Wife, yet God 
' own'd the Action. 

* There want not Precedents of fome of his Pre- 
4 deceflbrs, who have been depoled by Parliaments, 
' but were after wards, 'in Darknefs and in Corners, 
4 bafely murdered : This Parliament held it more 
4 agreeable to Honour and Juftice, to give the King 
' a fair and open Trial, by above an hundred Gen- 

* tlemen, in the moft public Place of Juftice; free, 

* if he had fo pleafed, to make his own Defence ; 
' that Part of his Crime being then only objected 

* againft him, of which the Parliaments of both 

* his Kingdoms had, by their joint Declaration, 

* formerly declared him guilty. 

* With his Offences were join'd all along a 
ftrange Obftinacy and Implacablenefs, and in- 

* cefTant Labour for the Deftruction of his People; 

* which (with the unerring Truth, wherein is no 

* Difpenfation for Kings, that no Satisfaction jhall 

* be taken for the Life of a Murderer ', but be Jhall 
' furely be put to Death ; and that the Land cannot 

* be cleanfed of the Blood that is Jhed therein, but 
' by the Blood of him that Jhed it) brought on and 

* effected the Work of Juftice upon him. 

* The King being dead, the next Confideration 
' fell upon his Children : From thefe Branches 

* could be expected no other than the fame bitter 
Fruit which fell in the Reign of the Father, who 

* had engaged them in his own Ways and Quarrel; 

* and the two eldeft fo early appearing in actual 
' Arms and Hoftility againft the Parliament, no 
' more Safety or Security could be hoped for 

< flora 

7 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jntfr-regnum. ' from them than from their Predeceflor ; nor, in 

1648. < human Probability, as Affairs then flood, any 

*"7r v T"~'' 4 fafe Way for a fure Peace and Prevention of fu- 

4 ture Troubles, and to avoid a Succefiion of Mi- 

* fery, but by taking away the Succeffion of that 

* from whence it hath always rifen, and would 

* certainly fpring again, if permitted to take new 
4 Root, the Defigns and Practices of Kings, their 
' Flatterers and evil Counfellors. 

* The Objection is obvious, of Injujlice to dif- 
4 inherit thofe who have a Right and Title to the 
4 Crown. Surely the elder Right is the People's, 
4 whom they claim to govern : If any Right or 

* Title were in the eldeft Son, the fame is forfeited, 
4 by the Father's A6t, in other Cafes ; even of Of- 
4 ficers of Inheritance, which being forfeited for 
4 Breach of Truft, (a Condition annex'd to every 
4 Office) none will deny but that the fame exclu- 

* deth the Children as well as the Officer : But 

* here the elder Sons levied War againft the Parlia- 
' ment ; and it cannot be alledged that the young- 
4 er Children were born to any Thing. 

4 But the fame Power and Authority which firft 
4 creeled a King, and made him a public Officer 
4 for the common Good, finding him perverted, 
4 to the common Calamity, it may juftly be ad- 
' mitted, at the Pleafure of thofe whole Officer he 

* is, whether they will continue that Officer any 
' longer, or change that Government for a better; 
c and, inftead of reftoring Tyranny, to refolve into 
' a free State. 

' Herein the Parliament received Encourage- 
' ment, by their Obfervation of the Bleffing of God 
4 upon other States : The Romans \ after their Regi- 

* fugiuni) for many hundred Years together, pro- 
4 fpered far more than under any of their Kings or 
4 Emperors : The State of Venice hath flourifhed 
4 for one thoufand three hundred Years : How 
4 much do the Commons in Sivitzerland, and other 
4 free States, exceed thofe who are not fo, in Riches, 
4 freedom, Peace ? and all Happinefs ? Our Neigh- 

4 bours 

Of E N G L A N D. 73 

* bours in the United Provinces, fmcc their Change inter-rcgnur 
' of Government, have wonderfully increafed in l6 4 s - 

' Wealth, Freedom, Trade, and Strength, both by ' ""^T" 

, o i T i Marca 

* Sea and Land. 

' In Commonwealths they find Juftice duly 
adminifter'd, the great Ones not able to op- 

* prefs the Poorer, and the Poor fufficiently pro- 

* vided for ; the Seeds of Civil War and Difien- 

* tion, by particular Ambition, Claims of Succef- 
' fion, and the like, (wherein this Nation hath been 
' in many Ages grievoufly employed) wholly remo- 
' ved ; and a juft Freedom of their Confciences, 
' Perfons, and Eftates, enjoyed by all Sorts of 

' On the other Side, looking generally into the 

* Times of our Monarchs, what Injuftice, Oppref- 

* fion, and Slavery were the common People kept 

* under; fome great Lords fcarce affording to fome 
' of their Servants, Tenants, or Peafants, fo good 
' Meat, or fo much Reft, as to their Dogs and 
' Horfes ? It was long fince warned in Parliament, 
4 by a Privy Counfellor to the late King, That we 
' fhould take heed, left, by lofing our Parlia- 
' ments, it would be with us as with the common 

* People in a Monarchy, where they are contented 
' with Canvafs Cloathing and Wooden Shoes, and 
' look more like Ghofts than Men : This was in- 
1 tended for the Fate of England^ had our Monarch 

* prevailed over us. To bring this to pafs, their 
' Beafts of Forefts muft grow fat, by devouring 
' the poor Man's Corn ; for Want of which, he 
' and hjs Wife and Children muft make many a 
4 hungry Meal : A Tradefman furnifhing a great 
e Man with moft Part of his Stock, or a Creditor 
' with Money, and expecting due Satisfaction and 
' Payment, is anfvyered with ill Words or Blows ; 
' and the dear-bought Learning that Lords and 
' Kings Servants are privileged from Arrefts and 
' Procefs of Law. Thus many poor Creditors and 
' their Families have perifhed by the Injuftice and 
6 Prodigality of their lawlefs Creditors. 

74 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* A poor Waterman with his Boat or Barge ; a 

* poor Countryman with his Team and Horfcs, 
March ' and others of" other Callings, muft fen'e the King 

4 for the King's Pay ; which, if they can get, is 

* not enough to find themfelves Bread, when their 
' Wives and Children have nothing but the Hus- 

* band's Labour to provide for them alfo. 

* For that one Exaction of the Court called 
' Purveyance, about which our Anceftors made fo 
' many good and fharp Laws, yet none of them 
' could be kept ; it hath been lately computed to 
' coft the Country more in one Year than their 
' AiTeflments to the Army. 

4 Thefe are fome of thofe generally obferved, 
' and more public Exactions, which were obvious, 

* not to the Underftandino; only, but to the Senfe 

* of the many grieved Sufferers ; but if the vaft 
4 Expence of the Court, in Ways of Luxury and 

* Prodigality, be confidercd ; as, on the one Side, 
by a Handing ill ordered Diet for a Number of 
~>rones and unprofitable Burdens of the Earth ; 

* by chargeable Feafts, and vain-glorious Mafques 
4 and Plays, (their Sabbath-Days Exercile or Pre- 
' parations) together with other (lefs fmful, but no 
4 lefs) chargeable Provifions for Sports and Recrea- 

* tions, for which thoufands of Acres, fcores of 

* Miles, and great Parts of whole Counties have 
' been feparated from a much better and public 
4 Improvement. 

* On the other Side, by thofe profufe Donations 
' of yearly Salaries and Penfions granted to fuch 

* as were found, or might be made, fit Inftruments 
4 and Promoters of Tyranny, or elfe fuch as had 
4 Relation to the King, in native or perfonal Re- 
4 fpecls : In v/hich latter Kind may be (hewed Ac- 
' counts of above 50,000 /. per Annum that was 

* paid out of the Exchequer to Favourites of the 

* Scots Nation ; befides the fecret Supplies from 
' the Privy-Purfe and otherwife, beft known to the 
' Receivers ; which may perhaps be one Reafon 
why they are fo zealous to uphold the Kingly 

* Power 

* by 


4 Power in this Nation, whereof the King wao 
4 their Countryman. 

' He that obferves fo many hundreds of them- 

* lands, ccmwunibus Annis, expended in tholeWays ; arc ' 

* and {hall know that the legal juitifiablc Revenue 
' of the Crown (befides the Cufloms and- fome o- 
4 ther Perquifites charged with the Maintenance 

4 of the Navy and Forts) fell fhort of one hundred . 
c thoufand Pounds, might juftiy wonder what fe- 
4 cret under- ground Supplies fed thofe Streams 
4 of Vanity and Milchief, were it not as notorious, 
4 that the Projects, Monopolies, Sales of Offices, 
4 Bribes, Compositions for Breach of Penal Laws, 
4 and the like Ways of draining the People's Purfes 
4 as wickedly got, fo were only fit thus to be em- 
4 ployed. By occafion whereof the Court arrived at . 
4 that unhappy Height, as to be the great Nurfcry 
4 of Luxury and Intemperance ; the Corrupter of 
4 the Manners and Diipofitions of many otherwiie 
4 hopeful Branches, fprung from the nobleft Fa- 
4 milies; and an univerfal Perverter of Religion and 
4 Goodnefs therein, making good the Proverb, 
4 Exeat Aula qul vult cjfe pius. 

4 In a free State, thefe, and a Multitude of the 
4 like Grievances and Mifchiefs will be prevented; . 
4 the Situation and Advantages of this Land, both 
4 for Trade abroad, and Manufactures at home, 
4 will be better underftood, when the Dangers of 
4 Projects, Monopolies, and ObftrucYions thereof, 
4 are, together with the Court, the Fountain of 
4 them, removed ; and a free Trade, with Encou- 
4 couragement of Manufactures, and Provifion for. 
4 the Poor, be fettled by the Commonwealth, 
4 whereunto the fame is moft agreeable, and which 
4 the former Government had never yet Leifure 
4 eftecStually to do. 

4 Upon all thefe before-mentioned, and many 
4 other, weightyConfiderations, the Reprefentatives 
4 of the People, now aflembled in Parliament, have, 
4 judged it neceffary to change the Government of 
4 this Nation from the former Monarchy (unto 
' which, by many injurious Incroachments, it had 

* arrived) 

76 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. * arrived) into a Republic, and not to have any 

' more a King to tyrannize over them. 
**~^fa~^~ t ' In order hereunto, and for the better Settle- 

* ment of this Commonwealth, it being found of 

* great Inconvenience, that the Houfe of Lords 
' (fitting in a Body by themfelves, and called by 

* Writ to treat and advife, yet) in the making of 
4 Laws, and other great Affairs, fhould any longer 
' exercife a Negative Vote over the People, whom 
' they did not at all reprefent ; and Hkewife a ju- 

* dicial Power over the Perfons and Eftates of all 
' the Commons, whereof they are not competent 
' Judges j and that their Power and Grcatnefs did 

* chiefly depend upon the Power and Abfolutenefs 
' of a King, whereunto they had lately exprefled 
' a fufficient Inclination. 

* And it being moft evident, that (efpecially in 
' the fe Times of Exigency) neither the Govern- 

* mcnt of the Republic, nor the Common Safety, 
' could bear the Delays and Negatives of a Houfe of 

* Lords ; it was therefore thought neceflary, wholly 
' to abolifh and take the fame away. Leaving, 
' neverthelefs, unto thofe Lords who have been, 

* and {hall be, faithful to the Commonwealth, 
' the fame Privilege of choofmg, and being chofen, 

* Reprefentatives of the People, as other Perfons 

* of Interelr. and good Affections to the Public have 

* Right unto ; and which is not improbable to have 

* been the Way of our Anceftors, when both Lords 
' and Commons formerly fat together. 

* But an Objection is frequently made, con- 
' cerning the Declaration of the Houfes, of April^ 
' 1646, For governing the Kingdom by King^ Lor (Is ^ 
' and Commons, and other Declarations for making 

* him a great and happy Prince. 

' This was then fully their Intent, being at that 

* Time confident, that the King's ill Counfel once 
' removed from him, he would have conformed 
c himfelfto theDefiresof his People in Parliament; 
' and the Peers, who remained with the Parlir ment, 
' would have been a great Caufe of his fo doing ; 

* but finding, after leven fruitlefs AddrefTes made 

' unto 

Of E N G L A N D. 77 

c unto him, that he yet both lived and died in the inter-regnum, 

* obftinute Maintenance of his ufurped Tyranny, l6 4 8 - 

* and refuted to accept of what the Parliament had v v ' 

* declared ; and to the upholding of this Tyranny, March - 
' the Lords were all obliged, in regard of their 

* own Intereft in Peerage ; whereby they affumed 
4 to themfelves an exorbitant Power of Exemption 
' from paying of their juft Debts, and anfwering 
4 Suits in Law, befides an hereditary Judicatory 
4 over the People, tending to their Slavery and 
' Oppreffion, the Commons were confl rained to 
4 change their former Refolutions, finding them- 
' felves thus fruftrated in their Hopes and Inten- 
4 tions fo declared : Which Change being for the 
4 Good of the Commonwealth, no Commoner of 
4 England can juftly repine at ; neither could the 
4 King or Lords take any Advantage thereof, be- 

* caufe they never contented thereto ; and where 

* no Contract is made, there none can be faid to 

* be broken : And no Contract is truly made, but 

* where there is a Stipulation on both Sides, and 

* one Thing to be rendered for another ; which 

* not being in this Cafe, but refufed, the Com- 
' mons were no ways tied to maintain thatDeclara- 

* tion, to the Performance of which, they were not 
4 jbound by any Compact or Acceptance of the o- 

* ther Part; and to the Alteration whereof fo ma- 

* ny Reafons for the Prefervation of the People's 

* Liberties did fo neceflarily and fully oblige 
4 them. 

4 Another Objection is, That thefe great Mat- 
' ten ought, if at ally to be determined in a full 
4 Houfe, and not when many Members of Parlia- 
4 ment are by Force excluded', and the Privilege 
4 fo highly broken, that thofe who are permitted to 

* fit in Parliament do but acJ under a Force, and 
1 upon their good Behaviour. 

4 To this it is anfwered, That every Parliament 
4 ought to act upon their good Behaviour ; and 
4 few have acted, but fome Kind of Force hath at 
4 one Time or other been upon them ; and moft 
6 of them under the Force of tyrannical Will, and 

1 4 Fear 

7 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 Fear of Ruin by Difplcafure thereof; fonie under 
' the Force of ieveral Factions or Titles to the 
' Crown ; yet the Laws made, even by fuch Par- 
4 liamcnts, have continued, and been received and 

* beneficial to fticceedingfAges. All which, and 

* whatfoever hath been done by this Parliament, 
' fince fome of their Members defcrted them, and 
4 the 'late King railed Forces againft them, and 

* Ieveral Diforders and Affronts formerly offered 
4 to them, if this Objection take Place, are wholly 
4 vacated. 

4 For any Breach of Privilege of Parliament ; it 
4 will not be charged upon the remaining Part, or 
'toJiave been within their Power of Prevention 
4 or Reparation ; or that they have not enjoyed the 
4 Freedom of their own Perfons and Votes, and 
4 are undoubtedly, by the Law of Parliaments, far 
4 exceeding that Number which makes a Houfe, 

* authorized for the Difpatch of any Bufmefs what- 

* foever: And that which at prefent is called a 

* Force upon them, is fome of their beft Friends, 

* called and appointed by the- Parliament for their 
' Safety, and for the Guard of them againft their E- 
' nemies ; who, by this Means, being; difappointed 
4 of their Hopes to deftroy the Parliament, would 

* neverthelefs fcandalize their Actions, as done un- 
4 der a Force ; who, in Truth, are no other than 
4 their own Guards of their own Army, by them- 

* felves appointed : And when it fell into Confi- 
4 deration, Whether the Privilege of. Parliament, 
4 or the Safety of the Kingdom, fhould be prefer- 
4 red, it is not hard to judge which ought to fway 
4 the Balance ; and that the Parliament mould pafs 
4 by the Breach of Privilege (as had been formerly 
4 often done upon much fmaller Grounds) rather 
4 than by a fullen declining their Duty and Truft, 
4 to refign up all to the apparent Hazard of Ruin 
4 and Confufion to the Nation. 

* There remains yet this laft and weighty Ob- 
jection to be fully anfwered, That the Courts of 
4 yuftice, and the good old Laws and CuJ?oms of 
4 England, (the Badges of our Freedom, the Bene- 


* fit whereof our Anceflors enjoyed long before the Inter-regnum. 
' Conquejl,, and /pent much of their Blood to have l6 4 8 - 

4 confirmed by the Great Charter of the Liberties ; ^M^^ 
4 and other excellent Laws which have continued in 

* all former Changes ; and, being duly executed, are 

4 the moft /'#/?, free, and equal of any other Laws ' 
4 in the World) will, by the prefent Alteration of 
4 Government, be taken away, and lojl to us and our 
4 Pojhrities. 

4 To this, they hope, fome Satisfaction is already 

* the Shorter Declaration lately publiili'd ; 

* and by the real Demonftrations to the contrary 

* of this Objection, by the earneft Care of the 
4 Parliament, That the Courts of Juftice at Wejl- 
4 minjler fhould be fupplied the laft Term, and all 
1 the Circuits of England this Vacation, with learn- 

* ed and worthy Judges ; that the known Laws of 

* the Land, and the Adminiftration of them, might 
4 appear to be continued. 

4 They are very fenfible of the Excellency and 
4 Equality of the Laws of England being duly exe- 

* cuted ; of their great Antiquity, even from be- 
4 fore the Time of the Norman Slavery forced up- 
4 on us ; of the Liberty and Property, and Peace 

* of the Subject, fo fully preferved by them j and 
' (which falls out happily, and as an Increafe of 
4 God's Mercy to us) of the clear Confiftency of 
4 them with the prefent Government of a Republic, 
4 upon fome eafy Alterations of Form only, leaving 
4 intire the Subftance ; the Name of King being 
4 ufed in them for Form only, but no Power of 

* perfonal Adminiftration or Judgment allowed to 
4 him in the fmalleft Matter contended for. 

4 They know their own Authority to be by the 
4 Law, to which the People have affented ; and 
4 befides their particular Interefts, which are not 
4 inconfiderable, they more intend the common 
4 Intereft of thofe whom they ferve, and clearly 
4 underftand the fame, not poflible to be preferved 
4 without the. Laws and Government of the Na- 
4 tion ; and that if thofe fhould be taken away, all 

* Induftry muft ceafe j all Mifery, Blood, and 



80 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* Confufion would follow ; and greater Calamities, 
' it" poflible, than fell upon us by the late King's 
4 Mifgovernment, would certainly involve all Per- 
' fons, under which they muft inevitably perifh. 

4 Thefe Arguments are fufficient to perfuade all 
4 Men to be well contented to fubmit theirLives and 
4 P'ortunes to thofe juft and long- approved Rules 
4 of Law, with which they are already fo fully 
4 acquainted ; and not to believe that the Parlia- 
' ment intends the Abrogation of them, but to 
4 continue and maintain the Laws and Government 
4 of the Nation, with the prefent Alterations, and 
4 with fuch further Alterations as the Parliament 
' fhall judge fit to be made, for the due Reforma- 

* tion thereof; for the taking away of Corruptions 
' and Abufes, Delays, Vexations, unneceffary 

* Travel and Expences, and whatfoever fhall be 
4 found really burthenfome and grievous to the 

' The Sum of all the Parliament's Defign and 
4 Endeavour in the prefent Change of Govern- 
4 ment, from Tyranny to a free State, and which 
4 they intend not only to declare in Words, but 
4 really and fpeedily endeavour to bring to efFedt, 
4 is this : 

4 To prevent a new War, and further Expence 

* and EfFufion of the Treafure and Blood of Eng- 

* land, and to eftablifh a firm and fafe Peace, and 
4 an Oblivion of all Rancor and Ill-will occafioned 
4 by the late Troubles ; to provide for the due 
4 Worfhip of God, according to his Word, the 
4 Advancement of the true Proteftant Religion, 
4 and for the liberal and certain Maintenance of 
4 godly Minifters ; to procure a juft Liberty for 
4 theConfciences, Perfons, and Eftates, of all Men, 
4 conformable to God's Glory and their own 
4 Peace ; to endeavour vigoroufly the Punifhment 
4 of the cruel Murderers in Ireland, and the re- 
4 ftoring of the honeft Proteftants, and this Com- 
4 monwealth, to their Rights there, and the full 
4 Satisfaction of all Engagements for this Work ; 
4 to provide for the Settling and juft obferving of 

4 Treaties 


f Treaties and Alliances with foreign Princes and 
'States, for the Encouragement of Manufactures, 

* for the Increafe and Flourishing of Trades at 

* home, and the Maintenance of the Poor in all March * 

* Places of the Land ; to take Care for the due 
4 Reformation and Adminiftration of the Law and 
' public Jufticej that the Evil may be puniihed, 
' and the Good rewarded j to order the Revenue 

* in fuch a Way, that the public Charges may be 
' defrayed, the Soldiers Pay juftly and duly fettled, 
e that Free- quarter may be wholly taken away, the 
' People be eafed in their Burdens and Taxes, and 

* the Debts of the Commonwealth be juftly fatif- 

* fied ; to remove all Grievances and Oppreffions 
' of the People, and to eftablifh Peace and Righte- 
4 oufnefs in the Land. 

4 Thefe being their only Ends, they cannot 
c doubt of, and humbly pray to the Almighty 

* Power for, his Afiiftance and Bleffing upon their 

* mean Endeavours ; wherein as they have not 

* envied or intermedled, nor do intend at all to in- 

* termeddle, with the Affairs or Government of 

* any other Kingdom or State, or to give any Of- 

* fence or juft Provocation to their Neighbours^ 
4 with whom they defire intirely to preferve all 

* fair Correfpondence and Amity, if they pleafe ; 

* and confine themfelves to the proper Work, the 

* managing of the Affairs, and ordering the Go- 

* vernment of this Commonwealth, and Matters 
' in order thereunto, with which they are intruft- 

* ed and authorized by the Confent of all the People 
4 thereof, whofe Reprefentatives, by Election, they 
4 are : So they do prefume upon the like fair and 

* equal Dealing from abroad j and that they, who 

* are not concerned, will not interpofe in the Af- 

* fairs of England^ who doth not interpofe in theirs: 
4 And in cafe of any Injury, they doubt notbut* 

* by the Courage and Power of the Englijh Nation, 

* and the good Bleffing of God, (who hath hither- 

* to miraculoufly owned the Juftnefs of their Caufe, 

* and, they hope, will continue to do the fame) 

VOL. XIX F * they 

82 The Parliament ary HISTORY 

Xnter-regnum. t t h e y {hall be fufficiently enabled to make their 
l6 *^* ' full Defence, and to maintain their own Rights. 
' And they do expect from all true-hearted 
' Englishmen, not only a Forbearance of any pub- 
' lie or fecret Plots or Endeavours, in Oppofition 
' to the preient Settlement, and thereby to kindle 
' new Flames of War and Mifery amongft us, 
' whereof themfelves muft have a Share ; but a 
' ch earful Concurrence and acling for the Efta- 
1 blifhment of the great Work now in Hand, in 
' fuch a Way, that the Name of God may be 
4 honoured, the true Proteftant Religion advanced, 
and the People of this Land enjoy the Bleflings of 
' Peace, Freedom, and Juftice to them and their 

They order the March 23. The Day after publifhing the fore- 
rftKte^fn", g' m S Declaration, the Commons, in order to efta- 
the Queen, and ' blifh their new Commonwealth the more effectu- 
Prince, to be ap- ally, refolved upon the Difpofal of the Perfonal 
praifed and fold, Eftates of the j ate K ; ng) Q ueen> an j p rmce . 

which they, this Day f , made an Order to have in- 
ventoried, appraifed, and fold, except fuch Parcels 
of them as fnould be thought fit to bei^jerved for 
the Ufe of the State ; but with this rrovifo, to 
avoid the Imputation of private Intereft, That no 
Member of the Houfe fhould have any Concern 
therein. In this Appraifement and Sale were in- 
cluded, heu Dolor! all the noble Collection of Pic- 
tures, antique Statues, and Buftos, which the late 
King, at infinite Expence and Trouble, had pro- 
cured from Rome and all Parts of Italy. A Cata- 
logue of thefe moft valuable Curiofities, (many of 
which now adorn the Palaces of the Louvre and 
the Ejcurial, as well as thofe of other foreign 
Princes) with their Appraifement and Sale, was in 
the Hands of the late John Anflis, fen. Efq; Garter 
King at Arms, from which the following Abftract 
is taken. 


f The Aft for the Difpofal of thefe Pcrfonal Eflates was no: 
ptfled till J*ly following. 

<y ENGLAND. 83 

PICTURES belonging to King C H AR L E s I. at his feve- 
ral Palaces, appraifed, and moft of them fold, by the Council of 

State. , 

I. s. d. 

mbletonm&Green'ivich'PiOimes,^. 143, 7 
appraifed at 5 ' * 

Pictures out of the Bear Gallery, and fome"J 

of the privy Lodgings at Whitehall^ N. 61, > 2291 10 O 
appraifed at J 

Among ft thefe the capital Pitfures were, 

1. Peace and Plenty, with many Figures, as big 
as the Life, by Rubens, appraifed at, and fold 
for, 100 1. 

2. Pope Alexander and Cesfar Borgia, done by 
Titian, appraifed at, and fold for, ioo/. 

3. The Burial of Chrifi, by Titian, appraifed at, 
and fold for, i2O/. 

4. The Triumphs of Vefpaftan and his Son Ti- 
tus, by Julio Romano, appraifed at, and fold 
for, 1507. 

5. A great Piece of the Nativity, by the fame 
Hand, appraifed at, and fold for, 500 /. 

6. The Cartoons of Raphael, being the Acts of 
the Apoftles, appraifed at 300 /. 

Oat land Pictures, N. 81, appraifed at 733 i8 o 

Nonfuch-Houfe Pictures, N. 33, appraifed at 282 o O 
Pictures in Somerfet-Houfe, with thofe which"*j 

came from Whitehall and St. James's, >I0052 II O 

N. 447, appraifed at J 

Capital Piftures in thefe Co/legions. 
t. Mary, Chrijl, and an Angel, done by An- 

drea del Sarto, appraifed at 200 /. and fold 

for 2307. 
i. Mary, Chrift, St. Katherine, St. John, Eli- 

zabeth, and Jofeph, by Molanefo, appraifed at 

ioo/. and fold for I20/. 

Carried over 15069 1 8 o 

84 ^kc Parliamentary HISTORY 

/. s. d. 

Brought over 15069 18 o 

3. Mary, Cbrijl, and Jofepb, by Andrea del 
Sarto, appraifed at 1507. and Ibid for iy4/. 

4. Venus, lying along, playing on an Organ, 
by Titian, appraifed at I5O/. fold for 1657. 

5. Mary, Chrijf, St. Mark, and a Genius, 
kneeling, by Titian, appraifed at 1507. and 
fold for 165 /. 

6. Mary, Cbrijt, St. Katberine, and Jofepb, by 
Giorgioni, appraifed at ioo/. fold for U4/. 

7. The three Jewellers, by Titian, appraifed at, 
and fold for, ioo /. 

8. A fleeping Venus, by Corregio, appraifed at, 
and fold for, iooo/. 

9. A Madona, by Raphael, appraifed at, and 
fold for, 2OOO/. 

10. Mary, the Child, and St. Jerome, by Par- 
tinenfts, appraifed at, and fold for, i^ol. 

11. Mary, the Child, and St. Sebajlian, by Pal- 
ma, appraifed at, and fold for, ioo/. 

12. The King, Queen, Prince, and Princefs, 
by Vandyke, appraifed at, and fold for, ifo/. 

13. The great Venus de Pardo, by Titian, ap- 
praifed at 500 /. and fold for 600 /. 

14. The Marquis de Gajlo making an Oration 
to his Soldiers, by Titian, appraifed at, and 
fold for, 250/. 

15. Nymphs at the Birth of Hercules, by Julio 
Romano, appraifed at ioo/. and fold for 114.7. 

1 6. Titian's Miftrefs, by himfelf, appraifed at, 
and fold for, ioo/. 

17. King Charles on Horfeback, by Vandyke, 
appraifed at, and fold for, 200 /. 

1 8. Venus fitting to be drefled by the three 
Graces, by Guido Bullioni, appraifed at, 
and fold for, 200 /. 

19. St. Margaret afraid of a Monfter, by Titian, 
appraifed at, and fold for, ioo/. 

20. Solomon offering to Idols, by Poedmore, ap- 
praifed at ijo/. 

Carried over 15069 18 o 


O/* ENGLAND. 8$ 

/. s. d. 

Brought over 15069 1 8 o 
Hampton-Court Pictures, N. 332, appraifed at 4675 10 c 

Among thefe were, 

1. Nine Pieces, being the Triumphs of Julius 
Cafar, done by Andreiu De Montanger, ap- 
praifed at iooo/. 

2. Herod holding St. John's Head in a Platter, 
by Titian, appraifed at I50/. 


In the Committee Rooms at the Parliament 7 
Houfe, were Pictures valued at J 

Pi6luresatSt.J<7w^'s,N 290, appraifed at 12049 4 & 

In thefe Collections were, 

1. St. George, by Raphael, appraifed at, and fold 
for, 1507. 

2. The Burying of Chrift, by Ifaac Oliver, ap- 
praifed at, and fold for, ioo/. 

3. The Marquis of Mantua's Head, by Ra- 
phael, appraifed at, and fold for, 200 A 

4. Albert Durer's Father and himfelf, by ditto, 
appraifed at, and fold for, ioo/. 

5. Tobanus and Erafmus, in two Pictures, by Hoi- 
ben, appraifed at, and fold for, 200 /. 

6. Mary, Cbriji, and others, by old Palma, ap- 
praifed at 200 /. and fold for 225 /. 

7. Three Figures, by Titian, appraifed at, and 
fold for, i oo /. 

8. A Man in Black, by Holben, appraifed at, 
and fold for, I20/. 

9. Mount Parnajfus, in a Cafe, by Indehaga, 
appraifed at ioo /. and fold for 117 /. 

10. Lucretia {landing by herfelf, in an Ebony 
Frame, by Titian, appraifed at, and fold 
for, 200 /. 

11. St. John, by Leonardo da Vinci, appraifed 
at, and fold for, I40/. 

Carried over 31913 12 
F 3 A Pie 

86 27# 'Parliamentary HISTORY 

/. *. d. 

Brought over 31913 12 O 

12. A Piece of the Mauritians, by Titian, ap- 
praifed at 1507. and fold for 1747. 

13. Charles V. at Length, by Titian, appraifed 
at, and fold for, 1507. 

14. St. Jerome, by Julio Romano, appraifed at, 
and fold for, 200 7. 

15. Twelve Emperors, by Titian, appraifed at, 
and fold for, 1200 7. 

1 6. Eleven Emperors, by Julio, appraifed at, 
and fold for, uco/. 

17. A Courtezan holding a Looking- Glafs, 
by Portinenfes, appraifed at, and fold for, 1507. 

18. Titian's Picture, with a Senator, done by 
himfelf, appraifed at ioo/. and fold for 112 7. 

19. A Satyre ftead, by Corregio, appraifed at, 
and fold for, iooo/. 

20. Another of the fame, appraifed at, and fold 
for, iooo/. 

21. Three Pieces of St. Seba/lian, by Lucas 
Van Ley den, appraifed at ioo/. and fold for 
101 /. 

22. The Converfion of St. Paul, by Palma^ 
appraifed at, and fold for, ico/. 

23. David meeting Saul, with Goliah's Head, 
by Palma, appraifed at, and fold for, ioc/. 

24. Dorcas lying dead, by Michael Angela Ca- 
ravagio, appraifed at 1507. and fold for i/o7, 

25. The Family of the Queen of Bohemia, ap- 
praifed at, and fold for, ioo 7. 

26. The Hiftory of Queen EJIher, by Tintoretto, 
appraifed at, and fold for, 120 7. 

27. A Family, with divers Figures, by Pordt- 
noni, appraifed at, and fold for, ioo 7. 

28. The King on Horfeback, appraifed at, and 
fold for, 1507. 

29. Hercules and Cacus, by Bolonefe, appraifed 
at, and fold for, 400 /. 

Carried over 31913 12 o 

Of E N G L A N D. 87 

/. s. d. 

Brought over 31913 12 O 
STATUES in Somerfet-Houfe, belonging to 

King C HAR L E s I. appraifed and fold by the 

Council of State. 

In the Gallery, N. 120, appraifed at 2387 3 O 

In the Garden, N. 20, appraifed at 1165 14 o 

Statues at Greenwich, N 230, appraifed at 13780 13 6 
Statues in the Armory at St. James's, N. 2Q, 1 / / 

appraifed at J 6 5 6 

Total 49903 2 6 

This curious and valuable Catalogue fully jufti- 
fies one Part of the Character given of King 
Cbarks I. by a modern Hiftorian*, ' He had a 
good Tafte of Learning, and a more than ordi- 
nary Skill in the Liberal Arts, efpecially Painting, 
Sculpture, Architecture, and Medals; and, being 
a generous Benefactor to the moft celebrated Ma- 
ilers in thofe Arts, he acquired the nobleft Col- 
lection of any Prince in his Time, and more than 
all the Kings of England had done before him.' 

To the foregoing Account of the Sale of the 
Royal Furniture, we (hall add Lord Clarendon's * 
Account of the principal Purchafers thereof: 

' Cardinal Mazarin^ who, in the Infancy of the 
French King, managed that Scepter, had long a- 
dored the Conduct of Cromwell^ and fought his 
Friendlhip by a lower and viler Application than 
was fuitable to the Purple of a Cardinal, fent now 
to be admitted as a Merchant to traffick. in the Pur- 
chafe of the rich Goods and Jewels of the rifled 
Crown, of which he purchafed the rich Beds, 
Hangings, and Carpets, which furnifhed his Palace 
at Paris. 

' The King of Spain had, from the Beginning 
of the Rebellion, kept Don Alonzo de Cardinal, 
who had been his Ambaflador to the King, reft- 
ding ftill at London; and he had, upon feveral Oc- 

* Wdwift Mimsiri, p, Sx, a HiJItry* Vol. V. p. 163* 

88 Tfo Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. cafions, many Audiences from the Parliament, and 
*_ 4 feveral Treaties on foot ; and as foon as this dif- 
*~^fa^T J mal Murder was over, that Ambaflador, who had 
always a great Malignity to wards the King b j bought 
as many Pictures, and other precious Goods ap- 
pertaining to the Crown, as, beina; fent in Ships to 
the Corunna in Spain, were carried from thence to 
Madrid upon eighteen Mules. 

' Chri/iina, Queen of Sweden, purchafed the 
Choice of all the Medals and Jewels, and fomc 
Pic-tures of a great Price, and received the Parlia- 
ment's Agent with great Joy and Pomp, and made 
an Alliance with them. 

' The Arch-Duke Leopold, who was Governor 
of Flanders, dilburfed a great Sum of Money for 
many of the beft Pictures, which adorned the fe- 
veral Palaces of the King ; which were all brought 
to him to BruJJeh c , and from thence carried by 
him into Germany.'' 

His Lordfhip adds, e That not one of all thefe 
Princes ever reftored any of their unlawful Pur- 
chafes to the King after his Reftoration.' 

And lay a Land- To return to the Journals. 

per*Menfemup- March 24.. The Commons having, on the 8th 
ontheKin g dom,of this Month, rcfolved that the Sum of 1 20,000 /. 
for fix Months. p gr 

b This Account of the Difpofition of the Court of Spain towards 
King Charles 1. (which was probably owing to an old Difguft about 
the propofed Match with the Jnfar.ta) correfponds with what Mr. 
Ludloiv writes upon this Subject : The Spanijb Ambaflador 
was the firft that made Application, from any foreign State, to the 
Parliament : But they, not being fatisficd with the Addrefs of his 
Credentials, refufed to receive them till it fhould be diredlsd To the 
Parliament of the Common-wealth of England ; declaring, that tho* 
they did not ffecl any flattering Titles, yet they rcfolved to have 
their Authority owned by all thofe who made their Addrefles to 
them. With which the Court of Spain beinp made acquainted, tin: 
Ambaflador received Inftrudlions from the King his Mafter to that 
End, and framed the Direction according to our Defires.' 

Memoirs, Vol. I. p.. 292, 

c Amongft the Furniture bought by the Arch-Duke was a Set 
of Tapeftry, the Property of King Charles I. when Prince of JFaltt, 
and which had his Arms work'd in them. Thefe, as we have been 
credibly informed, were purchafed at BruJJels, fome few Years fince, 
for the Sum of 3000 /. by his late Royal Highnefs Freda irk, Prince 
of Wtlet j and are perhaps all that ever came back to England. 

Of E N G L A N D. 89 

per Menfem be provided for fix Months for main- Interregnu 
tainina; the Forces in England and Ireland, to the l6 49- 
end Free-quarter might be taken off} and that, **"TT V . 
towards railing this Sum, a Tax of QCjOOO/. per 
Menfeni) for fix Months, be levied upon Lands 
and Goods ; and having appointed a Committee 
to confider of an equal Rule for laying fuch AflefT- 
ment, a Report was this Day made, from the 
Committee for the Army, of the Rates and Pro- 
portions for each County as agreed on by them ; 
which, after fome Debate and a Divifion there- 
upon, was referred to a Committee of the whole 
Houfe, and the next Month parted into an Ah 

This being the firft Inftance of a Tax laid upon 
the Subjects of England by Authority of the Houfe 
of Commons only ; in order to make it more paf- 
fable with the People, the Speaker was ordered to 
write a circular Letter to the Commifiioners ap- 

C'nted in every County for raifing the fame. The 
tter itfelf is not entered in the 'Journals^ but 
was printed about this Time in bcec Verba : d 

GENTLEMEN, Weflmnfa April vj, 1649. 

e r |->HE Parliament have lately patted an Act, The Speaker's 
' herewith fent you, for the raifing of the circular Letter t 

< monthly Aflertment of 90,000 /. for the Mainte- 
nance of the Forces in England and Ireland^ for O f. 
' fix Months, from the 25th of March laft paft, to 

* the 29th of September next enfuing : 

' I am commanded, by the Houfe, to recom- 

* mend unto you the fpeedy putting the fame in 

* Execution ; that the Monies, thereby appointed, 
' may be timely artefled, collected, and paid, ac- 
' cording to the Engagement of the Parliament ; 
which all good Men, who wifh well to the Ho- 

* nour and Prefervation of the Commonwealth, 


<J In a Diary, intituled, P erf eEr Occurrences of every Day 1 s Jour- 
nal in Parliament ; Proceedings of the Council of State ; and ether 
moderate Intelligence frtm his Excellency the Lord-General Fairfax'* 
Army, and other Parts. Printed for John Ckwes and Revert Ibbit* 
fen, and licenced by Tbeidare Jennings, N jzz. 

go The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* and, in particular, to their own Good and Safctv 
c will he careful to effect; it being the molt effec- 

* tual Means to take off, or prevent, the intole- 
' rable Burden of Free-quarter, which otherwife 
' will inevitably fall upon them. 

* In all which you are chiefly concerned, whom 
' the Parliament have efpecially intruded, for the 
' more fpeedy and effectual carrying on of this 
' Work ; which, being faithfully performed by 
' you, will procure Quiet and Contentment to the 

* People, and be efteemed a moft acceptable Ser- 
' vice to the Parliament ; it being a great Part of 
4 their Care, to prevent the fad Inconveniences of 

* Free- quarter. 

' I fhall not prefs you with many Arguments to 

* quicken you to this Work, wherein the Public 

* Peace, and Safety of the Commonwealth, is Co 
' highly concerned : Your Care and utmoft Endea- 
' vours in promoting this Service is expected by the 
4 Houfe - y whereof not doubting, I reft 

Tour very loving Friend^ 

W. LENTHALL, Speaker. 

The Cartle of March 2"j . A Letter was received from Major- 
Pontefraft fur- General Lambert , dated from Knotting!^. March 
render'd to the the 2id, 1648, with the Articles of Agreement 
Parliament. ^ tfae Rendition of p onte f ra fj Caftle ; ttfich , be- 
ing read, were approved of by the Houfe. Alfo a 
Petition from the Mayor, Aldermen, and all the 
well-affected Inhabitants of the Town of Ponte- 
fraft, was read ; after which it was refclved^ 
That the Caftle of PontefraEt fhould be totally 
and forthwith demolished : That it be referred to 
the Committee of the Weft-Riding of the County 
of Tork, to take Care to fee this Caftle demolifh'd, 
and levell'd with the Ground. The Sale of the 
Materials of which to go firft to pay for the Charges 
of Demolition ; and the Value of 1000 /. of the 
Remainder to be allotted to the Town of Ponte- 
y towards the repairing their Place of public 


Of E N G L AN D. 91 

Worfhip, and the re-edifying an Habitation for a Inter- regnum. 

Thus fell this noble, princely Palace, the antient 
Seat and Demefnes of the Earls and Dukes of Lan- 
cajhr: It was fo prodigioufly ftrong, by Nature and 
Art, as, in earlier Times than thefe, when Gun- 
powder was not known, to have been thought im- 
pregnable ; and at this Time ftood a Siege of fome 
Months againft the Power of the Parliament'sArmy 
aflifted by Gunnery; and was the laft Fortrefs in 
England that held out againft them for the King a . 

The Houfe ordered 300 /. a-year, clear Rent, 
to be fettled upon Major-General Lambert^ and 
his Heirs for ever, out of the Demefnes of the Ho- 
nour of Pontefratt^ for this and the many other 
eminent Services done by him to the Parliament. 

The Commons being informed of a Pamphlet A Pamphlet, 
lately printed, call'd The Second Part of England'.? highly reflecting 
new Chains discovered -, and the fame being read, ? their Proceed- 

. r . , ' ^,, ' . . , , . . . ' ings, voted to be 

they refolved, ' l hat it contain d much falfe, f a jf e , feditious, 
fcandalous, and reproachful Matter; was highly &<=. and the AU- 
feditious; and deftruaive to the prefent Govern- * 
ment, as now declar'd and fettled by Parliament ; tors . 
that it tended to Divifion and Mutiny in the Army ; 
to the railing of a new War in the Commonwealth ; 
to the hindering the prefent Relief of- Ireland; and 
to the continuing of Free-quarter.' The Houfe alfb 
declared, l That the Authors, Contrivers, and 
Framers of the faid Paper were guilty of High 
Treafon, and mould be proceeded againft as Trai- 
tors : That all Perfons whatfoever, who fhould 
join with, or adhere unto, and hereafter voluntarily 
aid or affift, the Authors, Framers, and Contri- 
vers of the aforefaid Paper, in the Profecution 
thereof, mould be efteem'd Traitors to the Com- 
monwealth ; 

a This Garrifon, confiding but of a few Royalifts, held out very 
near two Months after the late King's Death ; they had the Courage 
not only to proclaim King Cbarlet the Second in it, but to ftrike 
Coin in his Name ; on the Reverfe of which was this Infcription, 
POST MORTEM PATRJS PRO FILIO: Some of thefe Coins are 
ftill in the Collections of the Curious. 

92 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

monwealth ; and be proceeded againft accordingly.' 
And this Declaration was ordered to be forthwith 
printed, publimed, and proclaim'd under the Di- 
rection of the Council of State ; to whom it was 
referr'd to find out and examine who were the 
Authors, Contrivers and Framers, Printers and 
Publifhers of the faid Pamphlet, and to proceed 
therein as they fliould think juft and necefTary, for 
preventing Tumults, and for prefcrving the Peace 
of the Commonwealth. 

A fhort View of this Pamphlet, which gave fo 
great an Alarm to the new Republick, as to 
occafion the foregoing moft extraordinary Votes of 
Refentment, cannot be improper in this Place. It 
lets forth, in the higheft Colours, * The Hypocrify 
and Perfidioufnefs of the Council of the Army and 
the Grandees, in cheating all Intercfts ; King, Par- 
liament, People, Soldiers, City, Agitators, Level- 
lers,^.' It affirms ' That the Grandees walk by 
no Principles of Honefty or Confcience ; but, as 
meer Politicians, are govern'd altogether by Occa- 
fion, as they fee a Poflibility of making a Progrefs 
in their Defigns; which Courfe of theirs they ever 
term'd A waiting upon Providence, that, under Co- 
lour of Religion, they might deceive more fecurely : 
That their Intent is to garrifon all great Towns, 
and to break the Spirits of the People with Oppref- 
fion and Poverty.' It farther declares, ' That 
thefe Grandees judge themfelves loofe, when other 
Men are bound ; that all Obligations are to them 

to comply with 
the Agreement of the People , but only to amufe that 
Party, whilft they haftily fet up a Council of State 
to evrablifh their own Tyranny : That, to prepare 
the Way to this, they broke the Houfe of Com- 
mons, took away the Houfe of Lords, removed 
the King by an extrajudicial Way of Proceeding, 
and erected fuch a Court of Juftice as had no 
Place in the Englijh Government : That the Re- 

Of E N G L A N D. 93 

mainder of the Houfe of Commons is now be- inter-regnum. 
come a meer Channel, thro' which are convey'd l6 49- 
all the Decrees and Determinations of a private V ""7T V T""'' 
Council of fome few Officers : That all thefe, and 
the Votes, That the Supreme Power is in the People^ 
and the Supreme Authority in the Commons^ their Re- 
prefentative^ were only in order to their own Inte- 
refts of Will and Power : That they place their Se- 
curity in the Divifions of the People : And that if 
the prefent Houfe of Commons fhould never fo 
little crofs the Ambition of thefe Grandees, they 
would mew no more Modefty to them than they 
had done to the excluded Members.' It protefts 
againft * their breaking the Faith of the Army 
with all Parties ; their diffolving the Council of 
Agitators, and ufurping a Power of giving forth the 
Se'nfe of the Army againft the Parliament and 
People ; againft their mooting to Death the Soldier 
XiWare-i in Nov. 1647, and their Cruelties exercifed 
on other Perfons, to the debafing their Spirits, and 
thereby new-moulding the Army to their Defigns ; 
againft their playing faft and loofe with the King 
and his Party, till they had brought a new and 
dangerous War upon this Nation ; againft their 
diffembled Repentances ; againft their late extra- 
ordinary Proceedings in bringing the Army upon 
the City, to the Ruin of Trade ; their breaking 
the Houfe of Commons in Pieces without char- 
ging the Members particularly ; and then judging 
and taking away Men's Lives in an extraordinary 
Way, as done for no other End but to make Way 
for their own abfolute Domination.' It alfo pro- 
tefts ' againft the Erection and Eftablifhment of 
the High Court of Juftice, as unjuft in itfelf, and 
of dangerous Precedent in Time to come : As 
likewife againft the Council of State, and putting 
fome of themfelves therein, contrary to their own 
Agreement? It affirms, ' That this Council was 
no fooner erected, but it devoured half the Parlia- 
ment of England ; and now is adorning itfelf 
with Regal Magnificence, and the Majefty of 
courtly Attendants, like the thirty Tyrants of 


94 The Parti ame?rtary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Athens, to head itfelf over the People : That the 
1649. Members thereof, by their Machiaviiian Pretences, 

V "^7 V T" 1> ' and wicked Practices, are become Matters and 
Ufurpers of the Name of the Army, and of the 
Name of the Parliament, under which Vifors they 
had levelled and deftroyed all the Authority of this 
Nation ; for that the Parliament, in Deed and in 
Truth, was no Parliament, but a Reprefentative 
Glafs of the Council of War ; and the Council of 
War but a Reprefentative of Cromwell, Ireton, and 
Harrifon ; and that thefe are the All in All of the 
Nation, under the Guife and Name of Parliament, 
General Council of the Army, High Court of 
Juftice, and Council of State : That the Con- 
clave of Officers have fuck'd in the Venom of all 
former corrupt Courts and Interefts ; for that the 
High CommhTion, Star-Chamber, the Houfe of , 
Lords, the King and his Privy Council, are all 
alive in that Court call'd the General Council of 
the Army : That the Nation was formerly ruled 
by King, Lords, and Commons ; but now by a 
General Court-Martial and Houfe of Commons ; 
yet with this Difference, that the Lords were not 
Members both of the Houfe of Peers and of the 
Houfe of Commons ; but that the Officers, their 
now Martial Lords, were Members both of the 
Council of Officers, and of the Houfe of Com- 
mons too : That the Nation had not the Change 
of a Kingdom into a Commonwealth ; but were 
only under the old Cheat of a Tranfmutation 
of Names, with the Addition of new Tyran- 
nies : That for cafting out one unclean Spirit 
they had brought with them in his Stead feven 
other unclean Spirits more wicked than the for- 
mer, who had enter'd in and dwelt there ; and that 
the laft State of this Commonwealth was worfe 
than the firft.' 

March 28. Great Part of this Day the Houfe 
was taken up with reading feveral I/etters from Ire- 
land t but none of them are inferted in their Jour- 

Of E N G L A N D. 95 

<7/j, as they ufed to be at Length in thofc of the inter-rcgnum. 
Lords. All we can learn of them, is, that they l6 49- 
brought an Account of the Marquis of Ormond's ' ~~ *~ ' 
making Peace with and joining the Rebels in that 
Kingdom ; and of Col. Jones's refufmg to come in The Marquis of 
to him : For which the Houfe voted the Marquis rnw>nd voted 
guilty of High Treafon, and approved of the Co-^ on , f o? 
loncl's Conduct in the Affair. king Peace with 

the Irirti Rebels. 

It is to be remembered that, while the King's 
Trial was depending before the High Court of Juf- 
tice, the Prefbyterian Minifters of many Parifhcs 
in London and the adjacent Counties, to the Num- 
ber of above fixty, published a Proteftation, ' de- 
claring themfelves wholly unfatisfied with the Pro- 
ceedings fince the Exclunon and Imprifonment of 
the Members of the Houfe of Commons ; that 
they held themfelves bound in Duty to God, Re- 
ligion, the King, Parliament, and Kingdom, to 
profefs before God, Angels, and Men, That they -phe clergy pro 
verily believ'd the taking away the Life of the King, hibited meddling 
in the Way of Trial, was not only not agreeable with Affairs of 
to the Word of God, the Principles of the Pro- p^its? ' 
teftant Religion, (never yet ftained with the leaft 
Drop of the Blood of a King) or the Fundamental 
Conltitution of the Kingdom ; but contrary to 
them, as alfo to the Oath of Allegiance, the Pro~ 
teftation of May 4, 1641, and the Solemn League 
and Covenant.' And many of them, after the 
King was beheaded, prayed publickly for the Prince 
of JrUrs, as King, by the Name of Charles the 
Second ; particularly one Mr. Cawton, who had 
the Courage to do fo before the Lord Mayor, for 
which he was ordered to be profecuted in the Up- 
per Bench, by the Recorder of London, and the 
Solicitor- General of the Commonv/ealth, for High 
Treafon. The Commons, in order to prevent 
fuch a Defiance of their Authority for the fu- 
ture, this Day appointed a Committee to bring 
in an A6t, forbidding Minifters in London^ or any 
Part of England or Wales, in their Pulpits, in 


9 6 *Thc Parliamentary Hi s T OR v 

Preaching or Praying, to meddle with Matters 
of Government, or the Tranfactions of State; and 
Jikewife prohibiting to hold Correfpondence or In- 
telligence with foreign States, under a Penalty; and 
only to apply themlelves to their Duty in preach- 
ing Jefus Chriji and his Gofpel, to the edifying of 

their Congregations. This Act appears, by the 

Journals, to have been form'd upon the Plan of 
an Order of the States General^ concerning their 

March 30. Affairs in Ireland growing ftill worfe 
againft the Government here, the Council of State 
thought fit to nominate Lieutenant-General Crom- 
well to go Commander in Chief into that Kingdom, 
which the Houfe agreed to. Commifiary-General 
Ireton, his Son-in-Law, was alfo appointed next 
in Command under him : But at the fame Time, 
as a Compliment to Lord Fairfax* they refolv'd 
to continue his Lordfhip General of all the Forces 
of the Parliament, both in England and Ireland. 
TheLordMayor Complaint having been made to the Commons, 
of London ha- That the Lord Mayor of London had not proclaim- 

*^m U theAa ed the late Aft for abolifllin g the Kingly Office, 
f<>r abdifhing according to Direction from the Houfe, he was 
Monarchy, ordered to be fummoned to appear at the Bar, on 
Monday, April 2, to anfwer his Contempt there- 
in. On which Day the Houfe, after making 
fome additional Rules for Compofitions on De- 
linquents Eftates, was inform'd, That the Lord 
Mayor of London did attend their Pleafure accord- 
ing to Order : Who being called in, and fet to the 
Bar, the Speaker told him, The Houfe had here- 
tofore fent an Order to him, and a Writ, to pro- 
claim an At for abolifhing the Kingly Office in 
England and Ireland, and the Dominions there- 
unto belonging ; 2nd he was now fent for to an- 
fwer his Contempt in not doing it. The Lord 
Mayor anfwered, He did receive fuch an Order, 
but that his Confcience being charged, as it was, 
with feveral Oaths at and before his Mayoralty, he 



could not difpenfe with it in proclaiming that Acl> Inter-gnum, 
and therefore had not done it. Being ordered to 
withdraw, and the Houfe having confidered of his **" "A^^I 
Sentence, he was call'd in again, when the Speaker 
told him, That it was their Judgment he be dif- 
charged from the Office of Lord Mayor, and be 
difabled from bearing that Office; fined 2000 /. 
to be paid prefently ; and that he be committed 
Prifoner to the Tower for a Month. The City 
was alfo ordered to proceed forthwith to another 

The Name of this confcientious Lord Mayor He is committed, 
was Abraham Reynoldfon ; and it is remarkable that fin * d > ?" d Q^ ri " 
the very next Day, April 3, when the Houfe was 
inform'd another Lord Mayor was elected, they 
thought fit to alter the Form of the Oath of this 
Officer, from fwearing to be true and faithful to 
the King, to be fo to the Commonwealth, &?r. 
And, the fame Day, Alderman Thomas Andrews* 
being prefented to the Houfe as the new Lord 
Mayor Elect, was confirmed in that Office, and 
ordered to have the above Oath adminiftered to 
him, by one of the Barons of the Exchequer. 

Next the Houfe proceeded to reform the Bench 
of Aldermen in the City, and voted, That Sir John 
Gayer, Thomas Adams, John Langbam, "James 
Bunce, Names of Eminence, mentioned before in 
this Hiftory c , with Abraham Reynold/on, Aldermen, 
mould be difabled and difcharged from bearing that 
Office; and that the City do proceed to elecl: 
others in their Stead. 

For feveral Days after the Houfe did nothing 
material, but making fome Orders for tranfporting 
frefh Forces into Ireland, and for Payment of all 
Forces defigned for that Service, under the Com- 
mand of Lieutenant-General Cromwell: For which 
they were obliged to borrow 120,000 /. of the 
City, on the Security of the two laft Months Af- 
feflment of the 90,0007. per Menfem A&; and of 
that for the Sale of Fee-Farm Rents. 

VOL. XIX G April 

c In our Sixteenth a0d Seventeenth Volumes. 

98 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

April 14. The Houfc proceeded to regulate fome 
Affairs relating to their own Members. It was 
"T V 7"""' ' ordered^ ' That upon any Suit commenced before 
the Lords Commiflioners of the Great Seal, or in 

The Privilege an 7 ^ tne C urts f Weftmlnfter^ againft any Mem- 
of Members of bers of Parliament, the faid Lords Commiflioners, 
Parliament, as to judges, and Barons of the feveral Courts refpec- 
dyifr, or any one of them, fhall, by Writing tm- 
der his or their Hands and Seals, give Notice 
thereof to every filch Member; whereupon the 
Member is enjoined to give Appearance, and pro- 
ceed as other Defendants, in cafe of like Suit or 
Action ought to do ; or, in Default thereof, both 
their Eftates and Perfons fhall be liable to any Pro- 
ceedings, in Law or Equity, as other Members of 
this Commonwealth. 

April 1 8. The Houfe voted the Sum of 20,000 /. 
per Annum.) to be paid out of the Revenue of 
Deans and Chapters Lands, and the Tenths, fcrV. 
for the Maintenance of Minifters, Scholars, and 
the Increafe of the Maintenance of Mafterfhips 
of Colleges in both the Univerfities of this Na- 

The Council of State having got fome Intimation 
of the Authors, Printers, &c. of a Pamphlet, lately 
mention'd, call'd England's Second Chains, &c. had 
imprifoned in the Tower for it, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Lilbourne -> Mr ' William Walwyn, Mr. Thomas 

and Mr. Richard Overt on. And 
Tower, for wri- This Day a Petition, fubfcribed by 10,000 
ting a Pamphlet Hands, was prefented to the Houfe, intitled, The 
humble Petition of divers well-a/efod Perfons in 
the Cities of London fl^/Weftminfter, the Borough 
of Soufhwark, Hamlets , and Parts adjacent , in be- 
half of the aforefaid Prifoners. 

This Petition, which carries more of the Air of 
an Impeachment, is not entered in the Journals. 
Mr. Whitlocke has indeed left an Abftra6i of it 
in a few Lines only ; but this Piece is of fo ex- 
traordinary a Nature, and was productive of fo 
many remarkable Confequences, that we fhall 


Of E N G L A N D. 99 

make no Scruple of giving it at large, as printed Jn 

in one of the Diaries of thefe Times g . It runs l649< 

thus : V "T V 7"""' 


* f |"1HE more we confider the State and Condi- A Petition in 
' tion of our four Friends, the more we are !- hei , r F * voar > 

, "" i , . <-.-., i , T? r . lign d by i<J,ocO 

* perplexed m our Thoughts with rear of great Peifons. 
' Danger intended towards them : For though no- 

* thing hath been pretended to be done by them 
' contrary to any Law made before the Fact where- 

* of they are fufpecled, nor any Thing done by 
' them after you had publifhed your Declaration 

* concerning the fame ; yet your Votes and Decla- 
4 ration, the hoftile Seizure of them by the Coun- 

* cil of State, and their Examinations apart upon 

* Queftions againft themfelves, no Accufer appear- 
' ing Face to Face, no Friends allowed to be pre- 
4 fent, and thereupon committed Prifoners to the 
' Tower^ do all, in a great Meafure, forejudge 
' them as really guilty of High Treafon. h 

4 All which Proceedings being directly contrary 

c to Magna Cbarta^ the Petition of Right , and to 

4 your own Declarations of the 8th of February 

4 and i yth of March laft, wherein you refolve to 

G 2 4 pre- 

g The Moderate ; impartially communicating Martial 'Affairs 
to the Kingdom ef England, N. 41. This Diary, which was 
printed without the Name of any Publisher, not only contains 
a very exaft Account of the Proceedings of Parliament, but icems 
to have been publifhed with a Defign to expofe their arbitrary and 
tyrannical Proceedings. The Author of it, at the fame Time, ap- 
pears, by his Style, to have been as determined an Enemy to the 
R.oyalifts, as to the Army and the Houfe j and was probably him- 
lelf one of the Levellers, who now began to be fo formidable to 
the Parliament. 

h To confirm all thefe Allegations in this Petition, there was 
publifhed, at this Time, a Pamphlet, intituled, The PiSure of tbt 
Council of State, btld forth to the free People ^England by Lieut. 
Col. John Lilbourne, Mr. Thomas Prince, and Mr. Richard Over- 
ton, now Prifoners in the Tower of London : Or, a full Narrative 
of the late extrajudicial and military Proceedings againft them, la- 
get her -with the Subftance of their feveral Examinations, j4.nfioers t 
andDeportrnenti before them at Derby-Houfe, upon the z8f ofMarch 
laft. JJy this Narrative, fign'd by the Prifoners themfelves, it ap- 
pears that they behaved with aftonifhing Refolution before the 
Council of State, and gave them their own to their Fates witk 
amazing Intrepidity, 

ioo The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. < preferve inviolable thofe Fundamental Laws and 
*649^ J ' Liberties, concerning the Prefervation of the 

* Lives, Properties, and Liberties of the People, 
4 with all Things incident thereunto ; we are in- 
' forced to believe (what this Houfe hath formerly 
' found) that Ibme eminent Perfons, whoie parti- 

* cular Interefts our faid Friends may haveoppofed, 
' have furprized this Honourable Houfe ; and tranf- 

* ported you into fome caufelefs Fears of Danger 
' from thofe our Friends, whole conftant Care and 
' Watchfulnefs for 'the Settlement of this long- 

* wafted Commonwealth, and Prevention of Mi- 
' fery and Bloodfhed, hath been fo evident by their 

* frequent Motions and Petitions to thofe juft Ends^ 
' efpecially by that which was burnt by the com- 
' mon Hangman, that of September 1 1, 1648, and 
' their Agreement of the Peo$le' l \ wherein are com- 

* prized fuch clear Fundamentals of juft Govern - 

* ment, Redrefs of Grievances, and Conducements 

* to general Peace and Reconcilement, as, had their 

* Advice in any reafonable Time been taken, we 

* are verily perfuaded, much of that Rancour, Bit- 
4 ternefs, and Bloodfhed which hath befallen, had 

* been prevented. And which, in our Apprehen- 
e fions, are fufficient Evidences againft all Sufpi- 

* cions of treafonable Practices, or Intentions in 

* them j and may alfo acquit them of that Afper- 

* fion of Unfettlednefs caft upon them ; and which 

* we wonder did not invite a more refpe&ful Car- 
' riage towards them, than to fetch them out of 

* their Beds and Houfes by fo formidable Parties of 
Horfe and Foot. 

' And truly, if we may have Leave to fpeak our 
' Hearts in behalf of thefe our Friends, who for 
' many Years have neither fpared their Eftates nor 
e Time, but frequently hazarded their Lives in 
' our Behalf, and for the Safety and Freedom of 
c Parliament and People ; we are perfuaded in our 
' Confciences the greateft Crime, or rather Caufe, 

* for which they are thus molefted, is, That they 

< have 
* In our Seventeenth Volume, p. 451. 

Of E N G L A N D. 101 

* have incefTantly endeavoured to induce the Army Jnter-regnum. 

* to the real Performance of thofe many good l6 49 

e Things they engaged for, and largely promifed *"" ""XT"""' 

* to this Nation, in their many Declarations, &c. 
4 when firft they difputed and oppofed the Orders 

* of Parliament : And for that they have endea- 
' voured to confine the Intereft of the Army to 
' the juft Intereft of the People, and to reduce the 
' Military Power to a real Subordination to the 

* Civil Authority. 

* For which their Endeavours, we verily believe, 

* they are hated by fome eminent Perfons of the 
' Army; whofe frequent diftincT: Actings according 

* to their own immediate Wills, towards this Ho- 
' nourable Houfe, in carting out Members without 

* any Charge brought againft them, leaving or-ta- 
' king in only whom they pleafed, and fo in the 

* Army ; and by their Prevalency againft fome par- 
' ticular Perfons, hath made them prefume, and, 
' we fear, refolve, to facrifice the Blood and Lives 
6 of thefe our dear Friends, for Handing betwixt 

* their abfolute Domination and the Freedom of 
c the People. 

' And that this may not appear to be a ground - 

* lefe Suppofition, 'be pleafed to take Notice that 

* our faid Friends have been long afperfed by them, 

* as Levellers, Atheifts, Jefuits, &e. upon what 

* Ground and to what End we know not, except 
1 to prepare them to Deftruction ; threatening, 
' That, if once they caught hold of them, they Jhould 

* not efcape out of their Hands, as they had done out 

* of the Hands of Holies and Stapylton j that they 
' have deferred more to be fought again/I than the 
' moft defperate Enemy : Plotting and contriving, 
( in their General Council of Officers, to get a 

* Law To have Power to hang, or otherwife put to 

* Death, as they faw Caufe ; and that becaufe the 

* Civil Magijtrate could not difpatch them fajl 

* enough. 

' In all which their Threats and Contrivances, 

* there are many Circumftances to prove that they 
' principally aimed at thofe our Friends : And fo, 

G 3 * when 

102 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. * when neither byThreats or'Promifes they could 

* prevail with them to defift from preferving the 
' Freedom of the Nation, and Difcovery of their 

* Defigns, (as was done in their Serious jfpprel.<cn- 
* fans, preferred to this Houfe the 26th of February 

* laft) having abfolute Power in the Houfe, where, 
' contrary to the Self-denying Ordinance, they take 
' up many Places, which, with an Army at Com- 
' mand, is more than all the reft ; and having got 
' enew of themfelves into their Council of State, 
' (contrary to their own pofitive Confent in the 
' Agreement of the People) they catch at an Oppor- 

* tunity, and fall upon our Friends with fuch a 

* Face of Force and Terror as would have made the 

* World believe, whatever Cruelty had fucceeded, 

* there had been a Caufe anfwerable to that Force. 

' The like having not been known, that Per- 

* fons fo vifible and refponfible fhould (to the Ter- 
( ror of their Wives, Children, Families, and 
' Neighbours) in the Break of the Day, be fetch'd 
' out of their Beds, forced out of their Houfes, and 

* carried away as Prifoners of War ; and, after a 

* Day's Reftraint in the Garrifon at Whitehall* 

* carried before the Council of State ; and there, 
' after Examination of them againft themfelves (no 

* Accufers appearing Face to Face, or Friends al- 
' lowed to be prefent) were, about Twelve o'Clock 
' at Night, committed Prifoners to the Tower, up- 

* on Sufpicion of High Treafon. In the Debates 

* whereupon, as we are credibly informed, Lieu- 
f tenant-General Cromwell declared in the Coun- 
' cil, That they mujl break this Party in Pieces, 
' (meaning our Friends) or they would break them: 

* That, if they did not do it, they would render them- 
( f elves the mo ft filly, low-fpirited Men in the If^orld^ 

* to be rr.uted by fo contemptible and def pi cable a 
' Generation nf Men. 

' And immediately after was publiflied your De- 

* claration, which, reflecting upon them as Perfons 

* feditious, deftrnftive to the prefent Government, 

* Mutineers, Hinderers of the Relief of Ireland, 
< and Conitnuers of Free -quarter, hath (with the 


Of ENGLAND. 103 

' reft before-mention'd) To fore-fpoken them, that, Inter-regnum. 
4 wherefoever they come to Trial, they are likely l6 49- 
4 to fall under Abundance of Prejudice 3 befides ^"^ ^C"""* 
4 the Influence thofe eminent Perfons (who now * n 
6 vifibly appear their particular Adverfaries) have 
4 upon all Perfons in Office, and upon the prefent 

* Forces in being. Infomuch as, all Things 

* duly weighed, they are, in Truth, really fore- 
4 judged and condemned; for what Judge and Jury 

* may not, unawares, be captivated by fo many 
' Pre-occupations and Pr-pofieffions, or not be 

* terrified to do what fo forcible and powerful In- 
4 fluences fo ftrongly incline, if not inforce them 

* unto? 

* Befides, your Order for their Trial requires 
' the Attorney- General f to take fpeedy Courfe for 
' Profecution of them ; which is a Difadvantage 

* we hoped thefe Times would have been free from, 
4 as holding too much Refemblance with thofc 
' foregone ; that fought, by Craft and Sophiftry, 
4 to entrap and enflave plain Men in their Trials 

* for Life, Eftate, or Liberty, to the Wills of 
' Princes : The faid Attorney being a Member of 
' your Houfe, and confequently a Judge of the 
' Judge before whom he pleads ; and, in Oppofition 

* to our Friends, reprefenteth no lefs than the Su- 
4 preme Authority j a mod unequal Profecutor, 
4 and againft whom they have no Plea or Relief, 
4 as, by Law, they have againft others. 

' Upon all which Confiderations, we cannot 
c difcern it to be equal in itfelf, or afe for them, 
c that they fhould, through fo many Prejudices and 

* Pre-occupations, be by you put upon their Trial 
4 in the Upper Bench : So that however plaufible 

* it may feem in itfelf for you to put them upon 

* this Kind of Trial, yet, all Things confidered, 

* nothing more evidently tendeth to their Deftruc- 
' tion : Nor can we difcern how it can be juft to 


f Edmund Prideaux, Efq; (Member for Lyme Regis) who was 
appointed Attorney-General to the Commonwealth a few Days be- 
fore. He was firft made Sollicitor upon Mr. St. Jobrfs accepting 
the Office of Chief Juftice of the Common Pleas, in Qtfohcr, 16$* 

IO4 7fo Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum, try Men upon a Declaration made after the Fact 

1649. pretended; nor can we judge it reafonable thatfo 

* "v ' ' many Members of the Army, their profefs'd Ad- 

Ap ' * verfaries, fhould, contraryto the Self-denying Or- 

' dinance and common Equity itfelf, fit as Judges 

' in this Honourable Houfe, or in the Council of 

* State, whilft this Caufe is debated ; they having 
' in effect been charged by thofe our Friends, in 
' their Serious Apprtktnfions to this Houfe ; and 
' this Proceeding towards them appearing but as a 

* revengeful Recrimination. And therefore if, af- 

* ter mature Confideration of the Premifles, you 
' fhall judge them worthy of further Profecution, as 

* for our Parts we verily believe there is no Caufe, 
' we earneftly intreat that you will firft make 

* ftrict Inquiry into the Caufe of that Terror and 
' Force of Soldiers ufed towards them, contrary to 
' Law j repair their Credit ; give them the Bene- 

* fit of Law againft whomsoever mall appear to 
< have been Authors or Actors therein ; and en- 
e large them from their prefent Imprifonment in 
' the Tower. 

' And then, if any Perfon hath wherewith to 
accufe them, that they be proceeded againft, as 
' by Law they ought, by Warrants from a Juftice 

* of the Peace of the Neighbourhood, where the 
' Fact in Queftionwas pretended to be committed; 

* not granted without Oath made of a Crime 

* againft fome Law in being before the Fact ; and 

* to be ferved by Conftables, not Soldiers, and that 

* upon Appearance of the Accufers and Accufed 
Face to Face, as by Law is due ; and if the Fact 

* be bailable, then to be allowed Bail ; if not, to 
' be fecured in that legal Prifon appointed for that 

* Place and Fact, untill the next Seffions, not in a 

* Prerogative Prifon as'the70w*r is; and then, 
' in an ordinary Way, exempt from all fuch Pre- 

* occupations and Fore-judgings, to have the Be- 
' nefit of a Trial by a Jury of twelve fworn Men 

* in the Neighbourhood, not over-aw'd by Soldiers, 
' nor difturbed by Policy or Sophiftry. A Trial 
' which, we conceive, cannot in Juftice, in any 


Of E N G L A N D. 105 

4 Circumftance, be denied to the worft of Thieves, inter-regnum, 
' Murderers and Traitors ; and which was our 
' real Intentions in our late Petition prefented to 

* you concerning them. And we are confident 
' our Friends, upon fuch a Trial, will prove them- 
' felves to be no fuch Perfons, but faithful Friends 

* to their Country's Liberties. 

' We alfo intreat that, for the future, no Perfon 

* may be cenfured, condemned, or molefted, con- 
cerning Life, Limb, Liberty, or Eftate, but for 

* the Breach of fome Law firft made and publifh- 
4 ed ; and that this Honourable Houfe would be a 

* Pattern to all future Parliaments, in leaving the 
' Trial of all fuch Caufes to fubordinate Magi- 

* ftrates, and ordinary proper Courts of Juftice. 

* That the Execution of Civil Affairs may be 
e wholly freed from the Interpofition of the Sword ; 

* and that Martial Law, during; the Time of Peace, 

* where all Courts are open, may not be exercifed 
c upon the Perfons of any whomfoevcr. All which 
' are not more evidently juft in'themfelves, than 

* they are confonant to Magna Charts and the Pe- 
e tition of Right ; the Benefit whereof, we truft, 

* you will never be induced to take from us. 

That Captain Bray, now clofe Prifoner in 
c Wmdfor Caftle% may immediately be enlarged, 
c or otherwife be put upon a legal Trial, as is be- 
' fore defired in behalf of our other Friends. 

4 Laftly, We intreat that there may be fome ge- 

* neral Encouragement from you, to proceed to a 

* fpeedy Settlement, by way of an Agreement of 

* the People^ upon the Grounds of an equal and 
1 juft Government; that fo all Difcord, Enmity and 

* DifTatisfadtion amongft former Friends, may fi- 
4 nally receive a fpeedy End, by and with this Par- 

* liament; and that the End of this may be the 

* Beginning of a new and equal Reprefentative.' 

The foregoing Petition, being read, gave fo high 
Offence to the Houfe, that they refolved, That 


c He was committed for publifhing a Pamphlet againft the Pro- 
ceedings of Lord Fairfax and his Council of War. 

io6 T&e Parliamentary HISTORY 

. the Petitioners fhould have a very fharp Reprchen- 
1649. fion for it. A Committee was alfo appointed to 
* """^ ~~~"^ withdraw immediately, and prepare an Ani'wer to 
be given to the Petitioners by the Speaker j which, 
upon their being called in, he delivered to them in 
the following Terms : 


For which they' fTTlHE Houfe hath read your Petition; and, 
receive a feverc . } e ft \ fhould miftake as you have done, 
111 ' h th commanded me to give you this Anfwer : 

* That the four Perlbns in your Petition princi- 
' pally concern'd are, upon juft and mature Con- 
iideration, appointed to be brought unto a legal 

* Trial for Crimes againft Law preceding the Fad}, 
' and not after, as fuggeited ; at which Trial they 

* will have free Liberty to offer whatfoever they 
' {hall have to fay in their own Defence : And to 

* fuch Proceedings the Parliament do expect that 
4 all Perfons in England fhould fubmit, and in the 

* Judgment of Parliament acquiefce. 

' That the Contrivers of this Petition have 
1 therein taken a Liberty of fcandalous and fedi- 

* tious Suggeftions, not allowable nor juftifiable in 

* any Perfons whatfoever, under Pretence of Peti- 
' tioning ; and do fo far countenance the imprifoned 

* Perfons, in the Offences for which they are que- 
' ftioned, as might render them juftly fufpected of 
c the like Crimes. But the Parliament will yet 
' exercife Patience towards you, conceiving that 
* divers well-meaning Men may, by falfe yet fpe- 
' cious Pretences, be deluded into this Mifcarriage ; 
' and hoping that, by this Forbearance, fuch may 

* come to fee their own Errors.' 

This Anfwer was ordered to be printed and pub- 
lifti'd ; but it was of very little Ufe, for when the 
Men durft not any more petition in Behalf of //- 
bourne and his Aflbciates, the Women took it 
up; and prefented one to the Houfe in Terms, as 
Mr. Whitlocke writes, almoft fcolding. To which 
they ordered the following Anfwer to be given them 


Of ENGLAND, 107 

by their Serjeant at Arms : c That the Matter they Inter-regnum, 
' petitioned about was of an higher Concernment l6 49- 

* than they underfrood ; that the Houfe had given ^^^^ 

* an Anfwer to their Hufbands ; and therefore de- 

* fired them to go home and look after their own 
' Bufmefs, and meddle with their Houfewifery.' 

April 20. The Houfe fell upon their ufual Me- 
thod of feeking God, by Fafting and Prayer; they 
had a Faft the Day before this, on which they had 
no lefs than three Sermons preached to them, in 
Margaret's Church, Wejlminfier, as it was then 
called : And another Fait was ordered for the 3d 
of May next, all which were to implore God's 
Bleffing upon the Forces of the Parliament already 
in Ireland, and thofe that were to be fent thither. 
Lieutcnant-General Cromwell, Commifiary-Ge- 
neral Ireton, and Mr. Corbet, were ordered to pre- 
pare Preachers for that Exercife. 

The Earl of Pembroke, having fo far waved his 
Peerage as to be chofen and return'd Knight of the 
Shire for the County of Berks, took his Seat in the Three Peers e- 
Houfe ; and was this Day apoointed by them one le r a f d ^ em r be " 

t- i V> rr c L XT a r of the Houfe of 

of the Commiiiioners of the Navy. Soon after commons, 
the Lord Howard of EJkricke got himfelf return'd 
for the City of Carlijle, and was admitted to fit as 
a Commoner in the Houfe. William Earl of Sa- 
lijbury did the fame for -Lynn, in Norfolk, to the 

freat Difgrace of that Noble Family; which had 
een raifed, by Royal Bounty, in the three laft 
Reigns, to the great Honours and Wealth they 
were then poffeffed of. Thefe three Lords were 
all of the whole Peerage that, fo far, bowed their 
Knees to this Commonwealth . And the Commons, 
to compliment their coming amongft them, voted, 
That they fhould fit in all the Committees of 
which they were Members at the Time when the 
Houfe of Lords was diffolved. 

April 23. The Commons next proceeded to no- 
minate Commiffioners of the Excife and of the 


io8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Cuftoms, with all their Under-Officers, and to 
1649. make large Regulations for the fame. 

April 25. This Day the Houfe heard a Report 
from the Council of State, concerning a Let- 
ter received from the Earl of Northumberland, 
Who vote 3000!. about fome Maintenance for the late King's Chil- 
per Ann. for dren. At the fame Time the Houfe read a Petition 
Maintenance of f rom f ucn Servants as were appointed by Parliament 

two of the late , , c f~,, , , c \ . A * ,_._,. .. 

King's Children, to attend thofe Children, for their Arrears. Thefe 
were ordered to be referred to the Committee for 
the Revenue, and they were required to pay to the 
Earl of Northumberland fuch Monies as were due 
to him, according to feveral Orders and Ordi- 
nances of Parliament, for Maintenance of the 
Duke of Gloucefter and the Lady Elizabeth, his 
Sifter, unto that Day : Likewife all the Arrears 
due to the Servants for Wages and Diet. 

At the fame Time two Letters were read, from 
the Princefs Elizabeth ; one of them, dated Ja- 
nuary 22, 1648, no doubt, was for impjoring 
Mercy for her Father's Life ; the latter, dated 
April 2, 1649, we are told, was to defire Leave 
to go beyond Sea ; which la,ft Requeft, being put 
to the Queftion, was carried in the Negative, by 29 
againft 24. So 3000 /. per Annum was ordered to 
be fettled upon the Duke of Gloucefter and the La- 
dy Elizabeth ; and the Care and Tuition of them, 
with the Management of this Allowance, was at 
that Time committed to Sir Edward Harrington, 
not a Member, but he afterwards defired to be ex- 
cufed from the Office. 

And order Mo- Another Report was made to the Houfe from 
El2w * Council of State > concerning the Form and In- 
*he Common, fcriptions of the new Coin ; when it was refolved 
wealth. to have the Infcription in the Englijh Tongue, and 

to be, on that Side where the Englijh Arms do 
LAND ; on the other Side, which bears the Arms 
of England and Ireland, GOD WITH us. Thefe 
Coins are yet very common in the Cabinets of 


Of E N G L A N D. 109 

The laft Matter done this Day by the Houfe, inter-regnum. 
was to vote that an Aft of Oblivion (hould be j6 49- 

brought in ; and the Queftion being put, That the ' ^"""- J 

Time to be fet in that Aft, from which no Aftion Apnl> 
or Suit {hall be commenced or profecuted for a "y An Aft of Obli- 
Thingfaid or done in the Time of the War, and in v ion ordered in, 
Profecution thereof, fhall be before the firft Day of 
this Term: The Houfe divided, when it was car- 
ried in the Affirmative, 25 againft 22 j and an 
Aft was ordered in accordingly. 

Nothing further occurs in this Month worth 
our Notice, except an Aft of fatal Confequence 
to the Hierarchy, the Preamble to which runs thus : Another for the 

* The Commons of Engla nd^ in Parliament aflem- Sale of Deans and 
c bled, having ferioufly weighed the Neceffity o f cha P tersLands > 
' raifmg a prefent Supply of Monies for the pre- 

' fent Safety of this Commonwealth ; and finding 
' that their other Securities are not fatisfaftory to 
' Lenders, nor fufficient to raife fo confiderable a 
' Sum as will be neceflary for the faid Service, are 
' neceffitated to fell the Lands of the Deans and 

* Chapters, for paying of the Public Debts : And 
' for the raiftng of 300,000 /. for the prefent Sup- 
4 ply of the prefling Neceffities of this Common- 
' wealth, they do enaft, ordain, and declare, cffr.' 

By this A6t the Name and Funftion of Deans, 
Deans and Chapters, Canons, Prebendaries, and all 
other Offices and Places belonging to any Cathedral 
or Collegiate Church or Chapel, in England or 
Wales ^ were abolifh'dj and all their Manors, Lands, 
Impropriations, Tythes, Rights of Patronage and 
Prefentation, and all other Pofleffions whatfoever ; 
together with all Charters, Deeds, Writings, and 
Evidences, concerning the fame, were veiled in 
Truftees for the Ufe of the Commonwealth : But 
all Lands, &c. appointed for the Maintenance of 
Grammar Schools, Alms-houfes, or other chari- 
table Ufes ; as alfo for repairing of Highways and 
Bridges, were excepted : Nor did this Aft extend 
to the Revenues of any College, Foundation or 


no The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Houfe of Learning, in cither of the Univerfities, 
1649- nor to the Schools, of IVfjbninJter^ Winchejler, 
*"" v~ ' or Eaton. Thefe Lands of Deans and Chapters 
were not to be fold under twelve Years Purchafe, 
nor a Reverfion thereof upon a Leafe for one Life, 
under fix Years ; for two Lives, three Years and 
a half; and for three Lives two Years and a half's 
Purchafe; and fo in proportion. Their Parfon- 
ages and Tithes appropriate, and Rents illuing 
therefrom, as alfo their Rights of Patronage and 
Prefentation, were excepted from Sale, in order to 
be applied to the better Maintenance of Parochial 
Minifters. Thus much may be fufficient to give 
the Reader an Idea of this extraordinary Act. 

For fettling the May I. This Day Sir Arthur Hejlerigge brought 
Commonwealth, j n an Aft touching' the Settlement of the Com- 
monwealth ; which was read a firft and fecond 
Time, and afterwards referred to a Committee of 
fuch Members as were of the Council of State > 
but all that came were to have Voices. 

And declaring The fame Gentleman alfo brought in another 
T** ffenc f; Aft, declaring what Offences {hall be adjudged 

Aall be deem d _ ' ,. ,9 , .,'.& 

Tseafcn. . Treafon ; which was read and committed in the 
fame Manner. 

The Houfe likewife appointed a Day for taking 
into Confideration the Bufmefs touching undue 
Elections and unequal Reprefentatives. 

This laft Refolution was probably owing to the 
great Alarm fpread throughout the Kingdom on 
account of the Imprifonment of Col. Li/bourne, 
Wahvyn^ Prince, and Overton; who, as already ob- 
ferved, not only h'ad the Courage to print a Narra- 
tive of all that pafs'd between the Council of State 
and themfelves, but alfo this Day publifhed, with 
an Introduction by way of Appeal to the People, 
their new Model of Government, intitled, An 
Agreement of the Free People of England, tendered 
. as a Peace-Offering to this diftrefs'd Nation, fub- 
fcribed with their own Names, and dated, From our 
caufelefs Captivity in the Tower of London, May i, 



1649. This Project, which aim'd at the imme- 
diate Difiblution of the Parliament and the Coun- 
cil of State, took fo much with the Public, that 
not only the Printer thereof had the Refolution to 
put his Name to it, but even the Licenfer of the 
Prefs o-ave it his Imprimatur: He was foon after 
removed from that Office ; and it is highly pro- 
bable his licenfmg of this Pamphlet contributed 
not a little to his Difmiffion. As it is ftricrly Par- 
liamentary, we flaall give the Heads thereof from 
the original Edition ', 

L ' That the Supreme Authority of England, Heads of a new 
* and the Territories therewith incorporate, mall plan of Goyem- 
' refide henceforward in a Reprefentative of tfotowiSe.AyrJ 
' People, confifting of 400 Perfons, but no more; An Agreement of 


tiie Choice of whom, according to natural thi P 

' Right, all Men of the Age of twenty-one Years 

* and upwards (not being Servants, or receiving 
c Alms, or having ferved the late King in Arms or 

* voluntary Contributions) fhall have their Voices, 

* and be capable of being elected to that Supreme 
' Truft, thofe who ferved the King being difabled 

* for ten Years onry. All Things concerning the 
4 Diftribution of the faid Members proportionable 
' to the refpetive Parts of the Nation, the Places 

* for Election, the Manner of giving and taking 
' Voices, with all Circumftances of like Nature, 
' as alfo their Salary, to be fettled by this prefent 
' Parliament, in fuch Sort as the next Reprefenta- 

* tive may be in a certain Capacity to meet with 
4 Safety at the Time herein exprefled : And fuch 
' Circumftances to be made more perfect by future 
4 Reprefentatives. 

II. * That 200 Members, and not lefs, fhall be 
c efteemed a competent Reprefentative ; and the 

* Major Voices prefent mail be conclufive. The 

* Place of Seffion and Choice of a Speaker, with 

* other Circumftances of that Nature, are referred 

* to the Care of this and future Reprefentatives. 


t London, printed for Gyles Calvert, at the black fpread Eagle, 
at the Weft End of Parts, and lienfed by Gilbert Mattel, April 30, 

H2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intrr-rcgnum. HI. And to the end all public Officers may be 
1649. t certainJy accountable, and no Factions made to 

C "TJ >/ 7"""' ) * maintain corrupt Interefts, no Officer of any Sa- 
lary, Forces in Army or Garrifon, nor any Re- 
' ceiver of public Money, (hall (while fuch) be 

* elected a Member ; and if any Lawyer fhall be 
' chofen, he fliall be incapable of Practice as a 

* Lawyer, during the whole Time of that Truft. 

IV. ' That no Member of the prefent Parlia- 

* mcnt be capable of being elected of the next Re- 

* prefentative, nor any Member of any future for 

* the Reprefentative immediately fucceeding; but 

* are free to be chofen, one Reprefentative having 
' intervened : Nor any Member be made either 
c Receiver, Treafurer, or other Officer during that 
6 Employment. 

V. * That, for avoiding the many Dangers ap- 
' parently arifmg from the long Continuance of the 

* lame Perfons in Authority, this prefent Parlia- 
' ment (hall end the firft Wednefday in Augujl next, 

* 1649 ; and, in the mean Time, fhall order the 
' Election of a new and equal Reprefentative, to 
' meet and fit in Power and Authority as fuch up- 
' on the Day following. 

VI. ' If the prefent Parliament fhall omit to 
4 order fuch Election of a new Reprefentative, the 
' People to proceed in electing thereof as formerly 
' accuflomed in the Choice of Knights and Bur- 
' gefies ; obferving only the Exceptions of fuch 
' Perfons being Eledtor^ or Ele.6led, as are men- 
' tioned before in the firft, third, and fourth Heads 
' of this Agreement: It being moft unreafonable 
' that the People fliould either be kept from new, 
' frequent, and fuc'ceffive Reprefentatives ; or that 

* the Supreme Authority fhould fall into the Hands 
' of fuch as have manifefted Difafteclion to the 
' common Freedom, and endeavour'd the Bondage 
of the Nation. 

VII. ' And, for preferving the Supreme Autho- 
4 rity from falling into the Hands of any whom the 
' People fhall not chufe, that a new Reprefentative 

* fhall be held upon the firft Tburfday in Augujl next 

* afore- 

Of E N G L A N D. 113 

e fatd; the ordering of themfelves, as to the Choice Inter-regnum. 

* of a Speaker, and the like Circumftances, is to 

* be left to their Difcretion ; but, in the Extent ^^^^ J 

* and Exercife of Power, to follow the Rules of 
c this Agreement; and, according to their beft 
' Judgments^ to fet Rules for future equal Diftri- 

* bution, and Election of Members as is herein ex- 

* peered to be done by the prefent Parliament. 

VIII. And, for the Prefervation of the Su- 
c preme Authority, in all Times, entirely in the 

* Hands of fuch Perfons only as (hall be chofen 

* thereunto, that the next, and all future Repre- 

* fentatives, fhall continue in full Power for the 

* Space of one whole Year ; and that the People 
' mail of Courfe chufe a Parliament once every 

* Year, fo as all the Members thereof may be in a 

* Capacity to meet and take place of the foregoing 

* Reprefentative, the firft Tburfday in every Auguft^ 
4 for ever : Alfo that the next or any future Re- 
prefentative, being met, mail continue their Sef- 
' lion, Day by Day, without Intermiflion, for 
four .Months ; and after that mail be at Liberty 
' to adjourn from two Months to two Months, as 
' they mall fee Caufe, untill their Year be expired ; 

* but mail fit no longer than a Year, upon Pain of 
f Treafon to every Member that (hall exceed that 

* Time; and, in Times of Adjournment, fhall not 

* erect a Council of State, but refer the Managing 
< of Affairs, in the Intervals, to a Committee of 
' their own Members, giving fuch Inftruftions, 

* and publishing them, as fhall in no Meafure 

* contradict this Agreement. 

IX. * And, that none henceforth may be igno- 
4 rant or doubtful concerning the Power of the Su- 
' preme Authority, and of the Affairs about which 

* the fame is to be converfant and exercifed, that 

* the Power of Reprefentatives fhall extend, with- 

* out the Confent or Concurrence of any other 
4 Perfon, 

i/?, * To the Confervation of Peace and Com- 
' merce with foreign Nations. 
VOL. XIX, H 2, 

H4 jfik Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum. 2(Hy y ' To the Prefervation of thofe S^jjfguarcls 

1649. < a nd Securities of our Lives, Limbs, K>erties, 

*- v J < Properties, and Eftates, contained in the Petition 

Jay< 4 of Right, made and enaded in the third Year of 

* the late King. 

3<#y, ' To the raifing of Monies, and generally 
'to all Things as mall be evidently conducive to 
4 thofe Ends, or to the Enlargement of our Free- 
4 dom, Redrefs of Grievances, and Profperity of 
4 the Commonwealth. 

4 For Security whereof, having, by woeful Expe- 
4 rience, found the Prevalence of corrupt Interefts 

* powerfully inclining moft Men, once intruded 

* with Authority, to pervert the fame to their own 
4 Domination, and to the Prejudice of our Peace 
' and Liberties, that it be further agreed, 

X. ' That the faid Reprefentatives be not im- 
4 powered to continue in Force, or to make any 
' Laws, Oaths, or Covenants, whereby to com- 

* pel, by Penalties or otherwife, any Perfon to any 

* Thing in or about Matters of Faith, Religion, 
c or God's Worfliip ; or to reftrain any Perfon 
' from the Profeflion of his Faith, or Exercife of 
4 Religion according to his Confcience ; nothing 
4 having caufed more Diftraflions and Heart-burn* 
6 ings in all Ages, than Perfecution for Matters of 
' Confcience in and about Religion. 

XI. 4 That the faid Reprefentatives be not im- 

* powered to imprefs or conftrain any Perfon to 
4 ferve in War, by Sea or Land, every Man's 
4 Confcience being to be fatisfied in the Juftnefs of 
4 that Caufe wherein he hazards his own Life or 

* may deftroy another's. 

4 And, for abolifhing all Enmity and Rancour 

* as much as now poflible, that it be agreed, 

XII. ' That, after the End of this prefent Par- 

* fiament, no Perfon mall be queftioned for any 
x Thinp liaH or done in reference to the late Wars, 

* or public Differences, otherwife than in purfit- 

* ance of the Determinations of the prefent Par- 
c liament againft fueh as have adhered to the King 

4 againft 

Of E N G L A N D. 115 

e againft the Liberties of the People ; and favin 

* that Accountants for public Money received fliafi 
' remain accountable for the fame. 

XIII. ' That all Exemptions of anyPerfons from 
c the ordinary Courfe of legal Proceedings, by Vir- 
' tue of any Tenure, Grant, Charter, Patent, De- 
' gree, or Birth ; or of any Place of Refidence, 

* Refuge, or Privilege of Parliament, (hall be 
' henceforth void ; and the like not to be reviv'd 
' again. 

XIV. * That the Reprefentatives be not im- 
c power'd to give Judgment upon any one's Per- 

* fon or Eftate, where no Law hath before been 

* provided ; nor to give Power to any other Court 

* fo to do ; for where there is no Law there is no 
' Tranfgreflion for Magiftrates to take Cognizance 

* of: Neither to be impower'd to intermeddle with 
' the Execution of any Law whatfoever. 

' And, in order to remove all long fettled 

i Grievances, and take away all Caufe of Com- 

<r plaints, that the People may no longer depend 

' upon the uncertain Inclination of Parliaments to 

* remove them, 

XV. < That it fhall not be in the Power of any 
' Reprefentative to punifh, or caufe to be punifh'd, 
' any Perfon for refufing to anfwer Queftions againft 

* himfelf in criminal Cafes. 

XVI. That it fhall not be in their Power, 
' after the End of the next Reprefentative, to con- 

* tinue or conftitute any Proceedings in Law long- 
er than fix Months to the final Determination of 
' any Caufe, and to be then paft all Appeal. 

XVII. c That the Laws and the Proceedings 
' therein fhall be in no other Language than Eng- 
' lijh ; nor fhall any Perfon be hindered from plead- 
' ing his own Caufe, or of making Ufe of whom 
' he pleafes to plead for him. 

* The reducing of thefe, and other the like Pro- 

* vifions of this Nature, in this Agreement provi- 

* ded, and which cannot now, in all Particulars, 
' be perfected, is intended to be the proper Work 

* of faithful Reprefentatives. 


n6 TTtf Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intsr-regmim. XVIII. That it (hall not be in their Power to 
1649. < continue or make any Laws to hinder any Per- 
^ v - *J c f on from trading into any Place beyond the Seas, 
y< ' where any of this Nation are free to trade. 

XIX. That it fhall not be in their Power to 
c continue Excife or Cuftoms upon any Sort of 

* Food, or any Wares or Commodities, longer than 
' four Months after the Beginning of the nextRe- 

* prefentative ; being both of them extreme bur- 

* denfome and oppreflive to Trade, and fo expen- 

* five in the Receipt, as the Money expended there- 
' in, if collected as Subfidies have been, would ex- 
' tend very far towards defrayingthePublicCharges: 
4 Nor (hall they raife Money by any other Ways, 
c after the aforefaid Time, but only by an equal 
c Rate in the Pound upon every Real arid Perfonal 
4 Eftate in the Nation. 

XX. ' That it fhall not be in- their Power to 
' make or continue any Law, whereby Men's Real 
4 or Perfonal Eftates, or any Part thereof, fhall be 
e exempted from Payment of their Debts ; or to 

* imprifon any Perfon for Debt of any Nature, it 
' being both unchriftian in itfelf, and no Advantage 
4 to the Creditors, and both a Reproach and Preju- 
c dice to the Commonwealth. 

XXI. That it mail not be in their Power to 
c make or continue any Law, for taking away any 
4 Man's Life, except for Murder, or other like 

* heinous Offences deftructive to human Society, 

* or for endeavouring by Force to dcftroy this 
4 Agreement : But fhall ufe their utmoft Endea- 

* vour to appoint Punifhments equal to Offences ; 

* nor fhall the Eftate of any capital Offender be 
' confifcatc, but in Cafes of Treafon only ; and, 
c in all other capital Offences, Recompence fhall 

* be made to the Parties damnified, as well out of 
4 the Eftate of the Malefaaor, as by Lofs of Life, 
c according to the Conlcience of his Jury. 

XXII. * That it fhall not be in their Power to 

* continue or make any Law, to deprive any Per- 
e fon, in cafe of Trials for Life, Limb, Liberty, 
' or Eftate, from the Benefit of Witneffes in his 

* Behalf ; 

Of ENGLAND. 117 

< Behalf; nor to deprive any Perfon of thofe Pri- Inter-regnum* 

* vileges contain'd in the Petition of Right. l6 49- 

XXIII. * That it fhalJ not be in their Power to ' *- ' 

* continue the Grievance of Tythes longer than 

* the End of the next Representative ; in which 
' Time they fhall provide to give reafonable Satif- 
' faction to all Impropriators : Neither {hall they 
' force, by Penalties or otherwife, any Perfon to 

* pay towards the Maintenance of any Miniftera, 
' who, out of Conference, cannot fubmit there- 
' unto. 

XXIV. That it fhall not be in their Power to 

* impofe Miniflers upon any Parifh ; but fhaH s;ive 
' free Liberty to the Parifhioners of every Parifh to 
' chufe fuch as themfelves fhall approve ; and upon 
' fuch Terms, and for fuch Reward as themfelves 
' fhall be willing to contribute, or contract for. 
' Provided none be Chufers but fuch as are capable 
' of electing Reprefentatives. 

XXV. c That it fhall not be in their Power to 
6 continue or make a Law for any other Way of 

* Judgments, or Conviction of Life, Limb, Liberty, 

* or Eftate, bat only by twelve fworn Men of the 
' Neighbourhood, to be chofen in fome free Way 

* by the People, to be directed before the End of 

* the next Reprefentative, and not pick'd Men. 

XXVI. They fhall not difable any Perfon 
6 from bearing any Office in the Commonwealth, 
4 for any Opinion or Practice in Religion, except- 
' ing fuch as maintain the Pope's (or other foreign) 

* Supremacy. 

XXVII. < That it fhall not be in their Power 
c to impofe any public Officer upon any Counties, 
' Hundreds, Cities, Towns, or Boroughs ; but the 
' People capable of chufing Reprefentatives, fhall 
' chufe all their public Officers that are in any 
c Kind to adminifter the Law for their refpective 
' Places, for one whole Year, and no longer; and 

* fo from Year to Year. 

' And, that no Perfon may have juft Caufe to 

4 complain, by reafon of taking away the Excife 

4 and Cuftoms, that it; be agreed, 

H 3 

1 1 8 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

jRter-regnum. XXVIII. < That the next, and all future, Re- 

1649. t prefentatives (hall exactly keep the Public Faith, 

V """T^~~ < "^ ' and give full Satisfaction, for ail Securities, Debts, 

' Arrears, or Damages, juftly chargeable out of 

* the public Trealury ; and {hall confirm all juft 
' public Purchafes and Contracts that have been, 

* or {hall be made ; fave that the next Reprefen- 

* tative may confirm or make null, in part or in. 
' whole, all Gifts of Lands, Money, Offices, or 
otherwife, made by the prefent Parliament, to 

* any Member of the Houfe of Commons, or to 

* any of the Lords, or to any of the Attendants of 
' either of them. 

' And forafmuch as nothing threateneth greater 
c Danger to the Commonwealth, than that the 
' Military Power ftiould by any Means come to 

* be fuperior to the Civil Authority, that it be 

* agreed, 

XXIX. That no Forces fliall be raifed but by 
' the Reprefentatives for the Time being ; and, in 
' raifing thereof, that they exactly obferve thefe 

* Rules, namely, That they allot to each County, 
c City, Town, and Borough, the raifing and pay- 
' ing of a due Proportion, according to the whole 
' Number to be levied ; and fliall, to the Electors 
' of Reprefentatives in each refpeclive Place, give 

* free Liberty to appoint all Officers appertaining 
' to Regiments, Troops, and Companies, and to 

* remove them as they fhall fee Caufe ; referving 
' to the Reprefentative the appointing only of the 

* General, and all General Officers, and the com- 

* manding of them all upon what Service fhall 
' feem to them neceffary for the Safety, Peace, and 

* Freedom of the Commonwealth. 

f And as it has been found by fad Experience, 

* that generally Men make little Scruple of exceed- 

* ing their Time and Power in Places of Truft, to 
8 introduce an arbitrary and tyrannical Power, 
' where there are no Penalties impofed for fuch de- 

* ftru&ive Offences, that it be agreed, 

XXX. That it (hall not be in the Power of 
( any Reprefentative in anywife to render up ot 


Of E N G L A N D. 119 

c take away any Part of this Agreement, nor level Inter-regnum. 

* Men's Eftates, deftroy Property, or make all :6 49- 

* Things common: And if any Reprefentative (hall V ~"7) / """"'"" / 
4 endeavour, as a Reprefentative, to deftroy this 

' Agreement, every Member prefent in the Houfe, 
4 not entering or immediately publifhing his Dif- 
4 Tent, ihall incur the Pains due for High Treafon, 
and be proceeded againft accordingly : And if any 

* Perfon mail, by Force, endeavour or contrive the 
' Detraction thereof, each Perfon fo doing fhall 
4 likewife be dealt with as in Cafes of High Trea- 

* fon : And if any Perfon mail, by Force of Arms, 
' difturb Elections of Reprefentatives, he fhall in- 
4 cur the Penalty of a Riot : And if any Perfon, 

* not capable of being an Elector or Elected, fhall 

* intrude himfelf among thofe that are, or any Per- 

* fon fhall behave himfelf diforderly, fuch Perfon 

* fhall be liable to a Prefentment by a Grand In- 

* queft, and of an Indictment upon Mifdemeanor, 
4 and be fined, or otherwife punifhed, accord- 

* ing to the Difcretion and Verdict of a Jury. 
' And all Laws made, or that fhall be made, con- 

* trary to any Part of this Agreement, declared 
4 null and void.' 

To give the greater Countenance to the forego- 
ing Agreement, the Day after its Publication, 
May 2, two Petitions were prefented to the Houfe 
in favour of the Authors of it ; the one from di- 
vers Citizens of London^ and the other from the 
County of EJJex ; but no Anfwer was given to ei- 
ther of them. 

May 3. This Day, according to Appointment, A Fail obfcrvcd- 
was obferved as a Day of public Humiliation, to for the Succefs of 
beg God's Bleffing upon Cromwell and his Army, 
then going for Ireland ; when the Houfe heard 
three Sermons as before. The Ordinance for 
keeping a Monthly Faft, which had fubfifted all 
the Time of the War till now, was repealed, and 
occafional ones fubftituted in their Stead ; for which 
this Reafon is affigned in the Aft, That fuch fet 


120 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Times for extraordinary Duties of Worftiip are 
1649- apt to degenerate into meer Formality and cuftom- 
* TV"""""' ary Obfervances ; and that it is more agreeable to 
the Nature of fuch extraordinary Worfhip, and to 
the approved and fuccefsful Examples of the People 
of God in Scripture, to fet a-part fpecial Times 
for fuch folemn Duties, according to the particu- 
lar Occafions, to the end the fame might be ob- 
ferved with greater Care and Attention. 

After the foregoing Ac^ of Humiliation the 
Houfe did nothing material for feveral Days toge- 
ther ; for, having fwallowed up the Kingly Office, 
and afiumed to themfelves the Legiflative Power 
of the Lords, much private Bufmefs came before 
them, which had no Reference to the Public. Yet 
was not this Remnant of a Parliament, with their 
Council of State, free from Fears ; many Parties 
were now raifed againft them, wherein the Royal- 
ifts had no Share, of which that of Col. John Lil- 
bourne^ and his AfTociates before-mentioned, was 
the moft formidable. The Reader may recoiled! 
a Petition offered to the Houfc in their Favour on 
the 1 8th of laft Month, in which the newly-affu- 
med Power of the Commons was attack'd in fo fpi- 
rited a Manner, as would have been more fevercly 
punifh'd than by a Reprimand from the Speaker, 
had they durft have done fo : But their Apprehen- 
iions of raifmg a Tumult, which might have end- 
, ed in their own Deftru&ion, prevented them at 

this Time. 

The Houfe under As an Inftance of their Fears and Jealoufies, out 
great Apprehen- o f their own Records : The Houfe having beea 
* informed that divers Perfons were then in Arms, 
and committed Hoftilities againft the Parliament ; 
on the nth of this Month they ordered a Letter, 
fign'd by the Speaker, to be fent to the General 
to acquaint him with it, and to defire he would 
take efpecial Care therein. 

Ordered alfo that Major-General Skippon do 
take Care, that the Forces in the City of London . 
and Suburbs, under his Command, be in Readi- 
nefs for Service, for the Prefervation of the Peace 


Of E N G L A N D. 121 

and Safety of the Parliament and City, according inter- reg 
to the Power already given him, and according to 10 49- 
fuch Directions as he ihall, from Time to Time, ^^f 
receive from the Parliament and Council of State ; aj * 

That the Committee of the Militia of London and 
IVeftminfter do ac"t accordingly; and that the 
Council of State do take Care that all the Forces 
of the Parliament in and about London, &c. do join 
for the Prefervation of their Peace and Safety. 

This may be look'd upon as a fufficient Alarm 
of approaching Danger, and yet no particular Par- 
ty or Perfon is named for it, except one William 
Thompfon ; againft whom, and againft all that fhould 
join him, a Proclamation was ordered to be iflued, 
declaring them Rebels and Traitors, and to be 
proceeded againft accordingly. But Mr. Whitlocke 
writes that they were a ftrong Body of the Army, 
of the new levelling Principles, who had mutinied 
on their being ordered for Ireland. And 

May 12. The Matter appears plainer who were 
the Parties concern'd in thefe Infurrer.ions, by an 
Order from the Houfe for a drifter Confinement 
of their Principals ; for, in a Debate this Day, a 
Queftion being put That Col. Lilbourne, Mr. fVil- 
liam Walwyn, Mr. Thomas Prince, and Mr. Over-? 
ton, be made clofe Prifoners in the Tower, and 
kept from one another in feparate Lodgings, it 
palled in the Affirmative without a Divifion. And 
another Queftion being put, That the faid Prifoners 
(hould have Maintenance allowed them during their 
clofe Confinement, the Houfe divided upon it, when 
the Noes were found to be 26, and the Yeas 195 
fo it paired in the Negative. 

Upon thefe fevere Refolutions of the Houfe, the 
Author of one of the Diaries of thefe Times 
makes this pertinent Remark r : ' This Treatment 
is worfe than ever was exercifed by the late King, 
or any of his Predeceflbrs, who always allowed 
Prifoners, tho' committed for High Treafon, in 
the Tower, a weekly Maintenance according to 
t The Mtdcrate N. 44. 

122 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

their Quality. Not only to commit Men clofc 

Priioiu-rs, that neither Man, Woman or Child can 
come to, or fpeak with them, (for that is clofe Im- 
prilbnment) whereby they arc made incapable of 
procuring Money, Cloaths, or Victuals, from 
Friends or Kindred, other in. .11 what their mer- 
cild's Keepers will pieafe to afford them ; but to 
give them no Allowance at all to maintain them ! 
What it Tome of them have noEltates, their Friends 
cannot be admitted to relieve them ; their Keepers 
have nor wher-ewiihall ; mult they not confequently 
perifh and Itarve in Prifon ? Could it ever be con- 
ceived that Human Nature fhould produce fuch 
Things ? Are thefe Principles fuitable with Grace 
in thole that would be thought godly j" 

This Appeal to the Public, which it is highly 
probable was followed by more of the fame Im- 
port, had fuch Effect, that, three Days after, the 
Lieutenant of the Tower was ordered to take Care 
, that Lilbcurne and his Fellow-Prifoners fhould have 
necefiary Provifions. 

An Act had been brought into the Houfe fome 

Time fmce byCommifiary-General Ireton, intitled, 

An Aft parted jln Aft for the more conjlant and. certain Supply of 

Fc P <S!rtw g tf)C Sti* ers w ' lt ^ P a 'J-> and tfje preventing of any 
further Opprejjlor. and Damage to the People, bv free 
^htarter and Billet , which was read a third Time 
this Day, palled, and ordered to be printed and 
publiftied forthwith. 

May 14. This Day another Adi was read a 

third Time and pafTed, An Att declaring what Of- 

Another deda- f ences foall be judged Treafon ; and that the Time 

ring what Of- for profecutiiig Pcrfons for the fame Jhall be with- 

fences /hall be j n one Year after the Offence committed. Ordered 

lfon> that this A& be forthwith printed and publifhed. 

Hereby it was enacled, ' That if any Perfon 
fhall malicioufly publifli, by writing, printing, or 
openly declaring, that the Government of the 
People, by its own Reprefentatives or National 
Meetings in Council, is tyrannical, ufurped, or 

unlawful i 

Of E N G L A N D. 123 

.unlawful ; or that the Commons in Parliament af- Inter-regnunv 
fembled arc not the Supreme Authority of this Na- l6 49- 
tion ; or plot, contrive, or endeavour to raife Force ' T^""^ 1 -^ 
againft the prefent Government, or Subverfion or 
Alteration of the fame, and fhall declare the fame 
by any open Deed : That if any Perfon {hall, ma- 
licioufly and advifedly, plot and contrive, or en- 
deavour, the Subverfion of the Keepers of the Li- 
berty of England, or Council of State ; or move 
any Perfon for doing thereof, or ftir up the 
People to rife againft them, or either of them, or 
their Authorities : And that if any Perfon, not be- 
ing an Officer, Soldier, or Member of the Army, 
fhall plot, contrive, or endeavour to ftir up Mu- 
tiny in the Army under the Command of Thomas 
Lord Fairfax ; or withdraw any Soldiers or Offi- 
cers from their Obedience to their fuperior Offi- 
cers, or from the prefent Government; or fhall 
procure or alfift any Foreigners or Strangers to in- 
vade England or Ireland; or adhere to any Forces 
raifed by the Enemies of the Parliament, Com- 
monwealth, or Keepers of the Liberty of England', 
or fhall counterfeit the Great Seal of England, for 
the Time being, ufed and appointed by the Au- 
thority of Parliament ; every fuch Offence fhall be 
deem'd High Treafon.' 

On the 2d of this Month Dr. Doriflam, an Dr. Doriflaus, 
Agent for the Parliament In Holland, having; been the Parliament's 
affaffinated thereby fome defperate Royalffts, fo Agent, aflkffini- 

T L. f j c 1. v >AT ii tet * at the Hague. 

Revenge, as they faid, for their King s Murder, he 
having acled as Counfel againft his Majefty at his 
Trial : This Day Sir Henry Vane reported to the 
Houfe, from the Council of State, the Examina- 
tions of the three Perfons, Servants to Dr. Dorif- 
laus, who were prefent at his Death, and likewife 
a Letter from Mr. Walter Strickland, dated from 
the Hague, May ^ T , about the fame. Thefe being 
read, (which are not entered in the Journals) to- 
gether with the Opinions of the Council of State, 
touching the Difpofal of Dr. DoriJIaus's Body, his 
Children and Servants, the Houfe ordered, That 

200 /. 

124 yt je PfirKawtKtery HISTORY 
Inter- repnum. 200 /. per Ann. be fettled as a Penfion for Life on 
l(i 49- his Son; 5OO/, a-piece to be given to each of 
< *"""^"""~" ; his Daughters, and 250 /. for his Interment, to be 
charged upon the Revenue. And that a Declara- 
tion fhould be drawn, on Occafion of the Murder 
of Dr. DoriJlauS) in order to be printed and pub- 
lifhed, which was done accordingly in bac Verba : 

A S C "*i n ' "\77'^ ereaS V aac Dorijlmes^ Doclor of the 
"' 4 VV Laws, and one of the Judges of the 
High Court of Admiralty of this Commonwealth, 
' was lately employ'd from the faid Commonwealth 

* as their public Minifler, to be refident together 
' with Walter Strickland, Efq; a Member of Par- 
' liament, Refident there, with the High and Mish- 
' ty Lords the States General of the United Pro- 
' vinces, to whom he had Credentials and Inftruc- 

* tions for maintaining a right Underftanding and 

* good Correfpondency between the Nations, ac- 
' cording to the antient Alliances and Treaties; and 

* was, within a few Days after his Arrival there, 

* notwithftanding his faid Public Character, barba- 
' roufly and execrably murdered by armed Men, 
' violently rufhing into his Lodging : * 


g Mr. Wbitlaclc writes, That Dcrijlaus was murdered by twelve 
f.f^i'jh Cavaliers, in Difguife, who ftabbed him in feveral Places, 
and cut his Throat j and that one of them faid, Thus din one of the Judges. Memorials, p. 386. 

Lord Clarendon, who was then at the Hague, gives a more pir- 
tlcular Account of this Matter: His Lordfhip informs us, ' That 
Dr. Dcrijlaxs having taken up his Lodging at a Houfe where Stran- 
gers ufed to repair till they could provide better fr their own Ac- 
commodation ; whilft he 'was at Supper, in Company with many 
o'lii'r . who ufcd to cat theve, half a Dozen Gentlemen emer'd the 
Room with their Swords drawn, and required thole who were at 
Table vat to ftir ; for there ivas ao Harm intended to any but the 
^gtr.t tubo came from :be Rc/xli in England, iuho lad neiply rr.ur- 
der d their Kir g: And one of them, who knew Dcrijlaus, pull'd 
him from the Table, and kkll'd him at his Feet ; and thereupon 
ti>ey all put up their Swords, and waJk'd leilnrely out of the Houfc, 
Jeaving thofe who were in the Room in much Amazement and Con- 
flernation. Tho' all who were engaged in the Enterprize went 
fluietly away, and fo out of the Town, infomuch as no one of them 
\vas ever apprehended, or Cdll'd in Qu_eftion, yet they kept not their 
OVR Co;in(el fo \vcll (believing they had done a very heroic Ac\) 

Of E N G L A N D. 125 

* The Parliament of England have thought fit to Inter-regnum, 
1 declare, That they have a very tender Senfe and 

* Refentment of the faid barbarous Murder of the **^^~~^ 
4 laid Dr. Doriflaus^ their Refident, and of the 

* Affront and Dishonour that is thereby done to 
c this Commonwealth : And altho' the particular 

* Inftrumente and Actors of this execrable Wick- 

* ednefs are not yet clearly known, which the faid 
c Parliament doubt not but the Divine Juftice will 
' in Time difcover and bring to a juft and a due 

* Punifhment; yet it is iufficiently manifeft, by their 

* previous Threatenings, to have proceeded from 
' that Party from whom all the Troubles of this 
' Nation have formerly fprung; who, being Slaves 
c to that Tyranny from which this Commonwealth 

* hath happily (through the Bleffing of God) vin- 
' dicated themfelves, ceafe not to profecute all 
' thofe Counfels that Hell can fuggeft for the Re- 
( eftablifhment of it ; wbofe Ways of Force the 

* Parliament doubts not but God will enable them 
c to refift, if that Enemy fhall again, after a double 
' Conqueft, attempt upon the Peace and Liberty 
c of this Commonwealth. And the better to deter 
' them from thefe abominable Villainies of Mur- 

* der and Aflaffination, they do hereby declare, 
' That they {hall not fuffer an Aft of fuch Inhu- 
' manity and hateful Impiety to pafs without a fig- 

* nalMark of their juft Refentment 5 but fhall there - 
' fore efteem themfelves called upon hereby to 
bring to due Punifhment thofe of the Enemy's 

* Party, not being admitted to compound, whofe 
' Crimes and Treafons have long iince forfeited 
their Lives to the Juftice of the Laws, whom the 

* Parliament might otherwife have been induced to 

* give Pardon unto, had they not feen that Party, 
' fo Savage-like, thirfting after Blood. 


but that it was generally known they were all Scotfmen, and moft of 
them Servants or Dependents of the Marquis of Montrofe.' 

*#;, Vol. V. p. 293. 

The States General offered a Reward of 1000 Guilders for ap- 
prehending the Aflaflins, declaring it to be Death for any to har- 
bour them. 

126 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 And the faid Parliament do further declare, 
4 That if the Enemy fhall go on to perpetrate, or 
' endeavour, any fuch horrible execrable Villanies, 

* whereby either Life or Member of any Perfon 
' faithful to the Intereft of the Commonwealth fhall 
' be endangered, that they will, by the Execution 

* of Juftice upon fuch Members of that Party, as, 
' not being admitted to compound, are at their 
' Mercy, and might otherwife have enjoyed it, 

* make them find that Courfe to be of Diladvan- 

* tage to them.' 

In our Account of the Tranfaclions of March 
laft, we took Notice of the Proceedings of the 
High Court of Juftice againft the Duke of Hamil- 
Lord Goring, and ton ^ tne arl of Holland, Lord Capel, Lord Go- 
bers,pardon'd v .^ and Sir John Owen. The three firft foon 
after loft their Heads on the Scaffold. The two 
laft were reprieved ; and, on the yth of this Month, 
upon a Petition from them to the Houfe, it was 
ordered That they {hould be pardoned as to their 
Lives, and be forthwith fet at Liberty j as were 
alfo Major-General Langbarne and Col. Powell^ 
who had been condemned by a Court-Martial. 
Very luckily for thefe Gentlemen, this Vote of 
Mercy was pafs'd before the Parliament received 
Advice of Dorijlaus's Aflaffination ; otherwife it is 
highly probable, from the Tenor of the foregoing 
Declaration, that their Lives would have been 
offered up as a Sacrifice to his Manes. 

May 15. This Day the Houfe, according to for- 
mer Order, was refolved into a grand Commit- 
tee, Serjeant Thorpe in the Chair, to debate on the 
putting a Period to the fitting of the prefent Par- 
liament. We may fuppofe that this Debate took 
up the whole Day, for no ether Bufinefs elfe 
is entered to be done on it b . After the Houfe 
was refumed, it was refolved, That, in order 
to the declaring a certain Time for putting a Pe- 

b IFbitlickt fays it lafted divers Hours. 

Of ENGLAND. 127 

riod to the Sitting of this Parliament, the Houte Inter-regnum. 
was of Opinion, That, in the firft Place, Confi- l6 49- 
deration be had of the ftating of the Succeflion ' M^f!"""""' 
of future Parliaments, and of the regulating of 
their Elections j and a Committee was ordered ac- 

For feveral Days after the laft the Houfe did An Aft parted 
nothing extraordinary. On the igth they read^ 6 ^ 1 ^ 
and pafs'd an Act, declaring and conftituting the wea uh. 
People of England to be a Commonwealth, and 
a Free State ; to be henceforth govern'd as fuch by 
the Supreme Authority of the Nation, the Repre- 
fentatives of the People in Parliament, and by fuch 
Officers as they {hall appoint, without any King 
or Houfe of Lords ; and ordered it to be forthwith 
printed and publifned. 

The Houfe having alfo received Advice that the 
late Infurgents, now diftinguimed by the Name 
of Levellers, were routed, their Leader, William 
Thompfon, flam, and many of them in Prifon at 
Oxford and Northampton ; they ordered Commif- 
fions of Oyer and Terminer to be fent down to thofe 
Places to try them, alfo a Proclamation into 
feveral Counties, for apprehending all thofe who 
had fled from the Lord General Fairfax. 

This Victory was look'd upon to be fo confi-AThankfglvmg- 
derable, that, on May the 26th, the Houfe order- P a y appointed 
ed the Speaker to give hearty Thanks to the G^SfiSSSf" 
neral, the Lieutenant-General, and the reft of the the Levellers. 
Officers of the Army, for their great Service done 
to the Commonwealth, in the laft Expedition : 
And that the yth of 'June be fet apart as a Day of 
Thankfgiving to Almighty God for his great Mer- 
cy vouchfafed to this whole Commonwealth, by 
the Succefs he had given to the Parliament's Forces, 
in timely fupprefling the late Infurreclion and Re- 
bellion, and delivering the Parliament and Nation . 
from the dangerous and fad Eft'e&s which the fame 
did threaten : Likewife that an Act Ihould be pre- 

1 2 8 The Parliamentary Hi s T o R v 
Inter-regnum. pared, declaring the Grounds and Reafons for ap- 
pointing the faid Day of public Thanlcfgiving. 

May 31. The Houfe accepted of an Invitation 
from the Lord Mayor and Citizens, to dine with 
them on the Thankfgiving Day at Grocers-Hall, 
after the Sermons were ended. 

Cenfure parted This Day Alderman Pennington, a Member of 
upon two Alder- the Houfc of Commons, made a Report, from the 

men of London, T j A IAII , \ r 

for rei'ufmg to -Lord iAdayor and Aldermen, of their Proceedings 
proclaim the Aft in proclaiming the Act for abolishing of Kingly 
againft Government, which the late Lord Mayor had re- 
fufed to do. That the prefent Lord Mayor (An- 
drews) and fifteen Aldermen had proclaimed it ; 
that Sir Thomas Scames and Alderman Chambers 
were abfent, and two others were out of Town j 
on which the Houfe ordered that the two laft- 
named Aldermen mould be fent for, to anfwer for 
their Offence in not yielding Obedience to the Or- 
dej of the Houfe. Accordingly, 

On the firft of June^ both the faid Aldermen 
appeared at the Bax of the Houfe, when Sir Thomas 
SoameS) being afk'd Whether he was not acquaint- 
ed with the Order of the Houfe, whereby the Al- 
dermen of the City were to attend the Lord Mayor 
and Sheriffs, at the proclaiming the abovefaid Acl? 
he anfwered, That he had Notice of it from the 
Lord Mayor, and acknowledged he was not pre- 
fent ; the Reafon of which was, that it was againil 
his Conference, becaufe it was contrary to many 
Oaths he had taken. Alderman Chambers urged 
the fame Excufe, by Reafon that his Heart went 
not along with the Work: Hereupon the Houfe 
refolved to difable Sir Thcmas Soames from being a 
Member of the prefent Parliament ; .and difchar- 
ged both of them from being Aldermen of the Ci- 
ty of London^ and from bearing any Oftce of Truft 
in the Commonwealth. 

The fame Day the Commons appointed the fol- 
lowing Lawyers to be Judges of the refpecrive 


Of ENGLAND. 129 

Courts in IVeftminJler-Hall, in the room of thofe Inter-regnum. 
fix mentioned before, who had refufed t act after l6 49- 
the Death of the King, viz. Serjeant Nicholas, and * -V ^ 
Richard Afee, fq; in the Upper-Bench, Serjeant ' unet 
Pule/ion, and Peter Warburton, Efq; in the Com- 
mon-Pleas ; Serjeant Thorpe, and Alexander Rig- *J" & - 
by, Efq; in the Exchequer. And, in order to qua- 
lify the three Barifters for their new Dignity, they 
were order'd to be call'd to the Degree of Serjeants 
at Law, by the Lords Commiifioners of the Great 

Nothing occurs for fome more Days after theThe Parliament 
laft, except that, the Day before theThankfgiving- en t tain ' d > at 
Day, June 6, a new Mace was brought into *$ 
Houfe, ornamented with Flowers inftead of the 
Crofs, and a Ball on the Top ; with the Arms of 
England and Ireland inftead of the late King's : This 
was not only approv'd of and ordered to be carried 
before the Speaker for the future, but all other 
Maces, throughout the Nation, were required to be 
made according to the fame Form and Pattern f . 
The Houfe alfo made an Order, That the Lord 
Mayor of London, on his Reception of the Speaker 
andMembers of Parliament atDinner,the nextDay, 
fhould deliver the Sword, ufually borne before the 
Lord Mayor, into the Hands of the Speaker ; and 
that he (hould, thereupon, re-deliver the Sword to 
the Lord Mayor. This Ceremony, never done be- 
fore to any but the Kings of England, from whom 
they received that Sword, was performed at Grt- 

Mr. Wbitlocke gives the following Account of the 
Ceremonial obferved at Dinner g : ' The Speaker 
fat firft, next to him the Lord Mayor, and then 
the Lord-General. The Earl of Pembroke calling 
to Wbitlocke to fit down, being the antient Com- 
miffioner of the Great Seal, he defired his Lojd- 
fhip would be pleafed firft to fit down, and then 

VOL. XIX. I he 

f The Form of the new Mace, prefer Jbed by an Order of the 13* 
of April, 1 649, is eras'd in the Journals. The Defcription of it 
here given is taken from the Moderate, N, 48* 

8 Mimorialt, p, 392. 

130 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regmim. he would fit by him. With that the Earl fpokc 
* 6 49- aloud, (as he ufed to do) that all near him might 
V-'v""' hear, IPlwt, do you think that I will fit down be- 
jnC ' fere you ? I have given Place heretofore to Bifoop 
Williams, to ?ny Lord Coventry, and my Lord Lit- 
tleton ; and you have the fame Place that they had ; 
and as much Honour belongs to the Place under a Com- 
monwealth, as under a King j and you are a Gen- 
tleman as well born and bred as any of them ; there- 
fore I will not fit down before you. With this Ear- 
neftnefs he caufed Wlntlocke to fit down before 
him, and fat himfelf the next to him ; the Lord 
President of the Council, the other Commiflioner?; 
of the Great Seal, alfo the Earl of Salisbury and 
the Lord Howard^ fat next to the Earl of Pem- 
broke ; and, after them, Lieutenant-General Crom- 
ivell) and other Members of Parliament, and of 
the Council of State.' 

Upon this Occafion fome of the Aldermen and 
Common Council, in the Name of the City, 
prefented to the Lord-General Fairfax a large, 
weighty Bafon and Ewer of beaten Gold ; and 
to Lieutenant-General Crojnwell a Service of 
Plate of the Value of 300 /. and 200 Broad-Pieces 
of Gold, as a Teftimony of the City's good Af- 

How acceptable all this was to the Parliament, 
appears by the following Vote pafs'd the Day af- 
ter the Entertainment, viz. 

Refolved, f That this Houfe cloth take in very 
good'Part the great Refped fhewn Yefterday, by 
the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Coun- 
cil, to the Speaker and Members of this Houfc ; 
and that the hearty Thanks of the Houfe be given 
to them for it ; thofe Members who were Alder- 
men were ordered to do this. A Committee was 
alfo named to confider of fome Mark of Favour and 
RefpecT: to be done, by the Houfe, to the City of 

June 8. The Houfe pafs'd an Aft for the better 
Maintenance of preaching MiniJIen, and ether pi- 

Of ENGLAND. 131 

ous Ufes. The Preamble to whih fets forth, ( That Intcr-regnnm. 
it hath been found by long Experience, that the l6 49- 
Government of the Church of England by Arch- ^ ~ v ' 
bifhops, Bifhops, their Chancellors and Commif- J unc ' 
faries. Deans, Deans and Chapters, Archdeacons, 
and other Officers depending on that Hierarchy, An A&. for bet- 
hath been a great Impediment to the perfect Re-^ r Mj in'enance 
formation and Growth of Religion, and very pre-cicrey * 
judicial to the Civil State and Government of the 
Commonwealth ; and therefore hath been, by Au- 
thority of Parliament, abolifhed, and all their Ma- 
nors, Lands, &c. (excepting all Tythes appropri- 
ate, Oblations, Obventions, Portions of Tythes 
appropriate, belonging to the faid Archbifhops, Bi- 
fhops, Deans, Deans and Chapters, and others of 
the faid Hierarchy) appointed to be fold for Pay- 
ment of the juft Debts of the Commonwealth, and 
other neceflary Charges occafioned by the late Ci- 
vil War, promoted mainly by, and in favour of, 
the faid Hierarchy.' 

Then it proceeds to enact, ' That all fuch 
Tythes appropriate, &c. and alfo the Firft Fruits 
and Tenths, formerly payable to the Crown, (hall 
be vefted in Truftees ; who were thereout to pay all 
fuch Salaries as had been before appointed to preach- 
ing Minifters or Schoolmafters in England or 
Wales) untill the Parliament ftiould otherwife or- 
der : 

' That i8,ooo/. per Annum, out of the faid 
Firft Fruits and Tenths, be employed for the above 
Purpofes, untill that Sum could be raifed out of 
the Improvement of Tythes belonging to Bifhops, 
Deans and Chapters, &c, and alfo that 2000 /. 
per Annum more be employed for the Increafe of 
Mafterfhips of Colleges in both Univerfities, where 
Maintenance was not fufficient : 

4 That the Receivers of the Public Revenues 
ihould collect the Firft Fruits and Tenths in their 
refpeclive Counties, and pay the fame into the Ex- 
chequer ; and that if thefe were not fufficient to 
make up 20,000 /. per Annum for the Purpofes 
I 2 aforefcid, 

132 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

jatcr-regnum. aforefaid, that the Deficiency fhould be made good 

1649. out of fome other Part of the Public Revenues : 

^* v~ ' ' That after the Expiration of the feveral Leafes 

June. O f t k e f^ Xythes, tjf& fuch Quantities thereof 

fhould be given to the Incumbent of each Church 

or Chapel, as, with his prefent Tythes, fliould 

make up 100 /. per Annum ; and where the Tythes 

fo to be annexed fhould not be fufficient for that 

Purpofe, fuch Proportion of the Overplus of other 

appropriate Tythes, &c. fhould be applied to make 

good the Deficiency. 

' The Commiffioncrs of the Great Seal were 
required to iflue forth Commiflions into all the 
Counties in England and Wales^ to fuch Perfons 
as fliould be appointed by Parliament ; impower- 
ing them, by all lawful Means, to find out the true 
annual Value of all Ecclefiaftical Livings, and to 
make their Return into the Chancery, with the 
Names of the Incumbents, what each had for his 
Salary, how many Chapels belonged to one Pa- 
rifh, how fituated, which of them fit to be united, 
and how the Churches and Chapels were fupplied 
with preaching Minifters, in order to a better 
Provifion for the Parochial Clergy.' 

But out of a fpecial Regard to their Speaker, 
William Lenthall^ Efq; it was provided, c That this 
Act fhould not extend to the Rectory of Burford, 
in Oxford/hire, and Glebe Lands fettled on him 
and his Heirs.' 

June i i. An Adjournment of the Houfe being 
propofed for fome Time, it was referred to the 
Council of State to prepare and prefent to them 
fuch Things as were neceirary and fit to be confi- 
dered of, and pafled there, before an Adjournment; 
and to report their Opinion, with all Speed, to the 


June 12. A Report was made to the Houfe of 
an Eftimate of the Charge of the Summer's and 
Winter's Guard at Sea, with the Number of Men 


f E N G L A N D. 133 

employed for them ; which will give fome Idea of Inter-regnum. 
the different State of Naval Affairs in thefe Times *^49- 
and our own. *"""T V " 1 "* 

CY June. 

June 6, 1649. 

^ESTIMATE of the whole Charge and Expence o/ E{t[m ^ es of the 
the Navy, for one whole Tear, and fo from Tear to annual Charge of 
Tear, for every Tear, fo long as the Service Jhall^^**?' 
necejjarily require fo great Fleets for the Summer 
and Winter Guards, 

I. s. d. 

FOR 6000 Men, for the Sum- ) x- c 
mer's Guard, for eight Months \ IC 

For 3000 Men, for the Winter's \ 
Guard, fix Months f 7500O o O 

For the ordinary Charge of Chat-~} 
ham, Deptford, Woolwich, and i 
Portfmouth, in Viftuals, Wages, ( 30000 o o 
and Stores, for ordinary Repairs J 

For the Charge of building three > 
new Frigates } 10000 o o 

Total 283000 o o 

June 9, 1649. 

An ESTIMATE of the Charge in fetting forth to 
Sea, in warlike Manner, for fix Months Service, 
fo many of the State's Ships and Pinnaces as Jhall 
be mann'd with 3000 Men t for this enfuin? 
Winter's Guard. 

3R grounding, graving, and") 
fitting fo many Ships as fhall \ 
e mann'd with 3000 Men, in )> 2700 O 
their Carpentry, joined and painted 

For Price of 300 Tons of Cord-' 
age, for Rigging, Ground-Tackle, . 
and Sea Stores for the faid Ships! \ 9 
at 30 /. per Ton J 

For petty Provifions for Boat- ? 
fwain and Carpenters Stores $ 20C 

Carried over 13700 o o 
I 3 For 

134 ff je Parliamentary H i s T o R Y" 

I. s. d. 

Brought over '13700 o o 
Inter-rcgnum. For Anchors, Boats, and Sails ? 2 r OO o 

1649- for the faid Ships j 

> v- ' For Preft and Conduct- Money^ 

unc< for 2OOO Men, viz. 1200 Men in I 

and about London, at 4;. each, and )> 720 O O 
800 Men in remote Parts, at 12 s. j 
each, Prefting Charges included j 
For Harbour Victuals for 800 l 
Men, for 42 Days, at 8^. ob. per V 1190 o o 
Diem 3 

For Harbour Wages for the faid l 
Men, the fame Time, at 25 i. each V 1400 o O 
per Menfem 3 

For Sea Viauals for the faid 1 
Men, for fix Months Service, at *> 21000 o O 
10^. each per Menfem j 

For Sea Wages for the faid 3000 1 
Men, for the aforefaid Time, > 22500 o O 
at 25*. a Man per Menfem 3 

For Land and Water Carnage ~| 
of Provifions from London to Dept- ( 
ford, Chatham, Woolwich, and f -* 
Portjmouth, per Eftimate J 

' For ordinary and extraordinary ) Q 

Pilotage in and out, /w Eftimate J 

For 2500 Tons of Ballaft, at 1 Q Q 

!2d.perTon ) 

For phyfical Drugs and Medica- 1 
ments for Surgeons Chefts, as the > 150 o o 
State's free Gift 3 

For extraordinary Entertainment"! 
of Admirals, Vice-Admirals, and ( 1022 O o 
Rear- Admirals, on the Coaft off 
England and Ireland 

For Travelling-Charges to fit "I 
the Ships to Sea, and to make Pay ( 
to the Ships Companies, al the End I 

of the Service J 

Carried over 66467 o o 

Of E N G L A N D. 135 

/. S. d. Inter- regnum, 
Brought over 66467 o O 
For Conduit-Money, in Dif- ~\^ 
charge of 2000 Men j viz. 1200 at > 1080 o o 
4J. and 800 at IQJ. each j 

For Powder, Shot, and all Sorts T 
of Munition for fitting to Sea fo V 7500 o o 
many Ships as fhall carry 3000 Men J - 

Total 75047 o O 

June 13. The Care of the late King's Children 
had been committed to the Countefs of Leicefter^ 
by the Houfe, and they had received a Letter from votes for redu- 
this Lady, defiring fome Regulations as to her cing the Honours 
Condua to them : On which the Houfe this Day ? bferv>d t(> the 
voted, That the late King's Children fhould fit^n, 
with the Earl and Countefs of Lelcejler^ at their 
Table, as Part of their Family, and not otherwife: 
And that the faid Earl and Countefs do take Care 
that no other Obfervance or Ceremony be ufed to 
thofe Children, than to Noblemen's Children of 
this Nation. 

'June 14. Very little done in the Houfe this Day, 
the Speaker, with all the Members of the Council 
of State attending the Funeral of Dr. DorlJIaus, 
who was buried, with much Ceremony, at Wejl- 


Whilft the Houfe was reducing the Eftate of the 
Remains of the unhappy Royal Family, as before 
obferv'd, they took Care to aggrandize that of their 
Friends and Fellow-Labourers in the great V/"ork For rewarding 
of overturning the Conftitution. Serjeant Brad- > 

flaw, who fat as Prefident in the High Court of 
Juftice, at the Trial of the King, merited their 
higheft Regard for that important Service : Accord- 
ingly he was made Lord Prefident a of the new Coun- 


a A Motion made on the I4th of February laft, for appointing a 
Lord Prefident of the Council of State, was then over-ruled 5 ba 
afterwards agreed to, 

136 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

cil of State ; and this Day, June 19, the Houfe vo- 
ted 2COO/. per Ann. b to be fettled on him and his 
"""*"""""' Heirs; and iooo/. to be forthwith paid him, to-- 
wards his Charges expended in the Service of the 
State. Soon atter he was made Attorney-Gene- 
ral of the Commonwealth, for the Counties of Che- 
Jler^ Flint, Denbigh, and Montgomery, and Chan- 
cellor of the Duchy of Lancafter. Large Grants of 
Lands and Sums of Money were alfo voted to 
Members of the Houfe, and others, out of Crown 
andDeans and Chapters Lands, forfeited Eftates,y f . 
many Inftances of which now frequently occur in 
the Journals. 

.1. J une 22 - A Report from the Council of State 

r or tne Recovery / . _^ . i i T T / i 

of Ireland, was this Day heard m the Houfe; in which was in- 
cluded a Commiflion, conftituting Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral Cromwell, Commander in Chief over the 
Forces in Ireland, and Governor-General of Ire- 
land. This being read, in Latin and Englijb, the 
Houfe voted, * That the Civil and Military Power 
in Ireland {hall be, for the prefent, conjoined in 
one Perfon ; and that the Time of the Continu- 
ance of this Commiflion fhall be for three Years. 
Inftrudlions for this Commander were ordered to 
be prepared by the Council of State, and reported 
to the Houfe with all Speed. 

This Day, alfo, another Report was made from 
the Council of State, of their Opinion what 
Things were neceflary to be confidered on before 
the Recefs of Parliament. Which of thefe were 
pafs'd into Acts may be feen by the Titles of them 
in ScobelPs Collections. The moft material of them 
we have already given Abfhac~ts of in the Proceed- 
ings of this Month. 

And for Difpofal 'July. The Houfe having before difpofed of the 

Land? Clown P erf nal Eftates of the late King and his Family, 

went next upon the Difpofal of the Caftles, Houfes, 

Manors, Parks, &c. belonging to the Crown. 


1> Mr. initiate write?, 4000 /, fcr Annum \ but the Jeurnalt 
ttake it no more than 2000 /, 

Of E N G L A N D. 137 

Amongft thefe the Council of State referred it to the Inter-rcgnum. 
Parliament, that the following fhould not be fold, 
but kept for the public Ufe of the Commonwealth, ^^Tf""*^ 
viz. Whitehall -Houfe, Weftminfter - Palace, St. J * 
James's Park, St. James's Houfe, Somerfet-Houfe^ 
Hampton-Court and the Houfe-Park, Theobalds 
and the Park, Windfor and the little Park next 
the Houfe, Greenwich-Houfe and Park and Caftle, 
and Hyde-Park. Alfo that the new Park at Rich- 
mond, in Surrey, be fettled upon the City of Lon- 
don, as an Act: of Favour from the Houfe, for the 
Ufe of the City and their Succeflbrs. This Pro- 
pofal from the Council of State was confirm'd by 
a Refolution of Parliament. 

July 2. This Day a Letter, fubfcribed by the 
Lord London, Chancellor and Prefident of the Par- 
liament of Scotland, dated at Edinburgh, June 26, 
1649, was read. After which it was ordered to 
be referred to the Council of State, to confider 
how the Demands formerly made by the Parlia- 
ment of Scotland, may be profecuted, and this Par- 
liament, with their Proceedings, vindicated from 
the Afperfions in this Letter. The Council ha- 
ving delivered in their Opinion two Days after, the 
Houfe voted, ' That the faid Letter was of fuch a 
Nature as laid an Incapacity of proiecuting the for- 
mer Demands by way of Treaty.' And the Coun - 
cil of State were ordered to draw up a Declaration 
to that Purpofe, and prefent it to the Houfe. 

July 14. The faid Declaration being perfected, 
was this Day prefented to the Houfe, and read 
once ; and the Queftion being put, Whetuer to 
read it a fecond Time ? the Houfe divided, Yeas 25, 
Noes 1 3 ; on which it was read again, pafled on 
that Reading, and ordered to be forthwith printed 
and publifhed. 

This Declaration, which is very fingular in its 
Kind, and recapitulates the whole Difpute which 
had juft before happened between the two King- 
doms, not being printed in the Journal^ or elfe- 


1 3 8 The Parliamentary Hi s T OR y 

Inter-regnum. where that we know of, we fhall give from the 
1649. Edition of the Times a : And, in order to illuftrate 
the Matter thereof, prefix fome Papers b that had 
pafled between the Parliaments of both Kingdoms, 
which were purpofely omitted under their refpcC- 
tive Dates, as coming more properly together, at 
one View, in this Place. 

A Se "h- S h f F-M ^ ma y be rememt>ered tnat on the 2 4 th f F f - 
betweciTthe Far- bnictry laft, the Scots Commiflioners refiding in 
Jiaments of Eng- London, prcfented a Paper to the Parliament, 
land t" d ir n 0t " wh ' ch S ave fucn Offence, that they ordered thofe 
thelatrProcee^-Commiffioncrs to be apprehended, fcfc. Hereupon 
ings againii the the Parliament of Scotland fent the following Re- 
King, &c. jnonftrance, addrefs'd thus, To William Lenthall, 
Efq~, Speaker of the Commons Houfe at Weftmin- 
fter, which was read on the I4th of Marcb^ and 
referred to the Confideration of the Council of 
State : ' 

SIR, Edinburgh, March 6, 1649. 

Aving feen a Paper of the 24th of Febru- 
ary laft, given in to you by our Commif- 
lioners, with a printed Paper thereupon of the 
26th of February^ intitled, A Declaration of the 
Parliament of England, declaring the aforefaid 
Paper, given in by our Commiffioners, to con- 
tain reproachful Matter againft the Proceedings 
of the Parliament of England, and affuming Power 
over' the Laws and Government of that Nation, 
with a Defign to raife Sedition, and lay the 
Grounds of a new War in that Land ; and fur- 
ther ordering a Meflage to be fent to us, to know 
whether we will own the fa'id Paper prefented in 
our Names : And hearing that our Commiffion- 
ers (being, by Command from us, upon their 
Return from that Kingdom) are reftrained, and 
a Guard fet upon them, we could not be fo far 
wanting in that Duty we owe to this Kingdom, 
and the Care and Regard which, in Juftice and 
Honour, we ought to have of the Safety and 

* Free- 

a Printed by Edward Hujbands. 

h Printed for MMbcio Simians, in dlderfgate-Jlrect, 

Of E N G L A N D. 139 

e Freedom of thofe employed in fo public a Truft, Inter-rcgnum. 
' as not to take fpecial Notice of their Condition l649 ' 
' and hard Ufage ; and have therefore refolved and T v ~ 
' thought fit to iignify to you, that we do own that 
' Paper given in by our Commiffioncrs, as agree- 

* able to the Inftructions which they had from us; 
' wherein we, and they in our Names, could not 

* but give a Teftimony againft thofe Things which 
' we conceive to be contrary to the Grounds and 

* Bands fo often declared, and acknowledged by 
' both Kingdoms ; left our Silence be efteemed a 

* Compliance, or we thought anywife acceflary to 
' thefe great Alterations, and the dangerous Con- 
' fequences which may enfue thereupon. 

* And as our Proteftation, in the laft Seflion of 

* Parliament, againft the laft unlawful Engage- 
' ment ; our Act of this Parliament, declining and 

* repealing the fame, and every Thing done in 
' Purfuance thereof; and our whole Proceedings, 
' before and fince, are fufficientand real Evidences 
' of our fincere Defires and conftant Refolutions 
' to continue Union and Peace between the King- 

* doms, according to the Covenant and Treaties : 

* So it is very far from our Intentions to affumc 

* any Power over the Laws and Government 
' of England^ or any way to raife Sedition, or lay 

* the Grounds of a new War, or do any Thing, 
' in purfuance of the late unlawful Engagement; 
' which can no way be inferred from the laid Paper, 

* containing only our Adherence to our former 
' Principles acknowledged by both Kingdoms, and 
' it being given in to you to be communicated in 
< the ordinary Way. 

We are fo tender of the Union between the 
' Nations, that we think the remonftrating of the 

* Breach of Peace, the craving of juft Reparations, 

* and ufmg all amicable and fair Means, fhould be 
' firft eflay'd before any Engagement in a War ; 
6 which even then cannot be done by either King- 
' dom, without a Breach of the Large Treaty, un- 

* lefs upon three Months Warning preceed- 
' i n S 5 upon which, among other Grounds and 


140 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

. ' Reafbns, we did proteft and declare againft the 

* late Engagement ; and do confidently expe6t the 
J * like from England, according to the Papers given 

' in by their Commiffioners to the preceeding Sef- 
' fion or Parliament : And however any prevalent 

* Party in either Kingdom hath infringed, or may 
4 break thefe Bonds, yet we do not conceive it ei- 
' ther agreeable to God's Will, or conducible to 
' the Welfare of thefe Nations, to lay thefe facred 
' Ties afide as diffoiv'd and cancell'd ; but rather 
' that they (houid be prelerv'd for the Good of 
' both Kingdoms, and Benefit of thofe who have 

* no Acceffion to fuch Breaches, and of fucceedi^g 

* Generations, who are innocent thereof, and may 
' fuftain manifold Inconveniences by Diiiolution of 
4 the fame. 

' Having thus cleared our Intentions and Refo- 
' lutions, we hope none can juftly blame this Na- 

* tion for continuing conftant to their' former En- 

* gagement and Principles, which the Honourable 

* Houfes of the Parliament of England profefled 
' alfo to be theirs, when they induced this King- 
e dom to enter into Solemn League and Covenant 
' with them ; far lefs can it be any Ground at all 
' for the reftraining our Commiffioners contrary to 

* the public Faith and Law of Nations, by which 
' the Freedom of AmbafFadors and Commiffioners 

* is facred and inviolable, not only betwixt Chri- 

* ftians but even amongft Heathen Kingdoms and 
< States ; and therefore we defire that our Com- 

* miflioners may be free from all Reftraint, that 

* they may, without any Stop or Moleftation, re- 

* turn in what Way they think moft fit, to give us 
' an Account of their Proceedings. In Confidence 
' whereof we remain 

Tour affeftionate Friends, 

LOU DON, Cancettarius, 
Pnzfes Parliament* 

To this Remonftrance the Houfe gave no An- 
fwer; but, in May following, ordered their Speaker 


Of E N G L A N D. 141 

to write a Letter to the Parliament of Scotland > 
which was in heec V-erba : 

Wefomnfttr, May 23, 1649. 
My Lords and Gentlemen, 

c T Am commanded by the Parliament of Eng- 
4 \_ land to defire your Lordmip to acquaint the 
4 Parliament of Scotland, that they have many 
4 Things of juft Refentment, on the Behalf of this 
4 Nation and Commonwealth, to make known, 
4 and demand Satisfaction in, from the Parliament 
4 and People of Scotland, the Particulars whereof 
s they think not needful to mention at this Time, 
4 being Things fo generally known and frefh in 
4 Memory : And being defirous, in the firft Place, 
4 to endeavour for Satisfaction in a peaceable Way, 
4 they do therefore propound, That CommifEoners, 
4 on the Behalf of each Nation refpedtively, may, 
4 be appointed to meet in fome fitting and conve- 
4 nient Place, mutually to be agreed upon, with 
4 what convenient Speed may be; unto which 
4 Meeting Commiffioners (hall be fent, fully au- 
4 thorized, from the Parliament of England, and 
4 on the Behalf of this Commonwealth, with In- 
4 ftructions to make known the Particulars which 
4 they have to complain of; wherein if they fliall 
4 receive Satisfaction, the Parliament of England 
4 are willing, and their Commiffioners fhall befur- 
4 ther authorized and inftructed to treat and con- 
4 elude a firm and ftrict League of Amity and 
4 Friendfliip between the two Nations ; by Means 
4 whereof, if it be the Will of God, thefe Nations 

* may be preferved in a lafting Peace and happy 
4 Enjoyment of Religion in its Purity, together 
4 with their Civil Liberties, notwithftanding the 
4 many wicked Defigns that are on Foot againfl 
4 them, as well by fecret as profefled Enemies of 

* both. 

4 This is all I have in Charge, fave only to de- 
4 fire that the Parliament of Scotland's Anfwer 

4 hereunto 

142 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-irgnunu hereunto may be returned by this Bearer, who is 
*^ 49 ' ' lent Exprefs about the fame j and fo refts 

Tour bumble Servant, 


Speaker of the Parliament of England. 

This Letter produced the following Anfwer, ad- 
clrefs'd to the Speaker, as before ; which gave Oc- 
cafion to the fubfequent Declaration of the Par- 
liament of England. 

S I R, Edinburgh, "June 26, 1649. 

' PT^HE Eftates of Parliament of this Kingdom 
' have received a Letter, dated the 23d of 

* May 1649, finned by you as Speaker of the Par- 
' liament, and written in the Name of the Com- 
' monwealth of England ; which Titles, in regard 

* of the Solemn League and Covenant, and Trea- 
' ties, and the many Declarations of the Parlia- 
' ments of both Kingdoms, are fuch as they may 
' not acknowledge. 

' And for the Matter therein contained ; the 
' many Things of juft Refentment, wherein Satif- 
' fadion is demanded from this Kingdom, are on- 
' ly mentioned in the general, and therefore can- 
4 not fo well receive a particular Anfwer ; but if 
' by thofe general Expreflions, the late unlawful 

* Engagement againft England be underftood, they 
' defire that their Proteftation againft the fame in 

* Parliament, and the Oppofition made thereunto 

* by them afterwards in Arms, (which they never 
' laid down untill the Garrifons of Berwick and 
' Carlijle were reftored to the Kingdom of Eng- 
< land) may be remembered, together with the 

* Letter of the Houfe of Commons to the General 

* Aflembly of this Kirk, of the third of Auguft^ 
' 1648: And what Lieutenant-General Cromwell, 
' authorized from both Houfes of Parliament, did, 
4 upon the 5th of Oftcber laft, reprefent to the 

* Committee of Eftates of this Kingdom of Scot- 


Of E N G L A N D. 143 

* land in that Engagement; and thereupon did de- Inter-regmim. 

* mand that they would give Aflurance, in the 
' Name of the Kingdom of Scotland, not to ad- 
' mit or fufFer any, who had been active in, or 

* confenting to, that Engagement, to be employ- 
' ed in any public Place or Truft whatfoever ; 
' which was not only granted and confirmed in 

* Parliament, but all Acts for Profecution of that 

* Engagement have been repealed, and allProceed- 

* ings tending thereunto publickly difclaimed ; and 

* if any other Wrongs fhall be made known unto 
' us, we lhall be ready to return fuch an Anfwer 
' as may give juft Satisfaction. 

* Jf the Bonds of Religion, Loyalty to the King, 
4 and mutual Amity and Friendfhip betwixt the 

* Kingdoms be impartially confidered, according 
' to the Solemn League and Covenant, and the 
' Profeflions and Declarations of both Kingdoms, 
' the Eftates of Parliament think they have juft 
' Caufe to complain of the late Proceedings in Eng~ 
' land, in reference to Religion, the taking away 
' the King's Life, and the Change of the Funda- 

* mental Government of that Kingdom ; againft 
' which this Kirk and Kingdom, and their Com- 
c miflioners, have protefted and given Teftimony, 
' whereunto they do ftill adhere. 

' And fmce it is apparent there hath been of late, 
' in England, a Backfliding and Departure from 

* the Grounds and Principles wherein the two 

* Kingdoms have been engaged, the Parliament of 
' this Kingdom doth propound that the late Pro- 
' ceedings there, againft Covenant and Treaties, 
{ may be difclaimed and difavowed, as the Pro- 

* fecution of the late unlawful Engagement againft 
' England hath been difclaimed and difavoweA here; 
' and that fuch as have departed from thefe Prin- 

* ciplc'j and their former Proteffions, may return 

* to the fame : Upon thefe Grounds they are con- 
' tant to authorize Commiffioners, on Behalf of this 
' Kingdom, to treat with Commiflioners from both 
' Houfes of the Parliament of England^ fitting in 
' Freedom, concerning all Matters of juft Com- 

' plaint 

144 T6e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' plaint which either Nation may have againft the 
1649. * other, and for Redrefs and Reparation thereof; 

< anc j to Jo every Thing that may furtiier conduce 
f to continuing the happy Peace and Union be- 
4 twixt the Kingdoms, which can never be fettled 
' on fo fure a Foundation as the former Treaties, 

* and the Solemn League and Covenant ; from 

* which, as no Alteration or Revolution of Affairs 
' can abfolve either Kingdom, fo wetruftin God, 
c that no Succefs whatfoever, whether good or bad, 

* (hall be able to divert us ; but as it hath been 

* our Care in Times paft, it (hall, with the Lord's 
e Afliftance, ftill be our real Endeavours for the 
' future to keep ourfelves from all Compliance 

* with, or declining to the Popifh, Prelatical, or 

* Malignant Party upon the one Hand, or to thofe 

* that are Enemies to the Fundamental Govern- 

* ment by King and Parliament, and countenance 

* and maintain Errors, Herefy, and Schifm, upon 
e the other. 

' I have no other Thing in Command from the 
Parliament of this Kingdom, but to take Notice, 

* that there is no Anfwer return'd to their Letter 

< of the 6th of March laft j and fo refts 

Your humble Servant^ 

LOU DON, Cancettarius, 
Prtsfes Parliament!. 

DECLARATION of the Parliament ^/"ENGLAND, 
concerning their late Endeavours^ in a peaceable 
IVay^ to remove all Mifunderjlandings and Dif- 
ferences between the Commonwealth ^/"ENGLAND, 
and the Kingdom of SCOTLAND. 

c A Lthough the Injuries done, and Provoca- 

* jf"\. tions offered, unto this Nation by the King- 
' dom of Scotland, as well precedent as fubfequent 

* to their laft Year's Invafion, have been fucb as 

* might, in Reafon, have fhut the Door upon all 
c amicable Offers to have arifen, efpecially on our 
' Part ; yet, to manifeft how unwilling we were 

* to 

Of E N G L A N D. 145 

f to forget their former Conjunction with us in the Inter-regnum. 
' affecting and defending of Religion, and the pub- l6 49- 

* lie Liberties and Rights of both Nations, againft * V" 1 *^ 

* the common Enemy ; and how ready we fhould ^ u y ' 

* ftill be in profecution of the fame Caufe, to main- 

* tain a firm Friendfhip with them, that thereby 
' the Enemies of our Religion and Liberties might 

* be difappointed of their wicked and dangerous 
' Defigns, long fmce contrived, and to this Day 

* dextroufly purfued, to the utter Ruining of both 

* Nations, at lead the well-affected and confcien- 

* tious Party in both, through the dividing them, 

* and engaging them in irreconcilable Animofities 

* and Differences among themfelves j we were con- 

* tent to propound unto the Parliament of Scotland, 
1 by a Letter of ours fent unto them, bearing Date 

* the 23d of May laft paft, that Commiffioners 

* might be refpectively appointed, as well on the 
6 Behalf of this Commonwealth, as in Behalf of 
' the Kingdom of Scotland, to meet with what con- 
' venient Speed might be j at which Meeting the 

* Particulars of the juft Refentment, for which we 
e demanded Satisfaction, fhould be produced j and, 
' if Satisfaction were therein given, we fliould be 

* further willing to treat and conclude a firm League 

* and Friendftiip with them, for the Ends expreffed 
' in the faid Letter, unto which we refer our- 

* But unto this fair and friendly Overture of ours, 
c no Return will ferve the Parliament of that King- 
' dom, but that which lays an Incapacity upon us 
c of profecuting our former Demands in a Way of 
' Treaty, not only by the Afperfions which they 

* caft upon the Honour and Juftice of our late Pro- 
' ceedings, but by their public and profeffed ! Dif- 

* acknowledgment of the prefent Government of 

* this Nation, eftablifhed by Parliament, and their 

* refufing to treat upon any other Terms than our 
' Return back to Regal Government and a Houfe 

* of Lords, both which we have abolifhed, as what 

* was found by Experience to be ufelefs and ob- 


146 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 ftrucYive to that Freedom and Security which the 

* People of England^ after all thefe Labours and 

* Expences, have merited. 

' This unequal Procedure of theirs, in Requital 

* of fuch amicable Addrefles to them, we could not 
4 have expected from that Appearance of Wifdom 
4 and Piety, which the Actions of that Nation 
' come ufually cloathed with ; nor do we know well 
' what to impute it to, unlefs it be either to fome 
' extraordinary Paflion raifed in them from an Ap- 
' prehenfion that the Change of Things here will 
' deprive them, for the future, of thofe Benefits and 

* Advantages which they enjoyed and promifed 

* themfelvcs among us in Continuance of Kings 
' over this Nation, which they cannot fo fuddenly 
' digeft ; or whether we may impute it to a politic 
' Defign of ftirring ill Humours, and ftrengthening 
< the Hands of a difcontented Party among our- 
' felves, whom by no Means they will abfolve from 
' a confcicntious Obligation, by virtue of the Co- 
' venant, of adhering to Foreigners, againft the 
' eftablimed Government of this Nation; but, ra- 

* ther than fail, do furnifti them with the Example 
c of their own Practice the laft Year, when a Party 
' among themfelves took Arms againft the Re- 

* folutions of their own Parliament, to oppofe, -as 
' they pretended, the unlawful Engagement againft 
' England: Altho' theQueftion was not fo much, 
' as we are credibly inform'd, whether England 

* fhould be invaded or engaged againft, but what 
' Party among them fhould have this Truft com- 

* mitted to them. 

' Thefe, or the like Grounds, we fuppofe have 
4 moved them to that Anfwer which their laft Let- 
6 ter fends us, bearing Date the 26th of June, di- 

* reeled to the Speaker of the Houfe of Commons, 
' wherein they do in the firft Place tell him, That 
' they neither may acknowledge him Speaker of the 

* Parliament of England, nor the Name of Com- 
6 monwealth to this Nation ; as if to be Speaker of 
' the Parliament of England, and for this Nation 

4 to 


4 to difpole itfclf in the Way of a Common- Inter-regnum, 
e wealth, without King or Houfe of Lords, did de- 

* pond upon their Allowance or Difallowance; and 
' as if we alone, of all other Nations, had wanting 
* to us the natural Right and inherent Power to 
' take up or lay down what Form of Government 
' we think fit, and judge moft conducible to our 
' owji Prefervation, Safety, and Welfare, without 

* afking or obtaining the Confent of thofe that are 
1 without us, and foreign to us. 

* And the Reafon why they may not acknow- 
ledge thefe Titles, is, in regard of the Solemn 
c League and Covenant and 'Treaties^ and the many 
' Declarations of the Parliaments of both Kingdoms. 
' An Argument, we confefs, which hath been 
' often ufed and alledged by them, as if, of courfe, 
' it would ferve the Turn of bringing in their Inte- 
e reft upon us, under Pretence of Religion; when- 
4 as otherwife, in the Balance of found Reafon, 
4 the little Weight of it would appear. But thefe 
4 Pretences have fo often been unmafk'd, and the 
6 Ungroundednefs of fuch Inferences fromCovenant 
4 and Treaties detected, that it fhall fuffice us to 
4 refer ourfelves to what already hath been faid by 
4 us on this Subject long fince, in our Declaration 
' of Nov. 28, 1646, and lately in another, dated 
4 Feb. 17, 1648, both of them tranfmitted by us 
4 to the Parliament of Scotland. In which Refpedl: 

* we cannot but wonder how the Covenant, Trea- 
' ties, and Declarations mentioned, ftiould come 
' to be urged and applied afrefh in this Letter, un- 
' lefs they conceive that the touching upon this 
4 String is fo plaufible to fome deluded Minds 
' among us, that there will need no more than a 
' bare Affirmation to gain Credit thereunto with 

* fuch Perfons, for whofe Sake we have thought 

* good to make this further Reply : 

* That it neither can nor will be made appear 

* by any Thing exprefled in the Covenant, Trea- 

* ties, of Declarations that have pafled the Parlia- 
' ment of England, that the Parliament hath ex- 

K 2 * eluded 

148 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' eluded or debarr'd itfelf from the Ufe and Exer- 

1649. * c ife of that Right and Power which is infeparable 

* ""v -' ' from it, as the Supreme Legiflative Authority of 

J ul y- < t hi s Nation, to alter, repeal, make void in whole 

4 or in part, any Thing whatfoever appertaining to 

* the Government of this Nation, within itfelf, as 
' they fhall judge requifite and neceflary from Time 
to Time. And, certainly, could any fuch Ex- 

* preflion have efcaped them, that might have been 

* ftrained into any fuch injurious Senfe, which we 
' are fure hath not, yet it is not to be imagined 

* that any Covenant, Treaty, or Declaration in 

* that Behalf, could be binding in Things that a 
' Parliament cannot give away from itfelf, but 

* would be deftru&ive to the very Ends for which 

* Parliaments are. Unto both which Confidera- 
tions this yet remains to be added, That what- 
4 ever Force or Vigour might have been drawn and 

* urged from the faid Covenant, Treaties, and De- 

* cla-rations, to ferve for this, or any other Ufe by 

* the Parliament of Scotland^ the Invafion which 
laft Year was made by the Parliament of that 
Kingdom, (by God's Bleffing fo timely and hap- 
pily defeated) hath cancell'd and made invalid, 

* as to any Obligation upon England, untill we 
c mall think fit to give new Life and Being to them : 

* Wherein we have Reafon to be the more careful 

* and cautious, rinding how dangerous Conftruc- 
tions and Inferences are endeavoured to be put 
' upon them, upon all Occafions, thereby to en- 
' title the Kingdom of Scotland to a pretenfive 

* Power over the Laws and Liberties of England. 

' And as to that which we are defired to remem * 

* ber concerning what hath been done by the Per- 

* Jons that have prefent Power and Parliamentary 

* Authority of Scotland, (when eftated therein 

* thro* the djfiftance of Lieutenant-Genera! Crom- 

* well, and the Forces under his Command) to the 

* dif claiming thofe Proceedings again/I England, by 

* that unlawful Engagement j we anfwer, That the 

* Remembrance of this doth not at all expiate and 


0/ x E N G L A N D. 149 

* fatisfy for the actual Wrong and Violence perpe- Inter-regnum, 

* trated upon this Nation by the Parliament of l6 49 

' Scotland, who were the Authors and Orderers of * v "^ 

* that Engagement -, and have thereby rendered the J uly ' 

* Kingdom of Scotland refponfable, not only for the 
' Wrong and Injury done, but to the Recompence 
4 of thofe great Damages which England hath fu- 

* ftained by the fame ; which we were defirous, 

* among other Things, to have received Satisfac- 
' tion for in a Way of Treaty, fo haftily declined 

* and rejected by the prefent Parliament of Scot- 
( land, in their laft Letter, as if it were reafonable 
for the Parliament of that Kingdom to doWrong, 
' but not reafonable for the Parliament of England, 

* fo much as to demand Satisfaction for that 

* Wrong, though in the faireft and moft peaceable 
f Way. And how can we expect Satisfaction to 
' be given to any other Injuries done to this Na- 

* tion, when they fhall by us be made known to 
' them, as they feem now to invite, when as to 
' that which is fo manifeft and notorious, as the laft 
' Year's Invafion, we have no other Redrefs afford- 

* ed but Recrimination, which the latter Part of 
' their Letter is filled with, and may be teduced 

* to thefe two Heads ? 

Fir/?, ' To their adhering unto, and now the 

* fecond Time avowing, thofe Scandals and Re- 

* preaches laid upon the prefent Government of En- 

* gland, in a Paper of their Commiflioners, dated 

* Feb. 24, i64f,fubfcribed by the Earl of Lothian* 
' Sir John Chiejley, and Mr. Glendinning, in the 
' Name of the Kingdom of Scotland; upon Perufal 
' and Confideration whereof, we then paffed our 
' Senfe of it in a fhort Declaration. Unto which 

* we mail only add, That if the Bonds of Religion 
e and Faithfulnefs to theTruft repofed in both r$r- 
' liaments be impartially confidered, we cannot 
' but think that the Confideration thereof would 
have been a far better Inducement to the Parlia- 
' ment of Scotland to have accepted the Propofals 

* made by us in our laft Letter, as a Means for the 

K 3 'two 

150 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jater-regnam. two Nations to have grown up into a firm League? 

1649. anc i Amity; thereby to have fecured Religion and 

*- '"V" ^ ' public Liberty from the Defigns of Popiih, Pre- 

* u>> ' * latical, and Malignant Factions, than, by this 

4 their late Carriage towards us, to have put the 

* two Nations at fuch a pittance, and, at belt, Un-. 
4 uicfulnefs of each to other, as ferves only to da 
4 the Work of the common Enemv, by weakening 

* us through our own Divifions : Wherein we are 
6 lure, whatever Charge they lay upon us, they 

* have not (hewn themfelves ftedfaft and true to 

* thofe Grounds which were the Caufes not only 

* of uniting both Nations in the fo-often-mention'd, 

* Covenant and Treaties, made without and a- 
*. gainft Confent of the late King, but alfo of their 
4 engaging in a War againjt him for the Attain- 
4 mem of thofe Ends. 

4 And the Improvement of this Principle in pur- 
4 fuance of our Truft, is not therefore to be com- 
4 plained of, becauie it juftifies our late Proceed- 
4 ings, which have out-gone what Scotland hath 
4 concurred in with us, no more now than before, 

* when it upheld thofe joint Refolutions which car^ 
4 ried out them and us together in a War againft 
4 the late King and his Party, and in that Anfwer 
' of both Kingdoms, That we could not give cur 

* Confent to his Majeftys Return and Exercife of 
4 his Regal Office, till he had fir ft given Satisfac- 
4 tion to his Kingdoms for the innocent Blood of his 
4 good Subjects that bad been fpilt in all his Domi- 
4 nions, by his Command and CommiJ/isn, and for 

* the War in Ireland by him fomented and prolonged. 

* Xo the fecond Head of their Recrimination, 
4 wherein they tell us, That it is apparent there 
4 hath been of late, in England, a Back/tiding and 
4 Departure from the Grounds and Principles ivhere- 

* in the two Kingdoms firjl engaged^ we anfwer, 
4 That before fo heavy a Charge had been fo pofi- 
4 lively faften'd on us, it would have been agree- 
4 able to Reafon and Juftice that a little Pains had 
e been taken in briefly reminding us of thofe Prin- 

4 ciplcs 

Of E N G L A N D, 151 

' ciples from which they accufe us to have depart- Inter-regnum. 

* ed. For it is not apparent to us, after a very fe- l6 49- 

' rious Confideration of all that hath been offered *""" - *v J 
' from the Parliament of Scotland, that there hath ^ uly * 
4 been a Backfliding from thole Principles (pro- 
' perly fo called) upon which the two Nations firft 

* engaged ; but, on the contrary, we doubt not 
4 but to make it evident to all, not prejudiced, that 
' we have been fo far from going back, that we 

* have gone forward in the Profecution of them : 
' And the Diftance between us and Scotland arifes 

* not from our backfliding from thofe Principles, 
' but from their ftanding ftill and not purfuing the 
' common End which we propounded to ourfelves 

* when we mutually engaged ; which was the Se- 
1 curity of Religion and the public Liberties of the 

* Nations above all other Things ; and all other 

* Things, as they are confident with, and fubfer- 

* vient unto, them. And we know that, in all 

* Things, the End, before other Principles, is firft 

* intended ; which whilft it is adhered unto, a 

* Freedom is allowed to make Ufe of all fit and re- 

* quifite Means to attain that End : And therefore 
' the End of all Government being the Good of 

* the People, in which Good the right Knowledge 

* and Worfliip of God is efpecially comprized, the 
6 Ground of all Change muft be, as it hath been 

* with us, in order to thofe Ends which were the 

* Principles that the two Nations did mutually en- 

* gage upon ; and which will certainly rife up in 
' Judgment againft them, if they be wilfully decli- 

* ned and departed from by either of them. We 
' muft be careful, therefore, that we miftake not 

* Principles for Superstructures, for the End is the 
' firft and perfedt Principle ; the Means are but 

* fubordinate and fubjedr. to Change, as oft as they 
' prove ineffectual to the End. 

'And whereas they efteem a pofitiveConftitution 
< of Government to be a Principle, and the Adhe- 
' rence to it to be of Confcience, altho" changed 
s by the Supreme Authority; upon Examination it 

* will be found, that herein they more eftablim the 


152 T^e Parliamentary HISTORY 

' Intereft of the Governors than the Good of the 

* Governed ; and that wherever the People's Wel- 

* fare is preferred before the particular Interefts of 

* them that govern, it hath not been unufual in thofe 
' Nations to lay afide precedent Forms of Govern- 
4 ment, and introduce others; although they allow 
' not us, upon the fame equitable Ground, to 
' change from Monarchy into a Commonwealth. 

' And becaufe the Parliament of Scotland doth 

* propound, That the late Proceedings in England, 
' againjl Covenants and Treaties, may be disclaimed 
* and difavowed, as the Profecution of the late un- 

* lawful Engagement againjl England was by them, 

* and that fuch as have departed from thofe Prin- 

* ciplesy and their former Profcj/ioKs, may return 

* unto the fame : We conceive that this Propofal 

* might have been fpared, till either they had con- 
' vinced us that our Proceeding's did deferve fuch 
' difclaiming, or at leaft till we had been brought to 

* the fame Straits with them, when they difavow'd 

* to us the laft Year's Engagement ; which was 

* not done by the vifible Authority of that Nation, 
4 till the Scots Army was overthrown in England, 

* and that a confiderable Force of ours was in their 

* Kingdom, in purfuit of that Victory. 

* They tell us further, That no Alteration or Re- 

* volution of Affairs can abfolve either Nation from 

* the Covenant and Treaties^ &c. We cannot ad- 
4 mit of this Do&rine, having fo frefti in Memory 
'the laft Year's open Hoftility of that Kingdom 

* againft England - t and being not at all fecured, 
' (however the contrary be as yet profefled) but 

* that thofe who are already fo eafily difpofed to 

* entertain Prejudice, and declare fo unjuft Cen- 

* fures upon our late Proceedings, may in (hort 

* Time be drawn, in their Zeal, to uphold Mo- 
6 narchy; and, by their own Senfe of the Cove- 
nant, to join avowedly with the common Enemy, 

* the Papifts, Prelates, and Malignants ; whofe 

* Power and pernicious Defigns to obviate and op- 

* pofe, was the chief End of the Covenant and 

* Treaties : And fliould they happen to fall into 


Of E N G L A N D. 153 

* fuch an Alteration and Revolution as this, we Inter-rcgmim. 
' prefume that we (hall then ftand abfolved in their l6 49- 

' Judgment, as we do now in our own. **" ""X"""'""' 

' And we fliall wifh that fome contrary Necef- y 

* fity do not incline them to the Popifh, Prelatical, 

* and Malignant Party, as well as their Neceflity 

* the laft Year brought them not only to comply 

* and join, but to be obliged for their Lives and 
' Safeties, to thofe whom formerly they had decla- 
' red againft, as much as now they do> for a Sec- 
' tarian Army. 

* This Account we have thought fit to give of 

* our late Endeavours, in a peaceable Way, to pre- 

* vent all Mifunderftandings and Differences be- 
' between us and Scotland. Out of which Courfe, 

4 if we be now diverted, we can truly fay the Fault 

* is not ours ; and fhall not doubt but that all in 

* this Commonwealth, who defire Protection from 
' it, and wifh well to the Safety and Good of Eng- 

* land) will be awakened to difcern the Fallacy and 

5 Unfoundnefs of thefe Allegations againft us and 

* our Proceedings ; and be forewarned of having 
' Compliance with Defigns of whatever Colour, 

* that tend only to renew and foment our Divifions 
< at home, and to promote foreign Advantages, by 
' depriving ourfelves of the Fruit and Benefit of all 
c thofe Labours which we have undergone, thefe 

* many Years, with the Expence of fo much Blood 

* and Treafure.' 

After this the Houfe employed the greateft Part Lieutenant-Ge- 
of the Month in making necefiary Preparations for neral Cromwell 
the Expedition into Ireland: The Marquis 
Ormond had advanced far in his Conqueft of that 
Kingdom, and had actually laid Siege to Dublin, 
which made theGovernment on this Side very anxi- 
ous about it. The Forces defign'd to be employ'd 
againft him, under the Command of Lieutenant- 
General Cromwell, were ordered to embark forth- 
with; and he himfelf was to go with them, inveft- 
ed with all the Pomp and Regalities of a Deputy- 

154 T^e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Lieutenant of that Kingdom. The Houfe aHc> 
1649- borrowed 150,0007. more of the City of London^ 
* TV^' at Eight per Cent, and on the Credit of the Excife, 
for this Expedition ; and ordered the nth of July 
to be kept as a Day of public and folemn Fafting 
and Humiliation, throughout the Cities of London 
and Wtfhninfttr, for the feeking Almighty God, 
for his efpecial Bleiling upon the Forces now de- 
fign'd and going for the Relief of Irtiiind. The 
lame to be obfervcd and kept in all Churches and 
Chapels, on a more diftant Day, throughout all 
England, &c. Arrd, in order to oblige the Clergy 
the more effectually to proclaim to their Congre- 
gations what the Parliament thought proper to di- 
rect, on the Qth of this Month the Boufs pafs'd 
the following Refolutions : 

Orders for regu- i. ' That if any Minifter fhould, directly or in- 
hting the Con-dps&fa preach, or publickly pray, againft the 
gytlSng tt Powe ^ Authority, or Proceedings of the Parlia- 
State. ment, or the Government eftr.hliihed by Authority 


2. ' Or, 'in preaching or praying, to make Men- 
tion of diaries Stuart or Jtirne s Stuart, Sons of the 
late King, (who, by Judgment of Parliament, 
were declared Enemies, and flood excepted from 
Pardon) othcrwife than as the Enemies of this 
Commonwealth ; or fhould, under the Name of 
Royal Iflue, or otherwife, promote any Title or 
Intereft, taken away or declared againft by this 
Parliament, to the Prejudice of this prefent Go- 
vernment : 

3. ( Or fhould not obferve the Days of public 
Humiliation or Thankfe;iving, appointed, or- to be 
appointed, by Parliament; or not publilh the Acts, 
Orders, or Declarations thereof, being enjoined 
and directed thereunto by Authority ot the fame, 
(having due Notice thereof, without reafonable 
Caufe to the contrary) they fhould be adjudged 
Delinquents ; and be within the refpective Orders 
and Acts touching Sequeftration, as to their Eccle- 
fiafticaJ Benefices and Stipends.' 

Of ENGLAND. 255 

We have already taken Notice of an Act, for inter- rsgnum. 
felling the Goods and Perfonal Eilate of the late J '- 
King, Queen, and Prince: And, on the i6th of ' ; 
this Month, another was pafs'd for the Sale of the J uly> 
Crown Lands, except fuch as were to be referved 
for the Ufe of the State. The Preamble to this 
Act fets forth, 

' That the Parliament of England having been An Aft pafs'd for 
c neceffitated, for their juft and lawful Defence, Sale of theCrown 

* and preferving of the Laws and Liberties of this Lands > 
' Nation, to raife and maintain fcveral Armies and 

' Forces j by Reafon whereof they have contradl- 
' ed very great Debts ; and conceiving themfelves 
' engaged, both in Honour and Juitice, to make due 
' Satisfaction unto all Officers and Soldiers for their 
' Arrears ; taking alfo into Confideration the ma- 

* ny great and faithful Services done and perform'd 
' by thofe Forces, and more efpecially by the Ar- 
6 my under the Command of Thomas Lord Fair- 
' fax ; by which, through the Blefling of God on 
c their Endeavours, the Parliament is put into a 
Capacity of fettling the People of this Nation in, 
and restoring them unto, their juft Liberties and 

* Freedoms*. And that whereas the late King, 

* the Queen, and their eldeft Son, have been the 
< chief Authors of the late Wars and Troubles, by 
e whom, in whofe Behalf, and for whofe Intereft 
principally, the fame hath been unjuftly raifed, 
' fomented, continued, and renewed ; and there- 

* fore, in all Juflice and Equity, ought to bear the 
' Burden of the faid Debts; and their Eftates, in 
the firft Place, to be applied to difcharge the fame; 
' it being the Duty and efpecial Care and Endea- 
vour of the Parliament that the People ihould 

* not in any fort be taxed and charged, but in Cafe^ 
of inevitable Neceffity, and when other Ways 
' and Means are wanting : And that forafmuch 

* as the Parliament, finding the Office of a King 
' in this Nation to have been unneceflary, burden- 
fome, and dangerous, hath utterly abolifhed the 
6 faid Kingly Office,' 


156 *The Parliamentary Hi s T o R Y 

Then it proceeds to enact, That, for the better 
fecuring the Arrears of 600,000 /. due to the Ar- 
my, and charged on the Excife, the fame fhall be 
charged on the Crown Lands, to be veiled in Tru- 
ftees for that Purpofe, who were to keep Courts 
of Survey, and to appoint Stewards and other Of- 
ficers till the Time of Sale : No Lands to be fold 
under thirteen Years Purchafe j nor a Leafe grant- 
ed for one Life under fix Years and a half ; a Leafe 
for two Lives, under three Years and a half ; and 
a Leafe for three Lives, two Years and a half, &c. 
by the Agents or Contractors on the Part of the 
Parliament, appointed in the Act, whofe Power and 
Inftructions are amply fet forth therein ; with Pro- 
vifo's touching Forefts and Timber Trees to be re- 
ferved for the Ufe of the Navy. 

For declaring T he nCXt ***?> J tt b X 7> an At W2S P afs ' d ' de ~ 

Counterfeiting claring what Offences fhall be adjudg'd HighTrea- 
of the Coin to f on . j t i s obfervable that this Act is an exact li- 
be^High T i- teral Cop y of another pa f s 'd } un d er t h e fame Title, 

the I4th of May, 1649, with the Addition of a 
fmgle Paragraph only ; and yet no Reference is 
made in the one Act to the other, nor any Rea- 
fon affign'd for re-enacting into a Law what had 
received that Sanction only two Months before. 
The Addition was, Extending the Penalties of 
High Treafon, (except Corruption of Blood or 
Lofs of Dower) to all fuch who mould counter- 
feit, clip, warn, or impair the current Coin of the 
Commonwealth, or knowingly import falfe Mo- 
ney, in order to make Payment thereof. 

For propagating On the 2yth of this Month the Parliament pafs'd 

the Gofpel in an Act, for promoting and propagating the Gofpel 

jaw-AyM] of j efus chrift in New-England. As the Pre- 

amble to this Act exhibits fome Idea of the State 

of this, then Infant, Colony, we fhall give it at 


' Whereas the Commons of England^ aflembled 
' in Parliament, have received certain Intelligence, 


Of E N G L A N D. 157 

4 by the Teftimonial of divers faithful and godly Inter-regnum. 
4 Minifters, and others, in New-England, that di- 
4 vers the Heathen Natives of that Country, (thro* 
4 the Bleffing of God upon the pious Care and 
* Pains of fome godly EngliJI) of this Nation, who 
4 preach the Gofpel to them in their own Indian 
4 Language) are not only of barbarous become 
4 civil ; but many of them, forfaking their ac- 
4 cuftomed Charms and Sorceries, and other Sata- 
4 nical Delufions, do now call upon the Name of 
4 the Lord, and give great Teftimony of the Power 
4 of God drawing them from Death and Darknefs 
4 into the Life and Light of the glorious Gofpel of 
4 Jefus Chrift, which appeareth by their diligent 
4 attending on the Word fo preached unto them j 
4 with Tears lamenting their mif-fpent Lives ; 
4 teaching their Children what they are inftructed in 
4 themfelves ; being careful to place their faid Chil- 
4 dren in godly Englijb Families, and to put them 
4 to Englijb Schools ; betaking themfelves to one 
4 Wife, putting away the reft ; and by their con- 
4 ftant Prayers to Almighty God, Morning and 
4 Evening in their Families, exprefled, in all Ap- 
4 pearance, with much Devotion and Zeal of Heart : 
4 All which confidered, we cannot but, in behalf of 
4 the Nation we reprefent, rejoice, and give Glory 
4 to God, for the Beginning of fo glorious a Pro- 
4 pagation of the Gofpel of Jefus Chrift amongft 
4 thofe poor Heathens, which cannot be profecu- 
4 ted with that Expedition and further Succefs as 
4 is defired, unlefs fit Inftruments be encouraged 
4 and maintained to purfue it j Univerfities, Schools, 
4 and Nurferies of Literature fettled for further 
4 inftrufting and civilizing them ; Inftruments 
4 and Materials fit for Labour and Cloathing 
4 with other NecefTaries, as Encouragements for 
4 the beft-deferving among them, be provided, and 
4 many other Things neceflary for fo great a Work ; 
4 the furniftiing of all which will be a Burden too 
4 heavy for the Englijb there, who (although wil- 
4 ling, yet unable) have in a great Meafure ex- 
* baufted their Eftates in laying the Foundations of 

4 many 

58 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

many hopeful Towns and Colonies in a defolate 
Wildernefs : And therefore conceiving ourfelves 
of this Nation bound to be helpful in promoting 
and advancing of a Work Ib muc h tending to the 
Honour of Almighty God : Be it therefore en- 
acted, &fr.' 

By this A (El a Corporation was eftablifbed, con- 
fifting of a Prefident, Treafurcr, and fourteen Af- 
fiftants, with Power to purchalc Lands in Mort- 
main to the Amount of 2000 /. per Annum, to ap- 
point a common Seal, make By-Laws, and re- 
ceive charitable Contributions. A general Col- 
lection was ordered to be made throughout Eng- 
land and Wales ; and the Minifters of every Pariih 
were required to read this Act in their feveral Con- 
gregations, to exhort the People to a liberal Con- 
tribution, and to go from Houfe to Houfe for that 

July 31. The Houle pafs'd an Adi: giving fur- 
er Powers for the Sale of Deans and Chapters 
Lands. The Amendments and Alterations where- 

And for the rea- 

dier Sale of Deans th er Powers for the Sale of Deans and Chapters 
Lands. " Lands. The Amendments and Alterations where- 
in make no fmall Part of the Journals of this 
Month. Mr. Ludlow a remarks, ' That tho' the 
Truftees were authorized to fell the Lands at ten b 
Years Purchafe, yet fuch was the good Opinion 
the People had conceiv'd of the Parliament, that 
moft of them were fold at the clear Income of 
fifteen, fixteen, and feventeen Years ; one half 
of the Sums contracted for being paid down in 
ready Money ; befides which the Woods were va- 
lued diftindtly, and to be paid for according to the 

Tlie AiTcjTment Auguft. The Commons began this Month with 
'of 90,000 1. con- a Vote for continuing the AflefTment, of 90,000 /. 
Month sponger. P er Menfem for three Months longer, viz. from 

the 2Qth of September enfuing, to the fame Day in 

December next. 

a Memoirs, Vol. I. p. 299. 

b By the Adi pafs'd, dpril 30, 1649, for the Sale of Dcrrr 
and Chapters Lands, they were not be fold under twelve Years 
Purchafe. SceMl's Collcfiions, r> 20. 

Of ENGLAND, 159 

. Augujl 3. To (hew in how high a Degree of Intcr-regnum. 
Credit and Honour this Fragment of a Parliament 
was held abroad, the following pompous Super- 
fcription and Conclufion of a Letter, lent to them 
from the Burgomafters and Senators of the City of 
Hamburgh, is entered, by way of Precedent we fup- 
pofe, in their ^Journals : 

lllujirijjimis, Excellentijjimis, Nobilijjimis^ acThe. Manner of 
Marnificis Dominis, Dominis CelfiffimeeDomusPar- 1 ^ Parliament's 
; A r n j- -L r\ a mr being addrefled 

liamcntt in AnglMUraimouSi JJommis nojtris Ubjer- ^ ^c City of 

vandijfimis ; and fubfcribed thus, Illuftrijfimarum Hamburgh, 
veftrarum Generofitatum Cff Dominatuum Obfervan- 
dijfimi atque Officiojtjfimi Proconfules & Senatorcs 
Civitatis Hamburgenfis. 

Aug. 6. The Houfe proceeded in framing a De- 
claration concerning the Maintenance of the Ali- 
niftry and Church Government ; and the Queftion 
being put that the Declarative Claufe in the AcT\ 
touching the Prefbyterian Government, be Part of 
the Declaration, the Houfe divided ; when the 
Numbers were found to be equal, 23 and 23, but 
the Speaker's Vote caft it in the Negative. Then 
it was ordered, That it be referred to a Committee, 
upon the Debate of the Houfe, to confider of this 
Declaration, and to review the Book and Ordi- 
nances for fettling Prelbytery, and to bring it in 
with fuch Alterations as they (hall think fit, with 
Lenity to tender Confciences. 

Aug. 9. Two Bills were brought into the Houfe 
this Day, one of them intituled, An Aft again/I 
feditious and fcandalous News, Rumours^ and Wri- 
tings ; the other, An Aft again/I unlkenfed and 
fcandalous Books and Pamphlets, and for the better 
regulating of Printing. They were both read a firft 
and fecond Time, and, upon the Queftion, com- 

The fame Day the Houfe heard a Report from 
the Council of State; and afterwards, upon the 
Motion of Mr. Henry Martin^ ordered, That thofe 
Gentlemen who were appointed to have the Cufto- 


160 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum. <ty of the Regalia* do deliver them over to the 

1649. Truftees for Sale of the Goods of the late King, 

v ~ ' Queen, and Prince, who are to caufe the fame to 

Auguft. be to t a Uy broken ; and that they melt down the 

Orders for melt- Gold and Silver of them, and fell the Jewels for 

ing down the Re- the beft Advantage of the Commonwealth; and 

& an the d Sa." t0 take the llke CarC f th fe that WerC in the 

tUs', ng of the'late Tower. An Order was alfo made for taking down 

King. and demolishing the Arms of the late King in all 

public Places, and likewife all Statues of him, and 

Infcriptions. So active were thefe Reformers of 

the State in obliterating all Marks of Regal Sove- 

Aug. 10. An Affair relating to Colonel, after- 
wards the famous General, Monck^ happened in 
the Houfe this Day, which deferves our Notice. 
This Officer had been long employed in Ireland 
by the Parliament, and had lately made an Agree- 
ment for a Ceflation of Arms with the Irijh Rebels. 
The Colonel was queftioned for this by the new 
oi Lord-Lieutenant in that Kingdom, and by him re- 
idi the m i tte ^ over mto England, with his Papers, to the 
//Rebels,cen- Council of State, who referred him to the Parlia- 

Houfc by th ment : And this Da y> bein S called to the Bar to 
anfwer for his Offence, he owned the Fact, and 

faid he did it on his own Score, perceiving it 
was for the Prefervation of the Englijh Intereft 
there ; and that they had reaped fome Fruits there- 
of accordingly. After much Debate on this Bu- 
finefs, the Houfe came to the following Refolution: 
' That this Houfe doth utterly difapprove of the 
Proceedings of Col. Monck^ in the Treaty and Cef- 
fation made between him and Owen Roe O'Neile> 
and that the innocent Blood, which had been fhed in 
Ireland^ is fo frefh in the Memory of this Houfe, 
that they do deteft and abhor the Thoughts of 
clofmg with any Party of Popifh Rebels there, 
who have had their Hands in fhedding that Blood : 
Neverthelefs, the Houfe being fatisfied that what 
Col. Monck had done therein, was, in his Appre- 
henfion, neceffary for the Prefervation of the Par- 

Of ENGLAND. 161 

1 lament of England's Intereft there, theHoufe was Inter-regnuir., 
content the further Confideration thereof, as to l6 49- 
him, be laid afide; and fhould not, at any Time < """~ V ~T" - ' 
hereafter, be call'd in Queftion.' The Colonel be- 
ing again call'd in, the Speaker acquainted him 
with this Reiblution. 

Mr. IVbitlocke writes g , * That Monck was much 
difcon tented at the Proceedings in this Bufmefs in 
relation to himfelf, efpecially at fome Paflages high- 
ly reflecting on his Honour and Fidelity : That it 
was the Opinion of divers, either not to have que- 
flion'd him in this Bufmefs at all, or, having once 
done it, never to employ him any more in the Ser- 
vice: But that the major Part carried it for beat- 
ing him firft, and then ftroaking him j which fome 
think he never forgot.' 

Aug. 14. This Day the Houfe received Letters A great 
from Ireland^ brought by Capt. Otway, giving j^ inM . ov " the 
an Account of a great Vidory obtained by their J^ // 
Forces there againfl the Marquis of Ormond. A by the Parlia- 
Day of Thankfgiving was immediately appointed mcnt ' s Forc e* 
to be held on the 2 9 th Inft. throughout all - ^T>!. ** 
land and Wales^ for this wonderful and feafonable 
Vi&ory, vouchfafed by the Goodnefs of God to 
the Parliament's Forces, under the Command of 
Lieutenant-General Michael Jones^ Aug. 2, againft 
the whole Army of the Rebels in Ireland^ com- 
manded by the Earl of Ormond^ then belieging 
Dublin. A Declaration was alfo ordered to be 
drawn, of the Grounds and Reafons of the fetting 
a -part the faid Day of public Thankfgiving, and 
an At for the due Obfervation thereof, the Care 
of which were left to Mr. Whitaker and Mr. Scot. 
This Declaration and Narrative of the Battle and 
Victory, as alfo the A&, which were ordered to 
be printed and publifhed, and a competent Num- 
ber of them fent to every Sheriff of England and 
Wales, to be by them distributed to all the Mini- 
fters within their refpe&ive Jurifdi<tions, are too 
extraordinary to be omitted in this Work. 

Memorials, p, 403, 

1 62 The Parliamentary HIST o R Y 

and Reafons for fetting a-part a Day of public 
Tb ank f giving, to be kept on Wedncfday the ityb 
<j/Auguft, 1649. h 

lnce the Time that the Lord brought up his 

e ^ lc fl ' m thc H ufe f Bondage, b X the 

' Outgoings of his Almighty Power in Signs and 
< Wonders, it can hardly be obferved that ever his 
' Almighty Arm was made more vifibly bare in 
' promoting, or that he hath, by more evident De- 

* monftrations declared to the World, his Appro- 

* bation aid Owning of any Caufe, than he hath 

* done that in which this Parliament hath been 

* engaged, for Afferting and Recovery of their juft 

* Rights and Liberties, with the Eftablifhment of 

* Truth and Righteoufnefs, and Suppreffion and 

* Removal of Tyranny, and all the Effects of it. 

* And this hath been feen more evidently and abfo- 

* lutely fince the Time that the Parliament hath 

* engaged, moft exprefly and impartially, againft 

* the greatcft and higheft Enemies of Religion and 

* With what a Series of Mercies and Miracles, 

* of Victories and Deliverances, we have been fol- 

* lowed from the Hand of our merciful God fince 

* the Battle of Nafeby till this prefent, cannot, we 

* hope, be fo far out of cither the Senfe or Memory 
' of any good Patriot, as to need a Recapitulation 

* or Rehearfal. He hath made us to triumph over 

* our Enemies, and wherein they dealt proudly he 

* was above them; giving them Leave oft-times to 
' fwell their Waves, that he might fet them Li- 
' mits, and fay unto them, Hitherto fnall ye cotne y 
' and no further. He hath made them feel the 

* Liftings-up of his Hand, which they would not 

* fee; and by his own Almighty Wonder- work- 

* ing Power defeated their Strengths, and con- 
c founded them in thcirConfidences: Whenheight- 

* ened to Aflurances of undoubted Succefs, they 


k From the original Edition, printed for EJtvard llu/kands, Prin- 
ter to the Parliament of England, Aiguft 16, 1649, 

Of E N G L A N D. 163 

* have promifed themfelves nothing but Victory, Inter-rcgnum, 
4 Spoil, and the full Harveft of their Hopes, then 

' fudden Deftruclion hath befallen them from the 
' Lord ; and that fo fignally and beyond ordinary 
' Providences, as if the Stars in their Courfes had 

* fought againft them : When they have gone from 
' Mountain to Hill to feelc for Divinations againft 

* Ifrael, and call'd in Moab, and dmmon, and Ama- 

* leek, and the Inhabitants of Mount Seir againft 
' the Worm Jacob, through the Power and Pre- 
4 fence of our God no Sorcery hath prevailed, no 

* Weapon form'd againft us hath profpered. The 

* Lord hath declared to the World, that he is a 

* God of Mountains and of Valleys, and every 
e where a ftrong Rock, a mighty Defence, for thofe 

* that ferve and truft in him. Againft all Perfons, 

* and in all Places, he hath appeared for us ; as 

* againft the old profefled Malignants and Royalifts 

* all along in England, and againft the pretended 
' Covenanters laft Year from and in Scotland; fo 

* now of late moft feafonably, and even miracu- 
c loufly, in Ireland, againft both Scots, renegado 

* EngUJh, and Irijb formerly commanded by Taaff** 
4 Prefton, Clanrlckard, Inchiquin, and now united 
' and grown into a numerous Army under the Apo- 
' ftate Ormond ; amounting in the whole, at their 

* own Account, to 19,000 Men. Now when, 

* by the Revolt of Inchiquin, all Munjler was theirs j 

* and, by the Force of Clanrickard, all Connaught, 
4 by the Defection of the Scots, and the Treachery 

* of the Englijb deferting their Truft, all Ulfter was 

* loft, except Derry; and Leinjier, even to Dublin j 

* when all the Englifr) Intereft in Ireland was re- 

* duced, and fhut up in thofe two Towns, and the 

* latter ftraitly befieged by fo potent a Force, where - 

* by the Enemy was arrived to fuch a Confidence, 

* as that the Lord Ormond began to be folicitous, 
' and full of Trouble to himfelf, what to do with 

* our Men, when they fhould be in his Power, 
4 whereof he made no Doubt ; inclining, as he 

* faid, to fend them to the Barbadoes and our other 

* Plantations, if fufficient Shipping could be gain'd; 

L 2 and 

164 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. c and the Lord Taa/\ to eafe him of that Care,' 

1649. < fuggefted, as an eafier Expedient, the throwing 

* v * * them into the Sea: Such are the Mercies of the 

s uft - c Wicked ! Then, when they only ftaid but for 

' the coming up of their additional Forces, to effect 

' all this the more fecurely, then the Lord look'd 

' flown from Heaven, the Habitation of his Ho line j} 

* and his Glory, and defeated them ; then he fent 
< forth his Wrath ^ and consumed them a: Stubble or 
1 as Chaff before the Wind: And thus hath he be- 

* gun to avenge his Ifrael there, and vifit for the 

* Blood of his People ftied in that Kingdom, with 

* a Rage reaching up to Heaven ; and therein given 
6 his Servants here Caufe with triumphant Joy to 
' fing, Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the 

* Gods ? Who is like thee, glorious In Holinefs, fear- 

* ful in Praifes, doing Wonders ? 

4 The Particulars of which wonderful Mercy, 

* now given, are more fully and clearly certified in 

* feveral ExpreiTes from Lieutenant-General Jones y 

* the principal and moft honourable Inftrument in 

* the Hand of God for this great Deliverance and 

* Succefs, fumm'd up in the enfuing Narrative : 

Since Ormond'j firft fetting himfelf before Dub- 
lin, (where he continued from the 20th of June tb 
the id Injlant) little was done againft this City ; he 
aiming firjl at the gaining the principal Out-gar- 
rifons, as Drogheda, Dundalk, and Trym, the 
lajl being taken the 2 1/? pa ft. 

On the 22d Col. Venables landed with his Foot\ 
the 2$tb, Col. Reynolds, with his Horfe ; the 26th, 
Col. Moor and Col. Hunks, with their Footj and 
Captain Norwood and Major Eliot, with tlci; 
Troops, whereby this Party became in fome Sort 
confiderable : Wherewithal!) and by the Report of 
the Lord- Lieutenant's folloiuing foon after with the 
't.uhole Army^ the Enemy being awaken d, there- 
upon refolv'd to fet themfelves wholly to thh 
Work j and, in the fir ft Place, they did cut off thai 
Water whereby our Mills were driven^ and thereby 

Of ENGLAND. 165 

was our Condition fometbing Jlraitened; but prin- Inter-regnum. 
cipally, upon the jecond Injlant, they cajl up a JVork 1649. 
at Baggarath, within a Quarter of a Mile of this v "V-^ 
City, whither having drawn about 1 500 Foot, be- 
fedes Horfe, they thence purpofed to work them/elves 
forward in their Approaches, and to take from us 
our Fwage for our Horfe, and Grafs for our Cattle, 
without which this Place could not long have fubfiji- 
ed ; and they built Forts towards the Sea to deprive 
us of the Landing-place for our common Supplies ; 
and this was the only Jafe Landing left for our 
Forces in the Dominion of Ireland. 

The Enemies Horfe and Foot appearing at Bag- 
garath the fecondof this Inftant, about Nine in the 
Adorning, Lieutenant- General Jones drew out I2CO 
Horfe and 4000 Foot, intending then only to beat up 
the Enemies Quarters, and not to engage with fa 
fmall a Party, their Camp being at Rathmines, 
within lefs than a Mile of Baggarath j but God 
blejjing our Men with Succefs, and by the coming on 
cf Parties on all Sides, it came at length to a gene- 
ral Engagement ; and, after more than two Hours 
hot Difpute, the Enemy was totally routed: Or- 
mond hardly efcaped with eight Horfe, and few had 
efcaped of their whole Numbers, but that there was 
Caufe to provide again/I a Body of jooo frejh 
Horfe of the Enemies, commanded by Sir Thomas 
Armftrong ; which coming up frejh, and in our Men's 
Diforder, might have endangered all ; but they, in- 
Jlead of advancing as our Men expefted, fied to~ 
wards Drogheda. 

Our Lojs of Men was little,, there not being 
2O miffing ; but many wounded. 

Of the Enemy were Jlain about 4000, fame of 
conjiderable Duality, and 2517 taken Prisoners j 
among/i whom Col. Chriftopher Plunket, the Earl 
of Fingall, and Col. Richard Butler, the Earl 
of Ormond'j Brother, were Principals ; and, with 
them, j 6 Colonels and Field-Officers, 41 Captains, 
58 Lieutenants, 42 Enjigns ; of Cornets, ^uarter- 
Majlers, and other Perfons of inferior Offices and 
,^ great Numbers, mojl of them of Inchiquin'j 
L 3 ' Eng,- 

i66 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Infr-rfgnum. Englifh and our Runaways: To which is to be add- 
1649. ed Mr* John Herbert, Servant to the pretended 
King, who, about fix Day! before landed his Ma- 
p er , s fjoujhold Stuff in Galway. 

Our Men took in the Place three Demi-cannons, cne 
large fquare Gun, carrying a Ball of twelve Pounds , 
cne ^acre-Drake, and one Mortar-piece : All thcfe 
Urafs. And our Men alfo gained about 200 Oxen 
for the Train, be/ides Carriages. The next Day our 
Men feized a Brafs Cannon within Jive Miles of 
the Camp', which Camp was richly furnijhcd with 
great Store of Velvets, Silks, Scarlets, and other 
Clothing of Value ; Wines, Groceries, with fame con- 
venient Quantity of Money ; all which they left be- 
hind them, and the neighbouring Villages plentifully 
Jlorcd with Cattle of all Sorts Jit for Food. 

There are alfo taken of the Train Carriages and 
Waggons, belonging to the Enemies Army, at leafl 
300 j Tents, 500 ; Cows, 300 ; and Irifh Nags, 
term'd by them Garroones, 800. 

It was for our Advantage that Inchiquin had 
fome Days before gone towards Munfter, yet in- 
tending to return Jhortly : As alfo that our Men fa 
engaged before Clanrickard'j Coming up with his 
3000 Men out of Connaught, and 7000 Ulrter 
Scots alfo upon advancing. 

All this was done by a Handful of Men, and not 
the third Part of our Foot coming in to the princi- 
pal Part of the Work ; yet, by them, the Lord de- 
feated an Enemy, by themfelves now acknowledged 
19,000, and they having a frejh Referve of Horfe 
little Jhort of our Numbers. 

The fame Night Rathfarnham (Sir Adam Lof- 
tos'j Houfe) lately taken by the Enemy, was regained; 
and the Soldiers, in Number about J even Score, enter- 
tained into the Parliament's Service, profejjing their 
Abhorrence to accompany any longer vjith thofe bloody 
Irifh Rebels, and that they were forced to do what 
they did ; andthat hereafter they would live and die 
"with us. 

Nor did their Fears leave them till they had alfo 
quitted Maynogth, (the Earl of KildareV Houfe, 


Of E N G L A N D. 167 

and one of tbejirongeft Places in Ireland) the Naas, Inter-regnum. 
Donahedy, and Richardftown, each twelve Miles at 

lea ft diftant from Dublin. *"" T V ~T - ' 

IT J r* T i j i'i ; i Anguft. 

Never was any Day in Ireland like tbts^ to the 

Confufion of the Irifh, to the raifing up the Spirits 
of the poor Englifh, and to the reftoring cf the 
Englifh Inter eft; which , from their fir ft Footing in 
Ireland, -was never in jo low a Condition as at that 
very Injlant; there not being one considerable Landing- 
place left us but this alone^ and this almojj gone, 

4 Upon the Confideration of all which, the Par- 

* liament, for the Manifestation of their high and 
' extraordinary Senfe of fo fignal and feafonable a 

* Mercy, have thought it fit, and their Duty, to fet 

* a-part .a Time for public and folemn Thankfgi- 
' ving, to be rendered to the Lord, the Author of 

* that Mercy : And they do therefore EnacT: and 
' Ordain, That Wednesday, the 2gth of this in- 
' ftant Auguft^ fhall be obferv'd and kept as a Day 

* of public and holy Rejoicing and Thankfgiving; 
' to the Lord, in all the Churches and Chapels, 

* and Places of divine Worfhip, within this Com- 

* monwealth of England^ Dominion of Wales, and 
' Town of Berwick upon Tweed; and that the 

* Minifters of the refpetive Pariflics and Places 
c aforefaid, be and hereby they are required and 
4 enjoin'd to give Notice on the Lord's Day next 
' preceding the faid 2Qth of Au.guft^ of the Day 

* fo to be obferved, to the end the People of their 

* feveral Congregations may the more generally 

* and diligently attend the public Exercifes of God's 
Worfhip and Service there to be difpenfed upon 
this Occafion j at which Time, that the People 
' may be more particularly and fully informed of 
' this great Deliverance and Succefs, the faid Mi- 
' nifters are hereby required to publilh and read 
' this prefent Adi and Declaration. 

And for the better Obfervation of the Day, the 
' Parliameat doth hereby inhibit and forbid the 

* holding or ufe of all Fairs, Markets, and fervile 

* Works of Men's ordinary Callings upon that 

* Day: 

1 68 c fke Parliamentary HISTORY 

.-num. ' Day : And ail Mayors, Sheriffs, Juftices of Peace, 
1649. * Conftables, and other Officers, are hereby enjoin'd 
c v ' * to take efpecial Care of the due Obfervance oi 
* the laid Day of Thankfgiving accordingly.' 

One thoufand Pounds per Ann, in Lands, was 
fettled, by an Act, upon Lieutenant-General 'Jones , 
and his Heirs ; alfo fix of the King's bed Horfes 
were given to him, as a Reward for this great Service 
in Ireland. Nothing more of Moment done till 

Aug. 23. When we find that a Complaint wa r - 
made to the Council of State, and by them refer- 
red to the Houfe, of many Engltjh Merchants tra- 
ding to France, That the French King had forbid 
the Importation into that Kingdom of all Sorts of 
Draperies of Wool or of Silk, made either in 
England or Holland ; and had inhibited all his Sub- 
jects from buying or ufmg them, under fevere Pe- 
nalties, contrary to feveral Treaties, there recited, 
then fubfifting between the two Nations : That, in 
confequence of this Declaration, feveral of our 
Englijh Cloths were feiz'd at Diepe, and none durft 
claim them ; and that the Englijh Merchants were 
put into fuch a Condition, that their Factors durft 
not write to them, for fear their Letters fhould be 
intercepted, and bring them in Danger for only a 
bare Relation of the Fact. 

Fnr.cb Wines Thefe Matters being proved by the Merchants, 
and divers Ma- the Houfe refolved, 4 That all Wines of the 

of France, and all Manufacture's of Wool 
be imported. and Silk: made in that Kingdom, be inhibited to be 
imported into England or Ireland, or the Domi- 
nions belonging to them, under the Penalty of 
Confifcation of Ship and Goods. An Act was 
afterwards pafled to this Purpofe, and ordered to be 
proclaimed at the Royal Exchange, Guildhall, &c. 

Aug. 30. The Commons took into Confidera- 
tion the feveral Salaries and Fees due to their Offi- 
cers attending the Houfe, and fettled the fame ; the 
Particulars whereof are put down in the Journals. 


Of ENGLAND. 169 

Aug. 31. The Houfe having been informed that inter-regnum. 
Sir John Wintour, Sir Kenelm Digby, and Mr. l6 49- 
Walter Montague, (Perfons of whom frequent ^ *~T~^ 
Mention has been made in the Proceedings of this epteir 
Parliament) had been fccn in Town ; they ordered 
the firft to be apprehended, imprifoned, and pro- 
ceeded againft according to Law; and the two 
latter to depart the Kingdom, never more to re- 
turn, without Leave of the Parliament, on Pain of 
Death and Confifcation of their Eftates. 

September 4.. The Houfe began this Month with 
a public Charity, by palling an Al for the Relief 
of fuch infolvent Debtors as mould fwear them- 
felves not worth 5 /. but they added a moft partial 
Provifo, ' That it mould not extend to any Perfons 
who had been in Arms againft the Parliament :' 
However this laft was not carried without a Divi- 
fion, Yeas 18, Noes 17; for Col. Thompfon, who 
was in the Houfe when the Queftion was put, and 
had withdrawn, being called in, and required to give 
his Vote, declared for the Affirmative, fo the Adi: 
pafled ; whereby many poor Wretches, no doubt, 
were left to rot in Goal, who had fpent their For- 
tunes in the Service of their King, and were now 
fo unhappy as to be thrown there by their merci-^" A ^ P afs><1 

, r ^ y* for Relief of in- 

lefs Creditors. folvent DebtorSi 

The Parliament did nothing now for feveral Days & c . 
worth Notice, fome A&s excepted, which were 
pafled ; as, one for the taking off" an Impofition of 
four Shillings on each Chaldron of Coals, which 
had been long paid at Newcaftle ; and another for 
prohibiting Brewers to brew, for Sale, any Ale or 
Beer above ten Shillings the Barrel, befides the 

Sept. ii. The Parliament was not yet altoge- Mutinies and 
ther free from Alarms : For they had Intelligence Jnfurreftions at 
of a great Mutiny in the Garrifon at Oxford, which fr d > 
was ordered to be inquired into. A much greater^' a 
Infurre&ion happened alfo at Norwich, in which 


Inter- I'gnutn. 


170 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

many People were flain ; and Mr. Utthjg y the 
Mayor, and one Mr. Tuoly t were voted grand De- 
linquents, and ordered to be lent for as fuch by the 
Serjeant at Arms attending the Houfe. They were 
afterwards fined and imprifoned in the Fleet ; the 
former looo/. and three Months Confinement ; 
the latter 5OO/. and fix Months. 

Nor was the Parliament without their Fears near- 
er home, as appears by a Paper read in the Houfe, 
intided, An Outcry of the young Men and Appren- 
tices of London : As they had had enough to do 
with this Sort of People lately, it gave them the 
greater Alarm ; and they ordered Commiffions to 
be iffued out, under the Great Seal, for trying fuch 
Perlons as had been Contrivers, Promoters, or 
Publifhers of the faid Paper, on their newAdt re- 
lating to Trcafon. 

Sept. 20. This Day the A& aeainft unlicenfed 
An Aft pafs'd anc ^ f canc ^lous Books and Pamphlets, and for bet- 
for regulating the ter regulating the Prefs, was read a third Time and 
Preii. , paft'd. This A61 is a fufficient Evidence, if there 
was not another, of the greateft Pretenders to Li- 
berty being no fooner inverted with Power, than 
they degenerate into the mod abfolute Tyrants j 
and that the People, who had complained of being 
chaftifed with Whips by their Kings, were now to 
be chaftifed with Scorpions by thole who were but 

lately their Fellow-Subjeas. But an Abftra6t 

of this Adi will be the beft Defcription of it. The 
Preamble runs thus : 

* Whereas divers fcandalous, feditious, and li- 

* bellous Pamphlets, Papers, and Books are daily 
6 contrived, printed, vended, and difperfed, with 

* officious Care and Induftry, by the Malignant 

* Party at home and abroad, for the better com- 

* pafling of their wicked Ends, the Subverfion of 
' the Parliament and prefent Government ; which 

* they well know cannot with more Eafe be at- 
' tempted, than by Lyes and falfe Suggestions, 
' cunningly infinuatcd and fpread amongft the 

' People 

Of E N G L A N D. 171 

* People ; and, by malicious Mifreprefenta'dons of Inter- regnum. 
' Things acted and done, to take ofF and divide l6 49- 

* their Affections from that juft Authority which is ^ v ~T~ t 

< fet over them for their 'Good and Safety ; to S * ttB 
' bring a low and mean Efteem upon the Perfons, 

' and a Sufpicion and Hatred upon the Courfes and 
' Intentions, of the faithful Members of the 

* People's Reprefentative in Parliament, and of 

* other Minifters of State, ferving the Common- 
wealth in their feveral Subordinations ; efpecially 

* fuch who are moft conftant and confcientious in 
' Difcharge of their Truft, and are therefore be- 
come the utmoft Object of their wretched Spleen 
' and Malice : And whereas a great Occafion of 
' thefe Mifchiefs and Scandals, and Diflatisfadtion 
' of many, hath been as well the Ignorance and 

< affumed Boldnefs of the weekly Pamphleteers, 

c without Leave or due Information, taking upon " 
' them to publifh, and at Pleafure to cenfure, the 
' Proceedings of Parliament and Army, and other 
' Affairs of State ; as alfo the Irregularity and Li- 
centioufnefs of Printing, the Art whereof in this 

* Commonwealth, and in all foreign Parts, hath 

* been, and ought to be, reftrained from too arbi- 
' trary and general an Exercife : To prevent the 

* many Mifchiefs inevitably following thereupon, 
' the Parliament of England^ duly confidering the 

* Premifes, and willing to apply fit Remedy here- 
' in, do enadr., bV.' 

The moft material Claufes are, 

' That the Laws made formerly, and now in 
Force, for Punifhment of Devifers and Spreaders 
of falfe and feditious News, Lyes, and Rumours, 
by writing, printing, fpeaking, or otherwife, fhall 
be put in due and diligent Execution. 

c That no Perfon whatfoever fhall prefume to 
make, write, print, publim, fell, or utter, or caufe 
fo to be done, any fcandalous or libellous Books, 
Pamphlets, Papers, or Pictures whatfoever, on the 
Penalties following, viz. the Author of fuch 
Books, &c. to forfeit io/. or be imprifoned in the 
common Goal of the County or Liberty where 


172 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

the Offence is committed, or the Offender fhal] 
f oun d ? untill he pay the fame, fo that the Im- 
prifonment exceed not 40 Days ; the Printer to 
forfeit 5 /. and fuffer the like Impriibnment untili 
he pay the fame, not exceeding 20 Days ; and like- 
wife have his Prefs and Implements of printing 
feized and broken in Pieces : The Book-feller to 
forfeit 40 s. or be imprifon'd in like Manner untiii 
he pay the fame, not exceeding 10 Days. 

' That if any Perfon happen to buy any fuch 
feditious Books, ?V. and do not within 24. Hours 
after Knowledge thereof, bring them to the Loid 
Mayor of London, (if the Buyer's Refidence be 
there) or to fome other Juftice of the Peace with- 
in the County, City, or Liberty where fuch Buyer 
fhall then happen to be, to be difpoied of as by this 
A6r, is afterwards mentioned j and give Notice like- 
wife of the Party of whom he had or bought the 
fame, he (hall forfeit for every fuch Omiiiion the 
Sum of 20 s. for every fuch conceal'd Book, &c. 
to be difpofed of as after-mentioned? 

' That no Perfon fhall compofe, write, print, 
publilh, fell, or utter, or caufe fo to be done, any 
Book or Pamphlet, Treatife or Sheet of News 
whatfoever, unlefs licenfed, as hereafter mention- 
ed, upon the like Penalty as upon the Maker, Wri- 
ter, Printer, and Bookfeller refpecSiively, of fcanda- 
lous Books and Pamphlets, both for Fine and Im- 
prifonrhent, as herein before appointed. 

' That a!l former Licenfes, granted by Autho- 
rity of both or either Houie of Parliament, to any 
Perfon for printing any Diurnal, News, or Occur- 
rences, fhall be from henceforth void ; and no 
Book,SY. fhall henceforth be printed, or put to Sale 
by any Perfon whatfoever, unlefs firft licenfed un- 
der the Hand of the Clerk of the Parliament, or 
of fuch Perfon as fhall be authorifed by the Coun- 
cil of State for the Time being ; or for fo much 
as may concern the Affairs of the Army, under 
the Hand of their Secretary for the Time being ; the 
fame to be entered in their feveral Regiflers, to 
be kept for that Purpofe j and alfo in the Regifter 


Of ENGLAND. 173 

of the Company of Stationers ; and the Printer inter-regmim. 
thereof to put his Hand thereto. l6 49- 

* Provided that the Penalties herein exprefs'd ^T^ v ^ - ' 
fhall not extend to quit any Perlbn that (hall make, 
write, csV. or caufe fo to he done, any Book, &c. 
that fhall contain any feditious, treafonable, or 
blafphemous Matter ; but the Offenders in fuch 
Kind (hall be liable to fuch farther Penalties, as by 
the Laws of the Land are provided, or by Autho- 
rity of Parliament fhall be judged, according to 
the Quality of fuch Offences. 

' That the Mafter and Wardens of the Com- 
pany of Stationers, London^ affifted with fuch Per- 
fons as the Council of State fhall for that Purpofe 
nominate or approve, fhall make diligent Search 
in all Places where they fhall think meet, for all 
unallowed Printing-Preffes, and all Prefles employ- 
ed in printing of any fuch unlicenfed Books, &c. 
as aforefaid ; and the fame feize and carry away 
to the Common-Hall of the faid Company, there 
to be defaced and made unferviceable ; and like- 
wife make diligent Search in aii fufpected Printing- 
Offices, Warehoufes, Shops, &c. for fuch unlicen- 
fed and fcandalous Books, &c. and the fame to 
feize ; and likewife to apprehend all Authors, Prin- 
ters, ffr. of fuch Books. &c. and to bring the 
Offenders, and what they fhall have fo feized, be- 
fore fuch Officers as are appointed for the Execu- 
tion of this A6t, to be by them difpofed of accord- 
ing to the Direction of the fame. 

' That no Perfon whatever fhall prefume to fend 
by the Poft, Carriers, or otherwife, or endeavour 
to difperfe, any fuch unlicenfed Books, &c. on For- 
feiture of 40 s. for every fuch Book, &c. or Impri- 
fonment of the Offender, the fame not to exceed 
40 Days ; the Penalty to be inflicted, the Mo- 
ney to be difpofed of, and fuch Inquiry, Searches, 
and Seizures touching the fame to be made, as in 
the Cafe of felling unlicenfed Books, ffr. 

' No Printer, nor any other Perfon whatfoever, 
(hall from henceforth print, or employ any Print- 
ing-Prcfs, Rolling- Prefs, or any other Inftruments 


1 74 The Parliamentary H I s T OR Y 

Jnter-regnom. for Printing, in any Place of this Commonwealth* 

1049. fave only in the City of London, and Liberties 

*- v ' thereof, the City of Tork^ and the two Univerfi- 

September. t j gg ^ ( exce p t j n g f ucn as fl ia u be particularly licen- 

fed by fpecial Order of the Council of State) on 

Forfeiture of 20 /. and having all their PJ inting- 

Prefles, Letters, and Materials, defaced ; and fhall 

alfo be for ever difabled to be a Matter-Printer, or 

Owner of a Printing-Prcfs. 

* Every Pi inter, or other Perfon, in London, be-* 
ing the Owner of Printing-PrefTes, Rolling-Prefies, 
or other Inftruments for Printing, (hall, before the 
firft Day of Oflober^ 1649, enter into Bond, with 
two Sureties, of 300 /. Penalty, to the Keepers of 
the Liberty of England^ by Authority of Parlia- 
ment, not to print, or caufe or fuffer to be printed, 
any feditious, fcandalous, or treafonable Book, &c. 
difhonourable to, or againft, the State and Govern- 
ment ; nor any Book of News, &c. not enter'd 
and licenfed as aforefaid ; and {hall alfo, to every 
Book, &c. they fhall imprint, prefix the Author's 
Name, with his Quality and Place of Refidence, 
or at leaft the Licenfer's Name, where Licenfes 
are required, and his own Name and Place of Re- 
fiuence at Length, in the Title -Page, on Pain of 
forfeiting io/. for every wilful Failing, and to have 
all their Printing Materials defaced j and, for the 
fecond Offence, to be difabled from exercifmg his 
Trade of Printing. 

' That no Perfon fhall hereafter fet up a Print- 
ing-Prefs, Rolling-Prefs, or other Inftrument for 
Printing, nor caft any Printing- Letters, before they 
enter into a Bond as aforefaid ; nor fhall any Per- 
fon let any Houfe, Vault, Cellar, or other Room, 
for a Place to print in, unlefs he firft give Notice 
thereof to the Mafter or Wardens of the Stationers 
Company, on Forfeiture of 5 /. for every Offence ; 
of which Intimation they are cnjoin'd to make an 
Entry in their Regifter, on Pain of like Forfeiture 
for every Omiiiion. 

* That no Joiner, or other Perfon, (hall make 
any Printing- Prefs or Rolling-Prefs, nor any Smith 


Of ENGLAND. 175 

ftiall forge any Iron-work for a Printing-Prefs, Inter-resnum 
nor any Founder caft any Printing-Letters for any l6 -*9- 
Perfon whatfoever ; neither fhall any Perfon ini- V'~ v ~v 
port, or cauie fo to be done, any Printing- Preffes 
or Letters ; nor (hall any Perfon buy fuch Preffes 
or Letters, unlefs he firft acquaint the faid Mafter 
and Wardens for whom the faid Prefs, &c. are to 
be made or imported, on Forfeiture of 5 /. for every 
Offence ; of which Intimation they are to make 
Entry as above. 

' That no Perfon whatfoever fhall import any 
fcandalous or feditious Books, &c. on Forfeiture 
of 5 /. for every fuch Book, &c. nor fhall any Per- 
fon land any imported Books at any Place but the 
Port of London j and that no Packs or Chefts of 
Books be permitted by any Officers of the Cuftoms 
or Excife to be opened or conveyed away, before 
the fame be viewed by the faid Matter and War- 
dens, or fuch as they fhall appoint, on Forfeiture 
of 5 /. for every Offence ; fo as they make the 
laid View within 48 Hours after Notice ; which 
they are required to make upon like Forfeiture for 
every Omiffion. 

' And for better Difcovery of malignant Book- 
fellers, who make a Trade of vending and difper- 
fmg to their Cuftomers in the Country, in Packets, 
by the Poft, Carriers, &c. unlicenfed, fcandalous, 
and feditious Books, &c. to the great Abufe of the 
Parliament and Prejudice of the People, any two 
Magiftrates intrufted with the Execution of this 
At, fhall have Power, upon any juft Occafion of 
Sufpicion, to grant Warrants for fearching of 
Packs and Packets, and feizing the fame, to the end 
the Penalties may be levied thereupon : And that 
all unlicenfed Books, &c. to be feized by Virtue of 
this Act, fhall, after Condemnation of the Offen 
der with whom they are taken, or to whom they 
belong, be brought to the Secretary to the Coun- 
cil of Slate, to be difpofed of to the Fire or other- 
wife, as that Council fhall direct. 

' That no Hawkers fhall be any more permitted, 
and that they and all al) ad -fingers, wherefoever 


176 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum, apprehended, (hall forfeit all Books, &c. by them 
1649^ expofed to Sale ; and {hall be conveyed to the 
^ ou ^ e f Correction, there to be whipt as com- 
mon Rogues, and then difmifled ; and where no 
fuch Houfe of Correction is, they {hall be deliver- 
ed over to the Conftable of the Liberty where they 
are apprehended, to be whipt as common Rogues ; 
on Forfeiture of 40 s. for the Neglect of his Duty 

' That whatfoever Penalties in Money {hall 
be levied by the Company of Stationers, one neat 
Moiety thereof lhall be referved for the Ufe of their 
Poor, and the other for the Ufe of the Common- 

All Officers, Civil and Military, Soldiers, and 
other well -affected People, are enjoin'd to be af- 
fifting in the Execution of this Act ; and the Coun- 
cil of State {hall have Power to enquire into all 
wilful Defaults, and Contempts of Officers or 
others ; and to reward Profecutors or Difcoverers 
of Offenders. 

' Profecutions to be commenced within fix 
Months ; and the Act to continue in Force till the 
20,th of September, 1651.' 

The reft of the Proceedings of the Houfe, for 
this Month, are very little to our Purpofe, run- 
ning moftly on the Sale and Divifion of Crown 
and Church Lands amongft themfelves and their 
Friends. On the 2yth a Report was made from 
the Council of State, to the Houfe, that they found 
the Tax of 90,000 /. per Menfem was not fuffici- 
ent for the Pay of the Army ; and that for the 
Support of it the Council had charged Monies on 
the Receipts at Goldfmiths- Hall : That at prefent 
Monies did not come in there, for want of perfect- 
ing fome Compofitions depending. The Houfe 
therefore ordered, That the Committee at Gold- 
fmitks-Hall {hould fif that Afternoon, and fo de 
Die in Diem till thofe Compofitions were finiflied ; 
that Supplies might be had from thence, feafonably, 
for the NecelHties of the Army. 


Of E N G L A N D. 177 

The laft Thing material done in the Houfe this Interregnum. 
Month, was to read and agree to a Declaration, for l6 49' 
vindicating; all the late Proceedings of theParlia- V T"" V "T"" 1 

& *-ii c c u- i i i September. 

ment ; every Claufe of which, being put to the 
Queftion, was pafs'd on the 28th, ordered to be 
forthwith printed and publifhed, and to be dif- 
perfed into the feveral Counties, in fuch Manner 
as the Council of State fhould order. 

LAND, in Vindication of their Proceedings^ and 
difcovering the dangerous Prafiices of feveral In- 
terejls againjl the prejent Government and Peace 
of the Commonwealth*. 

( TTQW greatly it hath pleafed God, even byTheParliament'* 
e J |_ a continued Series of Miracles and Won-!J eclamion in _ 
' ders, to exalt his own Name, and glorify hfeJSnSSU? 
c mighty Power in the Eyes of this and our Neigh- ings; fife. 
c bour Nations, by the conftant Courfe of Deli- 

* verances which he hath wrought for thefe many 

* Years late paft, on the Behalf of a finful and 
c undeferving People, and by the Means of weak 
c and unworthy Inftruments, we can never fre- 

* quently enough remember, nor be fufficiently 
e thankful for : Their Rock hath not been as our 
' Rock, even our Enemies themfehes being Judges. 

' And, indeed, this wonderful Going-forth of 
the good Hand of God with us, and for us, hath 
c been that principally which hath fupported us, 
' and borne us up above all thofe fwelling and mul- 
4 tiplied Waves that have followed one upon ano- 
' ther, and hath made us to ftand againft the many 
' Storms and Aflaults wherewith we have been at- 
' tempted by all Sorts of Parties and Interefts 

* amongft us ; who, dividing and withdrawing 

* themfelves from public Ends, do all of them* 
6 notwithftanding, (becaufe ated by one Principle* 
6 even the Power of Darknefs) make fhift fo far to 

* underftand each other, as, when Opportunity 
' ferves, to take one another by the Hand, for 

VOL. XIX. M ftrength- 

b Printed by John Field for Edward HufianJf, Printer to the 
Parliament of England, 

378 he Parliamentary H i s T o R y 

' ftrengthen'mg and upholding themfelves, in prac- 

* tiling and contriving, under ieveral fpecious Pre- 

* tences, againft the Good, Peace, and Safety of 
September. t ^ Who f e> We hayc becn like untQ the Buftl 

in the Midft of Flames ; but, by the Good-will 
' of him that dwelt in the Bufh, we have not been 
' confumed ; and, like the Remnant left by God 
s in the Land, which though he will caufe to pafs 

* through the Fire, yet it is to refine them as Sil- 

* ver is refined, and to try them as Gold is tried, 

* that he may make them a People who jball call 

* upon God, and he will hear them ; and of whom 
' God (hall fay, They are my People, and they Jhull 
' fay, The Lard is our God. 

' By this fecrct Confidence and Expectation of 

* our Hearts, wherein we hope we fhall not be dif- 

* appointed, and, through the good Providence of 

* God, we have been kept together, even to this 

* very Day, as weak Inftruments in the Hand of 
c our great God, ferving our Generations, and dif- 
4 charging the high Truft of our Places, whatever 
1 the Difcouragements and Difficulties have been 

* that we have met with, and Dangers that have 
' threatened us on every Side ; fuch as we may 

* truly fay, former Ages can hardly parallel ; and 

* fuch as were not to have been expected, efpecially 

* from thofe who had made fo great a Progrefs in 

* Conjunction with us againft the common Knemy, 

* and in vindicating and aflerting the Purity of 

* Religion and public Liberty. 

' For, when firft of all we came to be engaged 

* in carrying on this great and glorious Work of 

* Religion and public Liberty, how lively and un- 

* corrupted were our Affections ? How fatisfied 

* and unanimous were our Judgments ? How fix'd 
e and undaunted our Refolutions in that which ap- 

* peared to us fo necefiary, fo juft, and fo worthy 

* to be undertaken by true Patriots and good Chri- 
' ftians ? We did therefore run well ; but who, or 

* what, hath hindered us that we feek not ftill to 

* obtain what at firft we thought fo defirable, with- 

* cut giving back or turning afide untill the Work 


Of E N G L AN D. 179 

* be perfected, and the Perfons engag'd in the Pro- inter-regnuir, 
' fecution thereof be fecured againft the Enmity 1649- 

' and Revenge of thofe that are rather made more v * ~ v -' 
' implacable, than converted, by all the Deliver- Sc ? temfccr ' 

* ances that God hath wrought for us, and the 

* Teftimonies of Difpleafure againft them, as often 

* as they have rifen up and fet themfelves againft 

* us ? 

' Whatever the great Failings and Infirmities 
' have been, and do ftill daily difcover themfelves 
' amongft us, that hold it onr Duty to give our 
' Attendance upon our Truft in Parliament, fo 

* long as Opportunity is offered unto us for the 

* fame ; we can truly fay, That as Religion in its 
' Purity, and public Liberty, were the Ends which, 
6 from the Beginning, we had before our Eyes 
c when we engaged in this great Work, fo are they 
4 ftill our Defires and Endeavours ; the comfort- 
6 able Fruit whereof we would willingly have to be 
' reaped by this Nation, at leaft in their fucceed- 

* ing Generations, if it were the Will of God ; 

* and the Profecution of this, and this only, (how- 

* ever we are reproached, and unjuftly vilified by 
' flanderous Tongues and Pens) is that which keeps 
4 moft of us together at fuch a Time, when, as in 
' the Cafe of Hefter^ we fee, if we had done other- 

* wife than we have done, and deferted our Sta- 

* tions, and caft up the Helm, the vifible Means 

* of carrying on the Work had failed, and funk 

* down into certain Diforder and Confufion. 

' But whether there hath not been found a ma- 

* nifeft Defection and Apoftacy from thefe good 
and public Ends, by thofe that at the firft did 

* bear the Name of Patriots and Lovers of Religion 
' amongft us, we appeal to the Actions and Ways 
' themfelves, which fuch Perfons have flnce ap- 
' peared in, that do fufficiently evidence againft 
' them, and declare them the Builders up again of 

* what they once joined in the Deftrudlion of; and 

* fo do make themfelves TrangrefTors, and ftand 

* in Need of no other Confutation and Convic- 

* tion. 

M ? 'Among 

180 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

6 Among the Number of thofe we reckon them 
4 that, either under Pretence of advancing Refor- 
* mation of Religion, can go back and incorporate 
Septem er. c t h em f e i ves w ith the avowed and known Haters of 
' God, and Enemies to the Life and Power of Ho- 
4 linefs ; or that, under Pretence of bringing us 
4 into the Perfection of public Liberty, can fetch 
4 a Compafs quite round, and make the bringing 
4 in again of Monarchy into this Commonwealth, 
4 to be the only Means of fettling it in Freedom. 
4 The A&ors in fuch Defigns as thefe carry the 
4 Evidence of their own Conviction in their Fore- 
4 head, unto all that are not wilfully blind, or ma- 
4 licioufly corrupt ; and therefore would feem to 
e ftand in no great Need of much Pains to be taken 
4 to undeceive them. 

* And however it hath been the good Pleafure 

* of God to fuffer thofe that have been formerly 

* instrumental and Helps to us in this great Caufe, 

* thus, by Steps and Degrees, to fail, and fall off" 
4 like untimely Fruit ; yet herein hath he fhewed 
4 his wonderful Goodnefs to this Nation, that their 
4 deferting of us, and breaking from us, hath not 
4 hitherto been able to keep the Work itfelf at a 

* Stand, but that it is ftill carried on 3 wherein we 
4 rejoice. 

* And, on the contrary, the Time wherein they 
4 afforded their Afliftance and Help hath been im- 
4 proved by God's over-ruling Providence, to bring 
4 us much nearer to our Journey's End than ever 
4 we could have expected, though the Ship fliould 
1 hereafter mifcarry in the very Harbour ; which 
4 God forbid. And, for our Parts, the larger Ex- 
4 perience which we have had of God's conftant 
4 owning and feafonable aflifting us in our greatefl 
c Straits and moft imminent Dangers ; and the feri- 
4 ous Confideration that the Work itfelf is of that 
e Nature as requires and obliges us, and all good 

* Men, to the utmoft, to offer up ourfel ves in the Sa- 

* orifice and Service thereof, as we defire to approve 
4 ourfel ves fincere in our Obligations to God, and 

* faithful in our Trufts to this Nation j we do re- 

* folve, 

Of E N G L A N D. 181 

' folve, through God's Afliftance, to caft ourfelves Inter-regnum. 
' upon his favourable Acceptance of our Endea- l649 ' 

* vours in perfevering to the End, and his Protec- ^sTtembT 1 
' tion of us in our doing our Duties, let the Iflue 

' be what feems beft to his Divine Providence, 
c whether for Life or for Death. 

And that we may not be wanting in what we 
' are able, for the awakening of all thofe whom it 

* doth concern unto the fame Senfe of their Duty 
' in this Behalf with ourfelves, we {hall briefly lay 

* before them the happy Progrefs that, thro' God's 

* Goodnefs, hath been made, in procuring the 
' Bleflings of pure Religion and juft Liberty unto 

* this Nation, notwithftanding all the Reproaches 
and unthankful Murmurings of ill-minded Men; 
' and wherein, we are hopeful, to grow up to 
' whatever remains yet unperfeted, if there be 
4 but anfwerable Readinefs in thofe, whom the 
4 Good of this as much concerns as ourfelves, to 
' ftand by us, and join with us, in attaining the 

* fame againft thofe many hellifh Defigns and 

< curfed Practices that are now on Foot, to plunge 
e us again into new Troubles, and give greater 
' Advantage than ever to the common Enemy, by 

* our Divifions and Breaches, to come upon us as an 

* irrefutable Flood, with Tyranny, Popery, Su- 

* perftition, Profanenefs, and whatever elfe we 
' have fo dearly contended againft for fo many 

* Years together. 

' And, firft, as to advancing of Religion to its 

* greateft Degree of Purity ; can any be unmind- 
' ful in what a corrupted and degenerate State we 
' found the Matters of Religion, at the firft Sitting 
' of this prefent Parliament ? How near the whole 
' Adminiftration of Church- Affairs was brought to 

* the fuperftitious and idolatrous Pattern of Rome } 
' and how quickly we fhould have found ourfelves 
c fwallowed up in that finful and wretched Apofta- 
' cy ? For our Recovery out of which Danger, how 

* careful and zealous hath the Parliament been to 

< propagate and advance the Work of Reforma-> 
tion in thefe Nations ; propounding to themfelves, 

M 3 * for 

182 tte Parliament dry HISTORY 

for their Guide herein, the Word of God and the 

* beft Reformed Churches ? In which Work, how 
' happily and comfortably did they proceed, whilft 
4 we" were purging and reforming the Evil of 
' Popery, .Superitition, and Profanenefs ; in which 
' there was a common Confent and Agreement of 
' all thofe that unfeignedly defired the Enjoyment 
' of Religion in its greateft Purity: But when once 
' there appeared amongft us (and this from feme of 
' thofe who moft earneftly put on the Work of Re- 
' formation, untill it arrived to their own Meafure 
' and Growth) anlmpatiency toward any of differ- 
' ing Minds from themfelves, however otherwife 
' truly fearing God, and faithful Advancers of his 
' Glory ; and a Fearfulnefs in them of going for- 
' ward, left that which was beyond them, and as 
' necefiary to be known and attained to lead us to 
' the Enjoyment of Religion in its Purity and 
4 Power, fhould take Place; whereby it might ap- 
' pear, that the Reformers of Popery and Profane- 
4 nefs flood themfelves in Need of Reformation, 
' by his Appearance and Manifestation of himfelf, 
' who fits as a Refiner and Purifier of Silver , and 

* Jhall purify the Sons of Levi, and purge them af 
' Gold and as Silver, that they 'nay offer unto the 

* Lord an Offering in Righteoufnefs. When this 
c Frame of Spirit appeared amongft us, then all 
'further Degrees and Mealures of attaining unto 

* Religion in its Purity would not be borne ; but 

* muft be branded with the foul Names of Herefy, 

* Blafphemy, and Schifm ; and the Perfons be de- 
c clared and proceeded againft as Enemies to Re- 

* formation, as Difturbers of the Peace, and as fit 

* Objects of the Magiftrate's Difcountenance and 
' Punimment. 

' And fuch was the implacable and irreconcilable 
* Temper of thefe Men towards thofe differing 
'from them, that were defirous to carry on the 
fc Purity of Religion beyond their Meafure, that 
1 many of them chofe rather to fall into the Power 
' of the Cavalier and Epifcopal Party, and became 

* inftrumental to the bringing in of the late King, 

' upon 



Of ENGLAND. 183 

upon the Treaty at the Ifle of Wight ^ (fo much inter-regmim 
fince declared againft by the Church of Scotland^ 
as deftructive to the Work of Reformation fet- 
tled in thefe Nations) than thut they would join 
with thofe they reputed Sectaries, in their Endea- 
vours to carry on the W6rk they firft engag'd in, 
to that Degree of Perfection as became them, af- 
ter fo much Blood and Treafure expended in the 
Profecution of it. 

' In this Condition was the Woik of Reforma- 
tion when the Treaty of the Ifle of Wight Joy God's 
over-ruling Providence, came to be broken orFj 
that is to fay, in a Manner yielded and refigned up 
into the Power of the Enemies thereof, and refufed 
to be carried on by them that were the moft zea- 
lous Promoters thereof at firft ; altho' it had plea- 
fed God to make a Way for the fame, by continu- 
ing together a competent Number in Parliament, 
to hold up the vifible Authority of this Nation ; 
and, by keeping their Places and Stations, to do 
their Endeavours to profecute their firft Principles 
and Ends, whilft God gave them any Opportunity 
for the fame : Nay, we could wifh that they had 
only remained paffive, and been contented to have 
let others carried on the Work of Religion in its 
Purity, tho' they themfelves held back; but this 
would not ferve their Turn, unlefs they flew in 
the Face of the vifible Authority of this Nation, 
and took upon them to be Judges, whether we 
were a lawful Magiftracy or not ; as if that were 
within their Line, and committed to them to de- 

' Yet hath not all this difcouraged this prefent 
Parliament to do their Part in propagating the 
Gofpel, and advancing the Purity and Power of 
Religion in this Commonwealth ; but they have 
continued thofe Laws and Ordinances that were 
already in Force, for the Good and Furtherance 
of the Work of Reformation, in Doctrine, Wor- 
fhip, and Difcipline ; and are ftill moft willing 
to uphold the fame, in order to fupprefs Popery, 
Superftition, Blafphemy, and any Manner of 


184 tte Parliamentary HISTORY 

jnter-regnum. < Wickednefs or Profanenefs in the Land ; only 

1649. < t h e y <] o conceive themfelves obliged to remove 

c v^"~' * and take away all Obftrudtions and Hinderances 

' to the Growth of Religion and Power of Holi- 

nefs in the Midft of us ; and, for this End, they 

* have it now under Confideration how fuch Acts 
' and Ordinances, or any Part of them, as they 

* find penal and coercive in Matters of Confcience, 
' which have been made Ufe of for Snares, Bur- 
' thens, and Vexations to the truly fincere-hearted 

* People of God, that fear him, and wait for the 
' Coming of his Son Jefus Chrift, may be taken 
' away. 

* And becaufe we are not ignorant how inju- 
' rioufly our Proceedings herein are charged upon 
' us, as if we were fetting up and countenancing 

* an untverfal Toleration, when our true Aim in 
' the Liberty we give, is only the necefTary En- 

* couragement we conceive due to all that are Lo- 

* vers of God, and the Purity and Power of Re- 

* ligion : We can and do therefore declare, in the 
' Sight of God and Man, That by whomfoever 

< we mail find this Liberty abufed, we mail be moft 
' ready to teftify our Difpleafure and Abhorrency 

* thereof, by a ftrict and effectual Proceeding 

* againft fuch Offenders. 

' And if, after all this, any of thofe amongft us, 

* that do profefs a Love to God, and Zeal to ad- 

* vance Religion in its Purity, to be their chiefeft 
End andDefire, mail neverthelefs ftill fit at a Dif- 
' tance from us, or mail be given up fo far by God, 

* as to make Defection to the contrary Party 
e againft us, and join themfelves to them that are 
' open Enemies to Religion and the Power of God- 
' linefs, in what Drefs foever they cover them- 
' felves ; we (hall not doubt but their own Unfaith- 
' fulnefs, deteftable Neutrality, and wicked Do- 

* ings, will find them out ; and Enlargement and 

< Deliverance mail arife to the People of God fome 
other Way, whilft they, their Names and Pofte- 
rities, {hall be deftroyed. 


Of E N G L A N D. 185 

4 As far public Liberty, which is the fecond Inter-regn 

* Thing; for the Vindication and Aflerting where- l649 ' 
4 of we have not thought our L/ives nor Eftates, 

* nor any other of thefe outward Comforts, too 

* dear for us to hazard and expofe : In what a Con- 
' dition that was at the Sitting-down of this Par- 

* liament, how near it was to breathing its laft, 

* and how little it wanted of being fwallowed up in 
4 the Will of a Tyrant, is fo well known to all 

* Men that then made any Obfervation of the 
4 State of Things, or had any Senfe of their own 
4 Sufferings, and will but now remember them, 
4 that it fhall not be neceflary to repeat : And into 
4 what a happy Condition it is already brought at 
e prefent, by the Bleffing; of God upon the Coun- 
f cils and Forces of the Parliament ; and how far 
4 advanced, in a fair Way, to a fettled and well- 

* eftablifhed Security for the future, though it will 
4 not be confefled by unthankful Men (whofe In- 
4 gratitude can value no Benefit received, be it ne- 
4 ver fo great, while any Thing remains for their 
4 exorbitant Defires to purfue) yet it is fuch as we 
4 cannot but have a deep and tender Senfe of, and 
4 acknowledge it with all humble Thankfulnefs to 
4 our gracious God, who hath hitherto helped us; 
4 unlefs we fhould {hew ourfelves lefs affected with 
4 it than our Friends are, who are lefs concerned, 
4 and yet look upon it with Rejoicing. And how 
4 low Thoughts foever thefe Men have of the Pro- 
4 ceedings of Providence in the Carrying-on of this 
4 Caufe, yet the future Contemplation of the Ac- 
4 tions of this Time, (for the Greatnefs and Juftice 
4 of them hardly to be exampled in any other) will 

* caufe Men to fay, What hath God wrought ! 
4 And our very Enemies themfelves {hew, that they 
4 have other Opinions of it, being forced to feel 
4 God's Hand lifted up, which they would not fee; 
4 finking into Confufion, and gnafhing with their 
4 Teeth, while they confume away in their Envy 
4 at that Profperity which God hath clothed us 
4 with from his own good Hand, 


1 86 7/je Parliamentary HISTORY 

' And we arc very confident, that even thofe 
1649. W i 10 are now a ti n g their Parts for their private 
*^ ~v~ ' Ends, which they would bring about* by what 
' Means Ibevcr, and remove whatever ftands in 

* their Way, however either dear or facred ; and 

* would deirroy this prefcnt Government, which 
' doth and will hinder fuch Dcfigns fo long as it is 
* in being ; and they therefore endeavour to render 
' vile, publifning daily againft it, and again ft many 
' particular Men whom God hath honoured with 
' Faithfulnefs to his Caufe, and made eminently or 
' fpecially inftrumental to advance the fame, all 

* Manner of fhamelefs Calumnies, lying Revilings, 
' Slanders, and Reproaches ; as if, in this Time, 
' nothing had been done toward this juft Liberty, 

* nor that any Thing would be done, unlcfs they, 

* like Abfolom^ could bring themfelves into Power, 

* and undertake the Work according to thofe wild 

* Principles of theirs, which they have publifhed 

* in Print to that Purpofe ; which holds forth a 
' Liberty without Property, public Safety, or Pro- 

* teiSlion: 

4 We fay, if thofe Men would but recall to their 

* Confideration their own Hopes which they had 
* of Liberty in the Beginning of this Parliament, 

* and with how fmall a Proportion of what they 

* now enjoy their then narrower Defires were 

* bounded, they would confefs them to be far fhort 
' of what is already had. 

' But to let them pafs, who, being afted by par- 
' ticular Intercft, have not left themfelves the Be- 

* nefit of being convinced or di re&ed by common 
* and univcrfal Reafon, it was not then believed 
' by moil of thofe, whofe Innoccncy and good 

* Meaning is now dangeroufly abufed by the Ma- 
Mignant Party (by Means of fome of thofe whom 
4 they name Levellers^ whole fpecious Overtures 
* and former Pretenfions to Goodnefs have deceiv'd 
* them) that ever they mould have feen all that 

* Ecclefiaftical Hierarchy, with all their tyrannical 

* Courts and Attendants, the Star-Chamber, High 

4 Com- 

Q/ E N G L A N D. 187 

4 Commiffion- Court, Ship-Moncy, Projects, Mo- Inter-regmm 
4 nopolies and Purveyances, the Court of Wards l6 49- 
4 and Tenures, and all the Dependences of it, v r"""~ 
4 which heretofore was a legal Peft to the free-born cptai 

* People of this Nation, and the very Ruin of many 
4 Families, together with the deepeft Root and 
4 Foundation of all the People's Sufferings, even 
4 Kingfhip and Tyranny itfelf, as well as the 

* late King, mould be wholly taken away ; and 
4 thereby (if God be pleafed to go on to blefs 
4 us, and the Fault be not in the People them- 
4 felves, fuffering themfelves to be made inftru- 
4 mental to their own Miferies, by endeavour- 

* ing to build again the Things that are deftroy'd) 

* a fure Foundation laid for Time to erect upon it 
4 the moft happy Structure of a juft Liberty and 
1 fettled Profperity that may be expected in this 
4 World, under the Direction and Government of 
4 fucceflive and equal Reprefentatives in Parlia- 
4 ment : Yet all this, and much more, hath been 
4 'done fince the Beginning of this Parliament, and 
4 to which we have been led by feveral Steps by 
4 the Providence of God, directing our Councils 
4 in feveral Degrees of Manifestation, and bleffing 
4 our Forces for effecting of them, beyond what 
4 was either firft propounded by us, or could rea- 
4 fonably have been hoped to be brought to pafs ; 
4 the very Difcovery of fo remote an End, in the 
4 Beginning of the Action, had been fufficient to 

* have difcouraged any Undertaking therein. 

4 And although this great Progrefs hath been 
4 made in the Vindication and eftabliming of our 
4 juft Liberties, yet we do not fet up our Reft, as 
4 if there remained no more to be done : And we 
4 conceive they who duly confider of how great 
4 Weight and Difficulty the Work is that we 
4 have in hand, and will but inform themfelves 
4 what hath been done now in eight Months, fince 
4 the Reftitution of the juft Liberties of the People, 
4 and the fettling of the prefent Government, will 
4 not be offended that fomething remains to be 

* proceeded in. 

< They 

iS8 7/fc Parliamentary HISTORV 

ater-resiuKM. * They may take Notice that Ireland, which was 

1649. < brought into fuch a Condition, firft by the Trea- 

-" v ~ ^ ' fon of Incbiquin, whereby the whole Province of 

' c Munjier was loft ; then by the Return thither of 

' Orniond, whereby moft of the Popifh Party were 

' reconciled, and with whom a Peace was made 

* for carrying on the Intereft and pretended Title 
v of Charles Stuart. Thirdly, by the Rebellion of 
' all the Scots in U/J?tr, upon the fame Intereft, and 

* by the Revolt of many that were under the Com- 
' mand of Lieutenant-General Jones ; all that re- 

* mained to the Parliament there was only within 

* the Walls of Dublin and Derry, and they both 

* ftrongly befieged ; yet, through the Bleffing of 
' God, Ireland itfelf is now in a more hopeful 
c Way of fpeedy fettling, than at any Time fmce 
the firft Rebellion. 

' There hath been alfo, this Year, a great and 
' powerful Fleet fet out to Sea, under faithful Com- 
' manders, whereby Trade hath been protected, 
' the Englijh Honour and Intereft upon their Seas 
4 maintained, foreign Attempts againft us difcou- 

* raged, and a great Reputation procured to our 
Affairs abroad. 

' A free Paffage hath been alfo given to the 
c Execution of Juftice, according to the Laws, 

* throughout the Nation ; and the Peace thereof 

* hath been prefervcd, notwithftanding many De- 
' figns, and fome Endeavours, to drfturb it. 

6 And, for what ftill remains to be done, we 
' {hall, according to the great Truft that is upon 
' us from the People, proceed therein for the pro- 
' curing their common Good, which is the true 

* and ultimate End of all juft Government ; and, 

* by a right Aim at that, direct all our Actions, 

* and not ceafe to improve our beft Judgments, and 

* lay out our moft unwearied Labours, notwith- 
' ftanding all Difcouragements either from Malice, 

* Envy, Danger, or any other Caufe whatfoever, 
' to promote the fame, fo far and fo faft as the 
' Subject-Matter will bear; the Proceedings where- 

* in ought to be judged fufficiently expeditious, 

' that 

" Of E N G L A N D. 189 

* that are fufficiently fafe. And we {hould betray inter-rcgsocn 

* our great Truft if we {hould fufter ourfelves, by 1649- 

4 the impotent Hafte and Importunity of any, to do * v -* 
4 that which might be inconfiltent with the Peace Se P tenaber 
4 and Safety of the whole. 

The great Work we have firft to do, is to 

* eftablifh the Being and Safety of the Common- 
4 wealth upon fure Foundations, which are under- 
e mined by more Enemies than are vifible to all. 
4 This provided for, we (hall not be wanting daily 
4 to remove or add what {hall be for the Well-being 
4 of it, either in Conveniency or Ornament ; for 
4 the Enjoyment whereof we conceive the People 
4 may with the greater Patience attend, becaufe 
4 their prefent Condition is already fo much better, 

* befides the Capacity of Improvement, than it was 
4 in the beft of that Egyptian State, to which, by 

* reafon of fome neceifarily remaining Preffures, 

* they are too eafily feduced to an Inclination to 

* return. To preferve them from which (becaufe 

* we would not omit any Thing that is in our 
4 Power, that may be for the Good of thofe who 

* have trufted us) we fhall endeavour to undeceive 
4 thofe of the People, whofe Innocency and Well- 
4 meaning hath fubjected them to be deceived and 
4 dangeroufly mifled, by the fpecious and fubtle 
4 Infmuations of that Sort of Men, who, being 
4 themfelves corrupted by the common Enemy, do 
4 endeavour to bring the Nation again under the 
4 Bonds of Tyranny and Monarchy ; and, while 
4 they have nothing in their View but Liberty, are 
4 deceived into thofe Actions and Practices which 
4 tend naturally and necefiarily to the inevitable 
4 Lofs of that Liberty they fo much call for, if they 
4 {hould not be preferved againft their Will, by 
4 thofe who know the Danger into which they 
( run. 

4 For this Purpofe we defire all Men to remem- 
4 ber, that, at the End of the firft War, we had 
4 not then an End of our Troubles ; but that Ene- 
4 my which was beaten and conquer'd in the Field, 
4 and could do no more by Force, had Recourfe to 

< 4 fubtle 

190 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter- regnum. fubtle Practices j and by corrupting a Party in 

1649. < the Parliament, and by their Influence there, be- 

* \r -f ' in fo corrupted, had almoft broken that Army 

September. ? i i i i_ 

* by which he was beaten. 

c The fpecious P/etence was the Liberty and 

* Eafe of the People ; they had long been under a 
e War, opprefled and ruined with heavy Burthens, 
' which it was now neceflary to eafe them of: 

* What Benefit had the People by thofe Victories, 

* and that Conqueft, if they muft Hill continue un- 
der the fame Charge ? There was now no more 

* an Enemy in the Field, What Need was there 
' of an Army to continue that heavy and unnecef- 
' fary Charge upon the People ? By fuch Argu- 

* ments, and by their Power, that Faction prevail- 
' ed to vote the Difbanding of the Army, and vaft 
' Sums of the Commonwealth's Trcafure was 

* by them then wafted to effedt it ; thereby to 

* make Way for the admitting of the then King 
c to the re-exercifmg of that Power which had pro- 
duced fuch bloody and fatal Effects, and without 

* any juft Satisfaction given to the People for the 
' fame ; which how eafily and certainly it would 
e have followed the Difbanding of the Army, is 
' fufficiently evident by the breaking-out of the fe- 
e cond War, then in Defign and Agitation. 

' And although the fecond War was alfo, by the 

* Blefiing of God upon the Endeavours of thofe 

* who were faithful in the Parliament and Army, 

* brought to an End ; and that Defign of Mifchief 

* which was fo univerfally laid, and that came to 

* Action in fo many feveral Parts of this Nation, 

* (although aflifted with the Invafion of a nu- 

* merous Army of a foreign Enemy, who had a 

* deep Intereft in, and clofe Correfpondency with, 

* a very great Party of all Sorts in this Nation) ef- 

* fe&ed nothing of their main End, God being 
' pleafed fo fignally to evidence his Indignation 

* againft them ; yet it is very evident in what Con- 

* dition the Liberty of the People had been, as to 
' all human Support, if the Army had not been in 
a Readinefs to have oppofed that Defign, which 

' that 

Of E N G L A N D. 191 

* that traiterous Party did fo vigorously drive on, inter-regnsm 
' under the Pretence of eafmg their Burthens, to l6 49- 

* leave them naked of all Defence a?ainir. the pre- ^ v~~- * 
' pared Attempts of their Malice. 

' This grand Defign of Mifchief is flill carried 

* on, although by other Agents, and under ano- 

* ther Pretence : The former Agents have now, 

* neither Credit nor Power; and therefore, being 

* able to contribute to that Caufe no more than the 

* firft Malignants themfelves, they now appear 

* not. Another Courfe is refolved and purfued ; 

* they faw they were not able to beat the Army, 

* nor difband it, nor perfuade the People they ' 
' might fpare it, fo they attempt to corrupt theDif- 

6 cipline of it, and debauch the Fidelity of the pri- 

* vate Soldiers, and make them theirs : And while, 
4 the Endeavours are ftrong to re-eftablifh Monar- 

* chy and Tyranny, and to make the People ab- 
' folute Slaves, nothing is to be held out to them, 

* but Liberty, and make them believe there is no- 
' thing hinders it but the Parliament. 

And the apparent Actors in this muft be thofe 
c called Levellers, none being fo fit as they to de- 

* ftroy the People's Liberty unfufpected, if they 
' once undertake it, as having endeavoured already 
' (though there be little Caufe for it) to make them 
' believe they are the only faithful Patriots, the Af- 
' ferters and Maintainers of it. Some of thofe ha- 

* ving made Defection from that Profeflion they 
' fometimes made of Religion and Godlinefs, and 

* having entertained Principles of Atheifm and Li- 

* centioufnefs, and praitifed accordingly, found 

* that the practifmg of thofe Principles would not 
' be borne in a Commonwealth, under a good and 
t juft Government, where Juftice hath its Courfe, 
' and Property is maintained ; where Sobriety and 
' Temperance is in Reputation, and the Purity 
and Power and Life of Religion and Godlinefs 
' is countenanced and promoted. 

4 And knowing that, if the pretended Intereft of 
c Charles Stuart could be fet up, the Managing of 

* it would be in the Hands of thofe that are of as 

* atheiftical 

192 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. ( atheiftical and licentious Principles as themfelvesj 
< and that they might in fuch a Government, with- 

* oat either Shame or Danger, let out their Lufts 

* without Controul, they have efpoufed that Inte- 
4 reft, come oft to that Side, held Correfpondency 
c with him and his Party: And in purfuance there- 
c of have, for fome while paft, directed all their 
4 Actions, to the Ruin of this Commonwealth, 

* and Enflaving the People j whom they deceive, 
4 in the mean Time, with the Name of Liberty, 
' with which they would cloak their own Licen- 
4 tioufnefs. 

. ' Thefe Principles and this Practice of theirs is 
4 evident to all who obferve their Walkings and 
4 their Correfpondency ; befides what, from the 
c Abundance of their Hearts, flow from their Pens 
4 in what they publifh to the World, take this Tef- 
4 timony of an intercepted Letter, written from one 
4 who hath been employed to corrupt them, and 
4 thereby drive on the main Defign; it needs no 

* Comment, it fpeaks plain, and is as follows : 

May it pleafe your Lordfhips, 

TOUR S of the third Injlant came to my Hand$ 
In return whereof know, that all our Hopes here 
depend on his Jlfajefty's feeming Compliance with 
Lilbourne and the Levelling Party> whofe Difccn- 
tents increafe daily; without which it is impojjible 
for any of his Party here to be ferviceable, unlefs 
upon their Principles. For my own Part, I am 
ferviceable to that End with my utmojl Abilities. I 
have not been ivanting to endeavour the creating Jea- 
laujies and Difcontents> thereby to ruin the moft po- 
tent : In order whereunto I have caufed Lenthall, 
the Speaker \ to be accufed by fome discontented Per- 
fans, Prifonersy to whom I have been very prodigal, 
bofh in Rewards and Promifes of Freedom ; info- 
much that they have profecuted him fo cunningly that 
many conjiderable Perfons, both in the Army and City t 
are engaged therein. And to the end the Plot may 
take to the Purpofe^ I have injinuated by my Agents^ 
into fome of the Levelling Party , that it is a Dejign 


Of E N G L A N D. 193 

of the Grandees to remove him, to the end they may Inter-regnurr. 
make their Lord-Preftdent, Bradfliaw, Speaker in 
his Room ; which hath taken juch EffeEl among the 
Jimple-hearted Levellers, that they, jo far as I can 
apprehend, are refolved to join their Interejl with 
the Speaker's, to prevent Jo great a Mijchief, as 
they call it ; by which Means I doubt not but to ac~ 
complijh a Defign that Jhall pull down thofe two great 
Pillars of their new Commonwealth. 

As touching the State of Affairs here, in relation to 
his Majefty, I find that his Friends increafe daily , 
(as to Matter of AffeSlion) but have no Pojjibility of 
embodying, although fame Endeavours have been that 
Way, unlefs the Levellers lead the Way \ which (al- 
though fame Overtures have been made to prevent) 
will be, I hope, fuddenly put in Execution. To that 
Purpofe I defire fame AJJiftance may be given me ; for 
without Supplies of Money little can be expected, thofe 
I converfe with all being either extreme needy or co- 
vetous. I have fent a faithful Agent over Sea, tit 
fahite and attend the Motion of his Irifh Excellency* 
I doubt not but Jhortly you will receive a good Ac- 
count touching that Bujinefs. Sir, I pray be mindful 
of him, that, as a Pr if oner for his Affeftion to the 
Service of his Majejly, hath been wanting in nothing^ 
according to his utmoft PoJJibilities, that might ma- 
nifeft his Loyalty to his King^ and Refpeft to your 
Lordjhip. h T F 

London, Fleet, Sept. 6, 1649. 

1 The inner Cafe, in which the Letter was in- ' 
' clofed, indorfed thus, For 250, thefe. 

' The outer Cafe thus, A Monjieur, Monjieur 
' Robert Shamatte, au quatre Vents Rue perdue, 

* proche la Place Maubert, a Paris. In which was 

* written thus : Sir, I befeech you, as heretofore, con- 

* vey the inclofed as direSled; the Performance hereof 
' will exceedingly oblige Your Friend, 

T. F. 

VOL. XIX. 'N 'And 

1 This Letter was intercepted two or three Days before the Mu- 
tiny at Oxford brake forth. Notes in tbt Origine^ 

194 Th* Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 And whereas the principal Means that God 

* hath ufed to procure the Liberty we now enjoy, 
4 hath been the Councils and Authority of the Par- 

' liament, and the Faithfulnefs of the Army : Thcfe 
' Men have attempted upon both ; they have, by 

* their falfe, feditious, and treafonable Invectives 
' and Pamphlets, laboured to render the Parliament 
' not only contemptible, but abominable to all 
4 the People, that they might weaken and take off 
' that RefpecT: and Reverence they owe to them, 
' from whofe Obedience they defigned to debauch 
' them, and fo be left without any vifible Power to 

* direct them; and that this Commonwealth might 

* run into tumultuary Confufions in the Infancy, 
' and not grow up into any Meafure of Strength 

* and Settlement, in the Hands of thofe whom 
' God hath owned and ufed as Inftruments to 
' bring the Work thus far; and who, by long Ufe, 

* might reafonably be fuppofed to have gotten fome 
' Experience in that great Work : All their En- 

* deavours have been improved to procure a Diflb- 
' lution of this Parliament, and the Calling of a 

* new Reprefentative, pretending the People ought 

* to have the Liberty of new and frequent Elec- 

* tions ; though they very well know that, as the 
< prefent Diftemper of the People was, the Vio- 

* lence of Faction, and Activity of their fecret Enc 

6 mies, either thefe Elections could not be free, or 

c the People muft have loft their Liberty by it, which 

' was theThing they had inDefignandProfecution. 

' And to give them an Experiment how much 

* Liberty they were like to have enjoyed under the 

* managing of thefe Men, whofe Principles of 
' Tyranny are as the Loins to the Little Finger of 

* thofe whom they fo much cry down; that crude 

* Conception of the Agreement of the People^ which 

* was the firft Birth of a^vfr of themfelves, muft 
' be obtruded upon them as a Super-parliamentary 
' Law, without receiving and owning of which, 
' no Man fhould have enjoyed thofe Liberties they 
1 fo much boaft to be the unqueftionable Biith- 

* right of every free-born Man* 


Of E N G L A N D. 195 

' For the Army ; they knew the Officers were Inter-regnum, 

* above their fecret Practice, they therefore apply to 
e the Soldiers; and, by their Emiflaries every where, 
' infufe into them their Do&rine of Difobedience. 

' And knowing well how the Defign of Charles 

* Stuart was laid for Ireland, and into what hope- 
c ful Condition for his Party his Affairs were there 

* grown, all their Endeavours were ufed to hinder 

* the fending of Forces thither, to prevent his 

* Greatnefs there, from whence he might have 

* been confiderably dangerous to this Nation : 
' They delivered for good political Doc-trine, That 
' Ireland was a free Kingdom, bad been conquered 

* by Force , had jujlly vindicated their own Liberty , 

* and ought not to be compelled to any Obedience or 
' Subordination to this Nation; that the Soldiers 

* ought not to fuffer themf elves to be tranfported thi- 
' ther\ they had indeed fought for their own Liberty 
' here, but ought not to be commanded out of their 
e own to take away that of others. And what Effect 
' this had, and how far and how long the Relief of 
' Ireland was hindered by the Difobedience and 
' Mutinies by them caufed, is very well known; fo 
c as if God had not been pleafed, by no lefs than a 
Miracle, to give Viftory to a fmall Handful of 

* our Men there, even befides their own Intention^ 

* and beyond their Defign, againft a very great Ar- 

* my of the Enemy's, there had not been left a 

* Landing-place in Ireland for our Army, but what 
' they muft have fought for. 

' They alfo continually fuggefted to the Soldiers, 
c That the Parliament was a Neft of Tyrants, and 

* therefore to be deftroyed as public Enemies ; 
' with much more of this Kind, both publifhed 

* in Print, and fo difperfed, and otherwife difiemi- 

* nated among them ; and what Effects this Doc- 
' trine wrought, the Defection begun in fome Re- 
' giments in Wiltjhire and other Places, (though, 

* by the Mercy of God, foon ended atBurford) and 

* now lately at Oxford, hath fufficiently manifeft- 

* ed ; which Difobedience, if it had proceeded 
further, and not been retrained by that fpecial 

N 2 ' Pro- 

196 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

ater-regnum. * Providence which hath fct Bounds to the Sea 

1649. * which it cannot pafs, we might Toon have been 

" g *""" v ~ * without an Army, to have ferved the Common- 

' * wealth againft their Attempts, who had laid their 

' Defigns to appear then, when the Diftempers in 

* the Army fhould be ready for them ; as at that 

* Time the Surprize of I'feymviitb was appointed 
' by Capt. Gardiner and his Accomplices, by Com- 
4 miflion from Charles Stuart. 

* And to the end alfo the Army might be the 
' more eafily corrupted in its Difcipline, and made 
' odious to the People, all Means are ufed to keep 

* the Army at Free-quarter, whereby they might 

* gratify Licentioufnefs, while Soldiers were un- 
4 paid, and lo left to live atDifcretion ; they pur- 

* fue the former Method, complain of Burthens, 

* cry down Excife and Taxes, but not a Word of 

* Danger ; they know without thefe, at prefent, 
an Army cannot be paid, or the Liberty of the 
' People preferved : If this Art had fucceeded, and 

* the People had abfolutely refufed to pay, the Ar- 

* my mult either have come to Free-quarter, hea- 
' vier than all Taxes, or muft have broken, and 
' then the Commonwealth had been again a6tually 

* in the Hands of Tyranny. 

' To perfuade the People the better, they rc- 

* prefent unto them what vart Sums are daily levi- 
c ed; tell of many Millions, with a fufficient Mul- 

* tiplication, that have been collected, of which no 
' Account, they fay, can be given : That they are 

* beyond all that ever was laid upon them by Mo- 

* narchy in the worft of Times; and they leave no 
' Way unattempted to aggravate every Inconve- 
' nience,to make the People fenfible of their Smart, 
' that they may throw away their Plaifter, and 
' die of their Wounds : Indeed we cannot but ac- 
' knowledge that the prefent Burthens are great, 
' and we have Reafon ourfelves to be as fenfible of 
' them as any others, having no Exemption from. 
c them according to the Proportion of our Eftates, 
( wherever they lie : And there is nothing that is 
' more in our Defires and Endeavours, than that 


Of ENGLAND. 197 

1 we may be able to abate the Taxes, and, in inter-regmim. 
' Time, to take them off", that the People might l6 49- 
4 come to enjoy intirely the Fruit of that which *"""" v """""" 1 

* hath coft them fo dear ; and we hope, through el>tem "' 
' the Blelfing of God, difpofing the Minds of the 

' People to a chearful Co-operation in this Work, 
1 with a Calmnefs and Patience for a little while 
' longer, there will be a happy End of thefe Trou- 

* bles, and a fure Settlement of the Peace of this 
' Commonwealth, in the true, good, and juft Li- 
' berty of the People. 

* But, for the better Prefervation of the People 

* from the Diftempers that might arife from fuch 
' Suggeftions, we defire them to conlider that if 

* the Burthens they bear be great, yet by whofe 
' Means, and for what Caufe, were they laid on ? 

* Phyfic may be, and often is, more troublefome 

* than the Difeafe ; yet the Tendency of the one 

* is to Health and Recovery, the other to Death ; 
' and from that Difference the Election is clear 

* and eafy : And though the Art of reftoring a dif- 

* located Joint is much more Torment than the 
' quiet fuffering of the prefent Pain, yet every Man 

* prefers thatTorment before Lamenefs. No Mari 

* refufeth to procure Antidotes in Time of epide- 
' mical Difeafes, though at very dear Rates, be- 
' caufe it is for his Prefervation ; nor to buy Food 
' and Cloathing, becaufe he cannot live without 

* them. And we doubt not but, if Men would 

* without Prejudice confider that they can no more 
' live, or live free, without an Army, than without 

* Food, as the prefent State of Affairs ftand ; and 
' that they now are in Times of fuch general Di- 
' ftempers, as that there is need of fuch a Remedy, 
' they would be beyond the Danger of being fe- 

* duced by thefe Pretences. 

' And whereas the Liberty of the People is fo 
6 highly cried up by thefe Deceivers, as being that 
' for which Men muft thus adventure all ; we do 

* acknowledge, that a juft and well-regulated Li- 

* berty, under juft and good Laws that may pre- 

* ierve it from Participation of, or degenerating 

N 3 ' into, 

198 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* into, Anarchy and Confufion, is a moft defirable 
' Thing, and that which may deferve the utmoft 
' Hazard of all that is dear to a Man ; but we de- 

< ^ t ^ cm to con fider, that this was feized into 
' fuch Hands as it could not be purchafed from 
' without a vaft Expence, nor fecured without 

* Trouble and Charge ; which we therefore, tho' 

* with a tender Senfe and with much Reluclancy, 

* are, for the prefent, neceflitated to raife. Thole 

* who cry out upon it, and would have all Bur- 
' thens, all Taxes, taken off for the Liberty of the 

* People, are thofe who at beft (if they be not pro- 
' fefledly Enemies) are yet a&ed and abufed by 

* them, as Inftrurnents to deftroy all our true Li- 

* berties, to reduce us again under the Power of a 

* worfe Tyranny, than we ever yet were under : 
' And to this the People muft themfelves be made 

* inftrumental, while they purfue an empty Name 

* of that Thing, the PolFeflion whereof they al- 

* ready have, and rnay keep and enjoy, if they 

* will not be abufed by thofe who, under the Pre- 

* tence of that Name, which is in itfelf moft de- 

* firable, would bring into the Nation what in 

* themfelves they have entertained, both in Prin- 
' ciple and Praclice ; namely, Atheifm, Licentiouf- 

* nefs, with Anarchy and Confufion of all Things. 

' We have thought it neceflary, at this Time, 

* to make this Difcovery of thofe Men, and to give 

* this Warning of them ; and, God aflifling us, 

* {hall not ceafe to watch againft, and fupprefs, 

* all their Defigns, and oppofe all their Practices : 

< And as our Duty is, in refpedl: of our great Truft, 

* we lhall endeavour to make the People happy, 

* and promote their Good ; and fhall not give over 

* that good Work for any Difcouragements from 

* the Unkindnefs and Unthankfulnefs of thofe for 

< whom our Labours are intended. 

' And if we have fuffered thefeDiftempers to pro- 

* ceed thus far, and have not put forth the Power 

* that refides in us to fecure the Commonwealth 

* and good Patriots from the Dangers that are here 
repreiented - 3 let it be confidered what weighty 

Of E N G L A N D. 199 

( Affairs have been upon us, and how much hath Inter-regnum. 
' been done fmce we were a Commonwealth. :649> 

* Befides that, the whole Body hath been in a Ions: < f7 v- T~ > 

T ^. . ,. J , . E> September, 

' and dangerous Difeafe ; and it could not be ex- 

* peeled but, though the Cure be perfect, yet many 
' Humours would remain that might poflibly be ca- 
4 pable to be altered ; and, being fo, be more pro- 

* h'table to the Body than to be purged out ; and 

* we thought it convenient to wait, if their better 

* Confideration of Affairs, and of their Duty, 

* would reduce them to a better Temper: But now 
' finding fome incorrigible, and that our Tender- 

* nefs to their Errors (which we would willingly 
4 have called Miftakes) is interpreted to be Weak- 

* nefs and Fear by thole that offend, and Slacknefs 
e and Negligence by thole who are in Danger; we 

* do hereby declare, That we have refolved to al- 
c ter that Courier And as Juftice hath been lately 

* done on fome at Oxford, in a Military and Mar- 

* tial Way, who were fubject to that Jurifdition, 
* and fhall be in like Manner on any other that 

* fhall fo offend ; fo we have iffued fpecial Com- 

* miffions of Oyer and Terminer^ for the fpeedy 
' Trial of the Chief of thofe who have laid and car- 

* ried on thofe dangerous Defigns ; and fhall be 
' ready to fpare the reft for prefent, whofe Repent- 

* ance and Sorrow for their paft Crimes may ren- 

* der them capable of Mercy j and who fhall give 

* fufficient Security, that they will not hereafter 
' endanger or difturb the Peace of the Common- 
wealth. And we do alfo hereby declare, That 

* as we fhall have in efpecial Efteem all good Pa- 
' triots, and, for their juft Advantage upon all Oc- 

* cafions, take Notice of thole who deferve well of , 
c the Commonwealth ; fo if any fhall hereafter 

c pralife againft the Commonwealth and the pre- 
4 lent Government thereof, and fhall offend againft 
' the Laws eftablifhed, of whatever Quality, Coa- 
' dition, or Calling they are, there fhall be a fpeedy 
' and fevere Proceeding againft them, without Fa- 
' vour or Refpeft of Perfons ; that we may, fo far 
< as God fhall enable us, fulfil the End of Magif- 

zoo The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' tracy, in being a Terror to the Evil-Doers, and 
for the'Praife and Encouragement of them that 
do well. COBELLj Cler p arL 

The fame Day that the foregoing Declaration 
was pafs'd, the Houfe ordered that it be referred 
to the Council of State, to confider of fuch Per- 
fons now in Prifon, or under Reftraint, as are fit to 
receive Favour in purfuance thereof; and to give 
Order for their Discharge, they fubmitting to the 
Government now eftablifhed, and giving Security 
not to endanger or difturb the Peace of the Com- 

The Lord Mayer Oftober. This Month began with the Ceremony 
of London pre- o f preferring a new Lord Mayor of London to the 
^l^fhe-; Houfe for their Approbation. This Affair having 
.Approbation, never been pra&ifed before by the Commons, oc- 
cafioned the more Formality about it, to ftand as a 
Precedent for the future. Accordingly the Lord 
Mayor ElecT: being call'd into the Houfe, the Re- 
corder * made an eloquent Oration, as the 'Journals 
exprefs it, reciting the great Providence of God, ia 
thefe late Years, to the Parliament and Nation ; 
and the conftant Affection of the City to the Par- 
liament and the Caufe they engaged in ; Decla- 
ring that the City had chofen Mr. Alderman Tho- 
mas Foote^ to be Lord Mayor for the enfuing Year : 
He gave a large Teftimony of the Fidelity, Inte- 
grity, and Abilities of the faid Alderman, and his 
Qualification for that great Office and Truft ; and 
defired the Approbation of the Houfe to the faid 

Being all withdrawn and call'd in again, the 
Speaker, by Direction of the Houfe, fpoke as fol- 
lows : 

My Lord Mayor Eletf, 

c '\7'OU have been prefented unto the Parlia- 
' j[ ment of England, by Mr. Recorder, for 
* their Approbation ; and the Parliament of Eng- 

4 land 

a Mr. Stecle, who had been appointed to that Office on the Re- of Mr., one of the fecluded Members. 

Of E N G L A N D. 201 

* land have commanded me, in their Names, to Inter-regnum, 
' declare unto you, That they do well approve and 

' confirm the Choice of you to be Lord Mayor of v "^^~ r 
' the City of London for the Year enfuing : And, 

* out of their Experience of your great Service and 
' Fidelity to this Commonwealth and Parliament, 
c and the Confidence they have of your Abilities 
' for fo high a Truft, they are well pleafed that 
4 fuch an eminent Stamp of Authority is fo fitly 
' placed ; and they have ordered that you fhall be 
' iworn accordingly.' 

On the fecond of this Month the Houfe receiv'd 
an Account from Ireland of the great Succefs of 
the Parliament's Forces in that Kingdom. The 
Particulars of which will beft appear from their 
Lord-Lieutenant's Letters, as laid before them b . 

For the Hon. WILLIAM LENTHALL, Efq- y Speaker 
of the Parliament of England. 

SIR, Dublin, Sep. 17, 1649. 

1 '\7'QUR Army being fafely arrived at Dublin, Gen - Cromwe 

< Y and the Enemy -endeavouring , tc > draw ^ all % 

< his r orces together about Trym and Tecroghan t Drogbed 
' as my Intelligence gave me ; from whence n- 

' deavours were ufed by the Marquis of Ormond 
to draw Owen Roe O'Neal with his Forces to his 

* Afiiftance, but with what Succefs I cannot yet 

< learn, I refolved, after fomc Refremment taken 
for our Weather-beaten Men and Horfes, and 
' Accommodations for a March, to take the Field; 
' and accordingly, upon Friday the 3Oth of Au- 

* guft laft, rendezvous'd with eight Regiments of 

* Foot, fix of Horfe, and fome Troops of Dragoons, 
' three Miles on the North Side of Dublin : The 
' Defign was to endeavour the regaining of Drogb- 
( heda, or tempting the Enemy, upon his Hazard 
c of the Lofs of that Place, to fight. 


b From the original Edition, printed by John Field for Edward 
JIuJbands, Printer to the Parliament of England, and publilhed by 
their Order. 

202 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* Your Army came before the Town upon 
T^Wrty Allowing; where having pitched, as 

v.-s taken as could be to frame 
h x>ok up the more Time, 

* becai . ~ - ...v . t.-::ng Guns were on 
' Ship board. Upon Monday the Qth of this In- 

* flant the Batteries began to play ; whereupon I 

* fent Sir Arthur Afton^ the then Governor, a 

* Summons to deliver the Town to the Ufe of the 

* Parliament of England ; to the which receiving 

* no fatisfa&ory Anfwer, I proceeded that Day 

* to beat down the Steeple of the Church on the 

* South Side of the Town, and to beat down a 

* Tower not far from the fame Place, which you 

* will difcern by the Chart inclos'd. 

* Our Guns not being able to do much that 

* Day, it was refolved to endeavour to do our ut- 
moil the next Day to make Breaches affaultable, 

* and, by the Help of God, to ftorm them. The 

* Place pitch'd upon was that Part of the Town 
Wall next a Church call'd St Marys ; which 

< was the rather chofen, becaufe we did hope that 
' if we did enter and poflefs that Church, we 

* fhould be the better able to keep it againft their 

* Horfe and Foot, untill we could make Way for 

* the Entrance of our Horfe, which we did not con- 
' ceive that any Part of the Town would afford 

< the like Advantage for that Purpofe with this. 
' The Batteries planted were two, one was for 
that Part of the Wall againft the Eaft End 

< of the faid Church, the other againft the Wall 
' on the South Side: Being fomewhat long in bat- 

* tering, the Enemy made fix Retrenchments, 
' three of them from the faid Church to Duleek 

* Gate, and three of them from the Eaft End of 

* the Church to the Town Wall, and fo back- 

* ward. The Guns, after fome two or three hun- 
4 dred Shot, beat down the Corner Tower, and 

* opened two reafonable good Breaches in the Eaft 
and South Wall. 

' Upon Tuefday the icih of this Inftant, about 
6 five o'Clock in the Evening, we began the Storm, 

4 and, 

Of E N G L A N D. 203 

c and, after fome hot Difpute, we entered about Inter-regnum. 

* 7 or 800 Men, the Enemy difputing it very ftifly 

* with us ; and indeed, through the Advantages of 
' the Place, and the Courage God was pleafed to 

* give the Defenders, our Men were forced to re- 
' treat quite out of the Breach, not without fomc 

* confiderable Lofs ; Col. Caffel being there (hot 

* in the Head, whereof he prefently died, and di- 

* vers Officers and Soldiers, doing their Duty, 

* kill'd and wounded. There was a Tenalia to 

* flanker the South Wall of the Town, between 

* Duleek Gate and the Corner Tower before-men- 
ed, which our Men enter'd, wherein they found 
' fome forty or fifty of the Enemy, which they 

* put to the Sword, and this they held ; but it be- 
' ing without the Wall, and the Salley-Port thro* 
' the Wall into that Tenalia being choak'd up with 
' fome of the Enemy which were kill'd in it, it 
' prov'd of no Ufe for our Entrance into the Town 

* that Way. 

' Although our Men that ftorm'd the Breaches 

* were forced to recoil, as before is exprefs'd, yet 

* being encouraged to recover their Lofs, they 
' made a fecond Attempt, wherein God was plea- 

* fed fo to animate them, that they got Ground of 

< the Enemy; and, by the Goodnefs of God, for- 

* ced him to quit his Entrenchments ; and, after 
' a very hot Difpute, the Enemy having both 

* Horfe and Foot, and we only Foot within the 

* Wall, they gave Ground, and our Men became 
4 Mafters both of their Retrenchments and the 
' Church i which, indeed, although they made our 
' Enterance the more difficult, yet they prov'd of 

< excellent Ufe to us, fo that the Enemy could not 

* annoy us with their Horfe ; but thereby we had 
Advantage to make good the Ground, that fo 
' we might let in our own Horfe ; which accord- 
' ingly was done, though with much Difficulty. 

' Divers of the Enemy retreated into the Mill" 
f Mount, a Place very ftrong and of difficult Ac- 
cefs, being exceeding high, having a good Graft 

* and ftrongly pallifadoed. The Governor, Sirjfr- 

' thur 


204 The Parliamentary His TOR y 

. thur djlon and divers confiderable Officers be- 
' ing there, our Men getting up to them, were or- 

* dered by me to put them all to the Sword : And, 

* indeed, being in the Heat of Action, I forbad 
' them to fpare any that were in Arms in the 

* Town ; and I think that Night they put to the 

* Sword about 2000 Men, divers of theOfficers and 

* Soldiers being fled over the Bridge into the other 

* Part of. the Town ; where about 1 00 of them 
' poflefs'd St. Peter's Church Steeple, fome the Weft 

* Gate, and others a round ftrong Tower next the 

* Gate call'd St. Sunday's. Theie being fummoned 

* to yield to Mercy, refufed ; whereupon I ordered 

* the Steeple of St. Peter's Church to be fired, 

* where one of them was heard to fay in the Midft 
' of the Flames, God damn me y Gad cenfound me, 

* / burn^ I burn. 

' The next Day the other two Towers were 

* fumrnoned, in one of which was about fix or 

* feven Score, but they refufed to yield themfelves ; 

* and we knowing; that Hunger muft compel them, 

* fet only good Guards to fecure them from run- 

* ing away, untill their Stomachs were come down. 

* From one of the faid Towers, notwithftanding 

* their Condition, they kill'd and wounded fome 

* of our Men. When they fubmitted, their Of- 

* fleers were knock'd on the Head, and every tenth 

* Man of the Soldiers kill'd, and the reft fhipped 

* for the Barbadoes. The Soldiers in the other 

* Town were all fpared as to their Lives only, and 
c fhipped likewife for the Barbadoes. 

* I am pcrfuaded that this is a righteous Judg- 

* ment of God upon thefe barbarous Wretches, 

* who have embrued their Hands in fo much inno- 

* cent Blood, and that it will tend to prevent 

* the Effufion of Blood for the future ; which are 
' the fatisfa&ory Grounds to fuch Actions, which 

* otherwife cannot but work Remorfe and Regret. 
c The Officers and Soldiers of this Garrifon were 

* the Flower of their Army ; and their great Ex- 
c pcclation was, that our attempting this Place 

* would put fair to ruin us j they being confident 

' of 

Of E N G L A N D. 205 

* of the Refolution of their Men and the Advan- inter-regnum. 

* tage of the Place. If we had divided our Force 1649- 

4 into two Quarters, to have befieged the North ^ "v* - -* 

4 Town and the South Town, v/e could not have Oftober 

4 had fuch a Correfpondency between the two 

4 Parts of our Army ; but that they might have 

4 chofen to have brought their Army, and have 

4 fought with which Part they pleafed, and at the 

4 fame Time have made a Sally with 2OOO Men 

4 upon us, and have left their Walls mann'd, they 

4 having in the Town the Number hereafter fpe- 

4 cified ; but fome fay near 4000. 

4 Since this great Mercy vouchfafed to us, I fent 
4 a Party of Horfe and Dragoons to Dundalk, which 
4 the Enemy quitted, and we are pofTefs'd of; as 
4 alfo another Caftle they deferted between Trym 
4 and Drogbedd, upon the Boyne. I fent a Party of 
4 Horfe and Dragoons to a Houfe within five Miles 
4 of TVywz, there being then in Trym fome Scots 
4 Companies, which the Lord of Ardes brought ro 
4 aflift the Lord of Ormond ; but upon the News 
4 of Drogheda they ran away, leaving their great 
4 Guns behind them j which we alfo have pof- 
4 fefs'd. 

4 And now give me Leave to fay how it comes to 

* pafs that this Work is wrought : It was fet upon 
4 fome of bur Hearts that a great Thing mould be 
4 done ; not by Power or Might, but by the Spirit 
4 of God ; and is it not fo clearly ? That which 
4 caufed your Men to ftorm fo courageoufly, it was 
4 the Spirit of God who gave your Men Courage, 
4 and took it away again ; and gave the Enemy 
4 Courage, and took it away again ; and gave your 

* Men Courage again, and therewith this happy 
4 Succefs ; and therefore it is good that God alone 
' have all the Glory. 

4 It is remarkable that thefe People at the fit ft 
4 fet up the Mafs in fome Places of the Town that 

* had been Monafteries ; but afterwards grew fo 
4 infolent, that the laft Lord's Day before the 
4 Storm, the Proteftants were thruft out of the 
' great Church call'd St. Peter's, and they had 

* public 

2o6 The Parliamentary HISTORY* 

later-regnum. c public Mafs there j and in this very Place near 

1649. 1000 of them were put to the Sword, flying thi- 

-V- ' ther for Safety. I believe all their Friars were 

'ber. < Jcnock'd on the Head promifcuoufly, but two, 

' the one of which was Father Peter Taaff^ Bro- 

* ther to the Lord Taaff^ whom the Soldiers took 

* the next Day and made an End of ; the other 

* was taken in the Round Tower, under the Re- 
s pute of a Lieutenant ; and when he undcrftood 

* that the Officers in that Tower had no Quarter, 

* he confefs'd he was a Frier j but that did not fave 

* A great deal of Lofs in this Bufmefs fell upon 
Col. Hewfon's, Col. CaffeFs, and Col. Ewer's 

* Regiments ; Col. Ewer having two Field Offi- 

* cers in his Regiment mot, Col. Caffel and a Cap- 

* tain of his Regiment (lain, Col. //n^n's Captain- 

* Lieutenant flain. I do not think we loft 100 

* Men upon the Place, though many be wounded. 

* I moft humbly pray the Parliament may be 

* pleafed this Army may be maintained, and that a 

* Confideration may be had of them, and of the 

* carrying on Affairs here, as may give a fpeedy 

* Iflue to this Work, to which there feems to be a 

* marvellous fair Opportunity offer'd by God. And 

* although it may feem very chargeable to the State 

* of England to maintain fo great a Force, yet fure- 

* ly to ftretch a little for the prefent, in following 

* God's Providence, in hope the Charge will not 

* be long, I truft it will not be thought by any (that 

* have not irreconcilable or malicious Principles) 
e unfit for me to move for a conftant Supply, which, 
4 in human Probability, as to outward Means, is 
' moft likely to haften and perfe6l this Work ; 

* and indeed, if God pleafe to finifh it here, as he 
' hath done in England, the War is like to pay it- 

' We keep the Field much, our Tents flickering 

* us from the Wet and Cold, but yet the Country 
Sicknefs overtakes many, and therefore we defire 

* Recruits and fome frefh Regiments of Foot may 

* be fent us j for it is eafily conceived, by what 


Of E N G L A N D. 207 

* the Garrifons already drink up, what our Field Inter- regmun. 
< Army will come to, if God fhall give more j6 49- 

' Garrifons into our Hands. Craving Pardon for < ~Z2^~~ J - 
this great Trouble, I reft 

Tour mcft bumble Servant, 


< P. S. Since writing of my Letter, a Major, 
c who brought off 43 Horfe from the Enemy, told 

* me, that it is reported in their Camp that Owen 
' Roe and they are agreed. 

4 The Defendants in Drcgbeda confifled of 
c the Lord of Ormond's Regiment, Sir Edmund 
< Verney Lieutenant-Colonel, of 400 ; Col. Byrn's, 
Col. Warren's* and Col. Watt's, of 2IOO; the 

* Lord of WeJlmeatVs* of 200 ; Sir James Dillon' 's, 

* of 200 ; and 200 Horfe.' 

of Ireland. 

Mr. Speaker, Dublin, Sept. 27, 1649, 

* T Had not received any Account from Col. Ve- 

* J_ nables (whom I fent from Drogheda to endea- 
' vour the reducing of Carlingford, and fo to march 

* Northward towards a Conjunction with Sir Charles 

* Coot) untill the Jaft Night. After he came to 
c Carlingford, having fummoned the Place, both 

* the three Caftles and the Fort commanding the 
' Harbour, were rendered to him ; wherein were 
c about 40 Barrels of Powder, feven Pieces of Can- 
' non, about loco Mufkets, and 500 Pikes want- 

* ing 2O. In the Enterance into the Harbour Capt. 
' Fern, aboard your Man of War, had fome Dan- 
ger, being much fhot at from the Sea Fort, a Bui- 
' let (hooting through his Main Maft. The Cap- 

* tain's Entrance into that Harbour was a confi- 
' derable Adventure, and a good Service ; as alfo 

* was Capt. Brandley's, who, with 40 Seamen, 

* ftorm'd a very ftrong Tenalia at Drogheda, and 
help'd to take it ; for which he dcferves an Own- 

aoS Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' ing by you. Venalhs march'd from Carlintford 
with a Party of Horfe and Dragoons to the Jtowry, 
' leaving the Foot to comeup after him. He fum- 

* moned the Place, and it was yielded before his 

* Foot came up to him. Some other Informations 

* I have received from him, which promife well 

* towards your Northern Intereft ; which, if well 

* profecuted, will, I truft God, render you a good 

* Account of thofe Parts. 

' I have fent thofe Things to be prefentcd to the 
Council of State for their Confideration. I pray 

* God as thefe Mercies flow in upon you, he will 
give you an Heart to improve them to his Glory 

* alone, becaufe he alone is the Author of them, and 

* of all the Goodnefs, Patience, and Long-fuffering 

* extended towards you. Your Army is march'd, 

* and I believe this Night Jieth at Arttlo, in the 
County of Wicklo, by the Sea Side, between 30 
and 40 Miles from this Place. I am this Day, 

* by God's Bleffing, going towards it. I crave 

* your Pardon for this Trouble, and reft 

Tour moft bumble Servant , 


' P. S. I defire the Supplies moved for may be 

* haften'd. I am verily perfuaded, though the 

* Burden be great, yet it is for your Service. If 

* the Garrifons we take fwallow up your Men, 

* how fhall we be able to keep the Field ? Who 

* knows but the Lord may pity England's Suffer- 

* ings, and make a fhort Work of this ? It is in his 

* Hand to do it, and therein only your Servants 

* rejoice. 

4 I humbly prefent the Condition of Capt. George 
e Jenkins's Widow. He died prefently after Tre- 
s dagb Storm. His Widow is in great Want. 

* The following Officers and Soldiers were flain 
' at the ftorming of Drogbeda ; Sir Arthur Afton^ 
' Governor ; Sir Edmund Vcrney^ Lieut. Col. to 
' Ormond\ Regiment; Col. Fleming^ Lieut. Col. 

* Finglafs^ Major Fitzgerald^ with eight Captains, 

> ' Lieu- 

Of ENGLAND. 209 

e eight Lieutenants, and eight Cornets, all of Inter-regnunu 
' Horfe ; Colonels Warren, Wall, and Byrne, of l6 49- 
e Foot, with their Lieutenants, Majors, &c. the *~ ~~ v ~" "^ 
' Lord r^^Ps Brother, an 4uguftine Fryer; 44 ftobcr ' 
' Captains, and all their Lieutenants, Enftgns, &c. 
e 220 Reformadoes and Troopers ; 2500 Foot 
' Soldiers, befides Staff-Officers, Surgeons, &c. 
* and many Inhabitants.' 

Thus far the Account as laid before the Houfe 
by Cromwell j the Parliament's Lord-Lieutenant of 

The Marquis of Ormond, the Regal Lord -Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, in his Letters to King Charles 
the Second and Lord Byron a , in relation to the 
Storming ofDrcgbeda, remarks, ' That on this Oc- 
cafion Cromwell exceeded himfelf, and any Thing 
he had ever heard of, in Breach of Faith and bloody 
Inhumanity; and that the Cruelties exercifed there 
for fiveDays after theTown was taken, would make 
as many feveral Pidlures of Inhumanity as are to be 
found in the Book of Martyrs, or in the Relation 
of Amboyna? General Ludlow writes b ', ' That 
the Slaughter was continued all the Day of the 
Storming, and the next ; which extraordinary Se- 
verity was ufed to difcourage others from making 
Oppofition.' And it is obfervable that this terrible 
Slaughter, charged uponCromwell is fo far from be- 
ing palliated or excufed in his own Letters, that 
he feems to look upon the Irijh as a Body of Ama- 
lekites, deftin'd to Deftrudtion by Divine Ven- 

f:ance, and himfelf as the Executioner only of the 
Imighty's Refentment. And accordingly a Wri- 
ter of his Life terms this extraordinary Acl: of Cru- 
elty a Sacrifice of 3000 Irijh to the Ghofts of 
. VOL. XIX. O 10,000 

a Carte's Life of Jama Duke of Ormond, Vol. II. p. 84. See 
alfo Lord Clarendon's Vindication of the Marquis's Conduft, p. 130^ 
and 349 ; his Hiftory of the Rebellion, Vol. V. 8vo. p. 341 j and 
Hugh Peteris Letter in Wbitlockfs Memorials, p. 411, 

b Memoirs, Vol. I, p, 303, 

210 *fbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. io,ooo Eng/rjb, whom they had maffacred fome 

1649. Years before . 

* -V- ^ How agreeable the Conduct of General Crom- 
' cr * well in this Affair was to his Matters, appears 
by the Refolutions of the Houfe after reading the 
regoing Letters. For they appointed a Thankf- 
that Occaiion. giving-Day to be held on the hut of November 
enfuing, throughout the whole Kingdom. They 
likewife ordered that a Declaration Ihould be pre- 
pared and fent into the feveral Counties, fignifying 
the Grounds for fetting a-part that Day of public 
Thankfgiving. A Letter of Thanks was alfo vo- 
ted to be fent to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland^ 
and to be communicated to the Officers there ; in 
which Notice was to be taken, That the Houfe 
did approve of the Execution done at Drogheda^ as 
an A61 both of Juftice to them, and Mercy to others 
who may be warned by it. 

On the nth of this Month the Declaration be- 
fore-mentioned was brought into the Houfe by 
Sir IVilliam Majbam y read, and agreed to, as fol- 
lows : 

And n Dechra-e rTT^HE great and wonderful Providences where- 
ib^ therof? "" ' A in the Lord . hath eminently gone forth in 

* Mercy towards this Nation have been fuch, that 
' however many do fhut their Eyes, or murmur 
' againft them, or at,leaft refufe to join in public 
.' Acknowledgments and Thankfgiving to Almigh- 

* ty God for the fame ; neverthelefs the Lord hath 

* been pleafed to publifh to all the World, That it 

* is the Work of his own Hand : Nor hath his in- 
' finite Goodnefs and Favour been reftrained to 
' England only, but extended into Ireland, which 

* he hath been pleafed to remember in its low 


c The Hiftry of tit Life and Deatl o bit Mofl Serene Higbnef,, 
Oliver Lord frotifior ; ti'bcreiT!, from his Cradle to kis Tomb, are 
impartially tianfmitied to Poftcnty, ibe mofl weighty Tranfafiions, 
foreign and dsmejlick, that haiie happened in bis Time, either in 
Matters of Ltnv, Proceedings in Parliament, or other Affairs in 
Church or State. By S. Carrington. Printed for Natb, Brook, 
ia Cornbili, 1659. 

Of E N G L A N D. 211 

* Eftate j and when his People there were as dry Inter-regnuuu 

* Bones, he hath not only revived them in a Way l6 49- 

* almoft as miraculous as a Refurrection from the ^^T"^' 
' Dead, but been pleafed to raife both them and us 

4 to a high Pitch of Hope that the Lord will go 
4 on to perfect his Work in that Land, and make 
' it likewife, at laft, a quiet Habitation for his 

* People, and eftablifh the Power and Purity of the 

* Gofpel there. The Confideration whereof, and 
4 of the Goodnefs and Power of God in the late 

* wonderful Victory which he hath been pleafed to 

* give unto the Parliament's Forces there before 

* Dublin, never to be forgotten ; and the further 

* Progrefs God hath made in giving Drogbeda^ a 

* Place of great Strength and Confequence, de- 

* fended by a confiderable Number of their prime 

* Officers and Soldiers, the Particulars whereof are 
' exprefled in the Lord-Lieutenant's and other Let- 

* ters lately printed ; and fmce that, by finking a 
' Terror into the Hearts of the Enemy, fo as they 

* have yielded up or deferted many other confider- 

* able Caftles . and Garrifons, as Tryni, Dundalk^ 
6 CarUngford^ the Newry, and other Places, and 

* fome other additional Victories which God hath 
c caft in fince, cannot but make a deep Impreffion 

* on the Hearts of all that fear the Lord, and pro- 

* voke them to exceeding Thankfulnefs and Re- 

* joicing. 

' Upon Confideration of all which the Parlia- 

* ment, out of their deep Senfe of fo great conti- 
4 nued Mercies, have thought fit, as in Duty to 
4 God, to fet a-part a Day for public and folemn 

* Thankfgiving to the Lord, the Author of thefe 

* Mercies : And they do therefore enact and or- 

* dain, &c.' 

The Houfe ordered 12,000 Copies of this De- 
claration to be forthwith printed, and fent to the 
feveral Sheriffs, to be by them difperfed to the Mi- 
nifters of every Parifh in their refpective Counties, 
Who were requir'd to read it to their Congregations. 
02 The 

212 'The Parliamentary 

inter-regnum. The fame Day that the foregoing Declaration 
1649. W as agreed to, a Refolution was alfo pafs'd,That 

* -*/~ ' every Member who then did, or fhould hereafter, 
fit in that Houfe, fhould fubfcribe his Name to the 
The Parliament following Engagement, viz. 

refolve that an / do declare and promife y that I will be true and 
^fSTcTthe fButyfl to the Commonwealth of England, as the 
Commonwealth fame ' s mw ejlablijhed without a King or Houfe of 
Government, be Lords. And that thefe Subfcriptions fhould begin 
fub v.r rib /^ by allthe next Morning : 

public Officers. 

Accordingly, the next Day, Off. 12. the Speaker 
firft, and afterwards divers Members of the Houfe, 
did fubfcribe this Engagement. 

Ordered alfo that the General, and all the Offi- 
cers and Soldiers of the Army fhould do the fame : 
That the Judges of the feveral Courts at Weftmin- 
jler^ all the Serjeants at Law, Counfellors, Offi- 
cers, Minifters, and Clerks, and all Attornies and 
Solicitors, fhould fubfcribe this Engagement. The 
fame Orders were fent into Ireland ; to the Lord 
Mayor of London ; to the Generals, and Admirals 
of the Fleets at Sea ; to the Judges of the Courts 
of Admiralty and the Civil Law ; to the Readers, 
Benchers, &c. of the feveral Inns of Court and 
Chancery : In fhort, to all and fingular Perfons 
that bore any Office, Civil, Religious, or Military, 
and thofe under them, throughout all England^ 
JVales^ and all the Englijh Dominions ; who were 
to fubfcribe this Engagement, or elfe be rendered 
incapable of holding any fuch Office or Employ- 
ment, public or private, for ever after y ' . 

The Houfe alfo ordered the Style, heretofore 
ufed in the Orders and Acts of the Houfe, viz. 
By the Commons in Parliament ajfembled, to be al- 
tered and no more ufed, but, inftead thereof, thefe 
Words, viz. By the Parliament. As the firft In- 


Y See the Ccmntcm Journals and Seekers Ads for the whole De- 
tail of thofe Perfons who were to be Subfcribers to this Engage- 
ment. It was afterwards made Part of the Oath to be taken by 
the Judges, Sheriffs, and all other public Officers in the Nation. 

Of E N G L A N D. 213 

ftance of which it was, at the fame Time, orderedj Inter-regnum. 
That the Title to the Engagement be changed* l6 49- 

and made Refolded by the Parliament^ &c. '^ TX"^"' 

J Oaober. 

The principal Employment of the Houfe, for A Review of 
many Months enfuing, was little elfe than reading fome other Tefts, 
Letters of the great Succefs of the Parliament's before required to 

-r-, T t j T A i be taken by their 

rorces in Ireland^ railing an Army to march mto own Members. 
Scotland upon that Nation's declaring for King 
Charles II. and laying Taxes for the Support of 
thefe expenfive Expeditions. Before we enter into 
this Military Scene, it may be neceffary to take 
a Review of the Houfe, in order to account for 
their extraordinary Unanimity in every Queftion 
hitherto that regarded the Eftablifhment of their 
new Commonwealth, and their no lefs remarkable 
Concurrence with the Council of State. The 
Reader cannot but remember the Garbling of 
the Houfe by the Army in the Beginning of De- 
cember^ 1648 : That on the firft of February fol- 
lowing, thofe Members who were permitted to 
keep their Seats, pafs'd aRefolution, That all fuch 
who had concurred in the Vote of Dec. 5, ' That 
' the King's Conceffions were a Ground of Peace,* 
be difabled from fitting for the future ; and that 
thofe who were abfent at the Time of pafling that 
Vote, fhould enter their Diflent thereto, previous 
to their Admifiion into the Houfe. 

Thefe Refolutions had fo greatly reduced the 
Number of acting Members, that there are many 
more Inftances of Divifions in which the whole 
Number prefent fell fhort of fifty than exceeded it; 
and of thefe molt of them were Members of the 
Council of State as well as of the Parliament : Not- 
withftanding all which, they were fo apprehenfive of 
the many Attempts to fubvert their ill-gotten Power, 
that on the 5th of March they appointed a Com- 
mittee, confifting of Mr. Lijle, Mr. Scot, Mr. Hoi- 
land^ Mr. Luke Robinfon, and Col. Ludlow^ to dive 
into each particular Member's Sentiments ; which 
Unparliamentary and Unconstitutional Meafure 
O 3 cannot 

214 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

liter-regnum. cannot be better defcrib'd than in the laft-named 
Gentleman's own Words : 

* The Parliament being defirous to exclude from 
their Places thofe who were likely to undo what 
they had done ; and yet, unwilling to lofe the Af- 
fiftance of many honeft Men, who had been in 
the Country during the late Traniactions, pafs'd an 
Order, That fuch Members as had not fat fince 
the Trial of the King, fhould not be admitted to 
fit, till the Houfe fhould be particularly fatisfied 
concerning them ; appointing the above-mention'd 
ve, or any three of them, to be a Committee, to 
receive Satisfaction touching the Affections of every 
Member to the Public Intereft, who had not fat 
fince the Time aforefaid, and the Reafon of his Ab- 
fence ; and to make their Report to the Parliament 
concerning them.' 

Our Memorialift proceeds to obferve, That 
the new Commonwealth beginning to acquire Re- 
putation, and to carry a fair Probability of Suc- 
cefs, divers Members who had been long abfent, 
addrefs'd themfelves to the Committee before- 
mentioned, in order to their Admiflion to fit in 
Parliament, and fome of them would not fcruple 
to give any Satisfaction that was defired to the 
Queftions propofed unto them ; which were, Whe- 
ther they join'd in or approved that Vote, declaring 
the King's Conceflions a Ground for a future Set- 
tlement? Whether they approved of the Proceed- 
ings againft the King ? And whether they would 
engage to be true to a Commonwealth Govern- 
ment ? But we, fays he, apprehending fuch extra- 
ordinary Expulfions as had been lately ufed, to be 
extremely hazardous to the Public Safety, made it 
our Endeavour to keep thofe from a Re-admiflion, 
who might neceflitate another Occafion of ufmg 
the like Remedy : And therefore, though all pof- 
fible Satisfaction was given in Words, we did, by 
weighing the former Deportment of every parti- 
cular Member who prcfented himfelf, defire to be 


o Memoirs, Vol. I. p. 288, 

Richard Aldworth, Efq; 
Robert Andrews, Efq; 
Henry Arthington, Efq; 

Abraham Barrel!, Efq; 
Nathaniel Bacon, Efqj 
Francis Bacon, Efq; 
John Barker, Efq; 
Col. Thomas Birch, 
Peter Brooke, Efq; 
Sir Thomas Barnardtfton, 
Sir Nath. Barnardijion, 
Mr. Crompton % 
William Carew, Efq; 
Thomas Cholmley, Efqj 
Henry Darley, Efq; 
John Dormer, Efq; 
William Ellis, Efq; 
Richard Edwards, Efq; 
Thomas Lord Fairfax, 
Charles Fleetwood, Efq; 
Thomas Fell, Efq; 




Newton, Hants. 


Cambridge Univerfity, 




Newton, Lancajhire. 

St. Edmund's Bury. 



Carlijle. ? 






Marlbor ought 

Lancajhr. p 

m P. 48 z and 549. 

n We have not been able to find out what Place this Gentleman 
ferv'd for. 

o At p. * 14, in our Ninth Volume, this Gentleman is faid t9 
have bien elaftcd In A T v, 1650 j but it fliould be 1648, 



Of E N G L A N D. 215 

in fome Meafure aflured, that they would be true Inter-regmim. 
to what they promifed, (in cafe the Commonwealth 
Intereft ihould come to be difputed) before we 
would report their Condition to the Houfe.' 

The Names of the Members who fubmitted to 
be examined by this Committee, and were accord- 
ingly re-admitted into the Houfe, together with 
fuch as were ele&ed fince the Death of the King, 
are entered in the "Journals on their refpe&ive Days 
of Admiflion ; and from thefe Authorities we have 
extracted the following Lilt of them ; which, added 
to thole who entered their DilTent to the Vote for 
Peace, already given in our Eighteenth Volume m , 
will point out who were the principal Actors at this 
important Crifis. 

216 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnum. Col. George Fenwick, 


Brampton Gurdon, Efq; 
Thomas Hoyle, Efq; 
Thomas HuJ/ey, Efq; 
Thomas Hodges, Efq; 
Sir Henry Hayman, Bart. 
EdwardLor&Howard 1 
of EJkrick, 5 

Philip Lord Herbert, 
*John Lenthall, Efqj 
John Lowry, Efq; 
JLiJlebone Long, Efq; 
Sir Richard Lucy, Bart. 
Chrijiopher Martin, Efq; 
Moyle, fen. Efq; 
Afaw'/fc, Efq; 
Neville, Efq; 

North, Knt. 
PZ/7;/> Earl of Pembroke, 
Francis Pierpoint, Efq; 
Thomas Pury, Efq; 
Geruafe Piggot, Efq; 
Carew Raleigh, Efq; 
Nathaniel &V&,'Efq; 
Col. /r<?V J2^7, 
WilliamEzrl of Salifbury, 

George Snelling, Efq; 
Augujline Skinner, Efq; 
William Sydenham, Efq; 
Thomas Stockdale, Efq; 
Sir P*/<?r Temple, Bart. 
Sir y^ Trevor, Knt. 
Edmund Wejl, Efq; 












Old Sarum. 

















Melcombe- Regis; 





Lord Clarendon t imputes the Return of many of 
thefe Gentlemen to their Seats to a Defire of not 
being idle when fo much Bufinefs was to be done. 
But adds, That others forbore, either out of Con- 
fciencc or Indignation, coming to the Houfe any 
more for many Years ; and fome of them not be- 
y JJiJioij, Vol. V, p, 23-jt 

Of E N G L AN D. 217 

fore the Meeting of the Convention-Parliament lnter-regn<nn. 
which reftor'd the King. J!^Lj 

There is nothing elfe remarkable in the Pro- 
ceedings of this Month, only, at the latter End of it, 
an Account came from Ireland of the taking of 
Wexford by the Parliament's Forces. The Letters 
from Lieutenant- General Cromwell on this Oteih 
fion are mentioned in the Journals^ but not enter'd 
there, nor have we any Copy of them in our Col- 
lefiions ; we muft therefore content ourfelves with 
fuch Accounts as Hiftory affords us. 

Mr. Ludloiv writes s, ' That the Guard ap- 
pointed to defend the Caftle of Wexford quitted 
their Poft while a Treaty was in Hand about a 
Surrender, whereupon fome of the Parliament's 
Forces entered it, and fet up their Colours at the 
Top of it i which the Enemy having obferv'd, left 
their Stations in all Parts, fo that the Befiegers 
Foot pofTefs'd themfelves of the Town without 
Opposition, and opened the Gates for the Horfe to 
enter.' He adds, * That great Riches were taken 
in this Town, it being accounted by the Enemy 
a Place of Strength ; and fome Ships were feized 
in the Harbour, which had much interrupted the 
Commerce of that Coaft : That Commiffioners 
were appointed by the Lieutenant-General to take 
Care of the Goods that were found in the Town 
belonging to the Rebels, that they might be im- 
proved to the beft Advantage of the Public.' 

A modern Hiftorian h , who is very particular in 
his Account of the taking of Wexford^ informs us 
that the Place was betray'd ; and imputes Crom- 
weirs Succefs as much to the good Intelligence he 
kept in thofe Parts, as to his Arms. 

The Parliament ordered their Lord -Lieutenant's 
Account of this Action to be publifhed by the 
Clergy in their refpedlive Cpngregations, on the 
Day appointed for a Thankfgiving to God for their 
late Succefs at Drogheda. 


g Memoirs, Vol. I. p. 303. 

b Carte'* Life of James Duke of Ormond, Vol. II. p. 90, 

2 1 8 The Parliamentary Hi s TOR v 

November. The firft of this Month was obferved 
as a general Day of Thankfgiving throughout the 
wholeKingdom, for the foregoing Victory atDrog- 
beda and others ob ained fince in Ireland. Two 
Sermons were preached before the Houfe at Mar- 
garet's IVeftminjler, as it was then call'd ; and the 
Preachers, Mr. Marjhall and Mr. Sterry^ had 
Thanks next Day returned them lor their great 
Pains taken therein. 

Nov. 6. Mr. Trenchard reported, from the Com- 
miflioners for compounding with Delinquents, an 
Eftimate of what might arife out of that Branch 
of the Parliament's Revenue, towards a certain 
Payment of their Army, in order to an Abatement 
of the prefent AflefTment of 90,000 /. per Menfem\ 
whereby it appeared that 
There was due upon Bonds from 7 

Delinquents [213,325 9 4 

And upon Fines whereof no Part 7 , 

was yet paid {156,447 o o 

369,772 9 4 

The Monthly But that the Payment of thefe was not to be de- 
* ffe f* nt / or pended upon with any Certainty. Hereupon the 

the Army far- rt r J- i i T>, ' /-r rr r 

ther continued. Houfe refolved, That the Aftenment of 90,000 /. 
per Menfem be farther continued to Lady-Day, and 
an AflefTment of 60,000 /. from that Time to 
Midsummer enfuing, for the Maintenance of the 

The Continuance of this exceffive Burden upon 
the Public, muft convince them how wretched a 
Change they had made from Monarchy to a Com- 
monwealth. But the Cafe of the unhappy Royalifts 
will appear ftill harder by the above Calculation of 
the great Sums they then ow'd, befides what they 
had already paid, for their feveral Compofitions. 

In the Courfe of thefe Parliamentary Inquiries 
there is little or no Notice taken of what was now 
become of the banifhed Branches of the Royal Fa- 
mily j but they are not fo neglected in the Hiftories 


Of E N G L A N D. 219 

of thefe Times, particularly in Lord Clarendon ; Inter-regnunu 
who, as he was a Fellow-Traveller with them, l6 49- 
and a Sharer in their evil Fortune at that Time, < ^T~*f~r~* 
is very copious and exact in his Hiftory of it. The 
Lord-Commiffioner Ifhitlocke alfo is not wanting 
in tracing the unfortunate Prince, whom he calls 
Prince Charles, from Place to Place; and as this 
Memorialift, befides his great Office in Chancery, 
was alfo a Member of Parliament, and one of the 
Council of State, no doubt he had the beft Intelli- 

fence from abroad about him j efpecially fmce we 
nd the new Government here kept a watchful 
and jealous Eye over all the young King's Actions ; . 

for this Memorialift tells us, ' That they had good 
Intelligence of all the Tranfactions of the Prince 
and his Council, which they procured by Money, 
of which fome of the Prince's own Servants were 
fo needy that they would betray their Mafter for it.' 

And accordingly we find that, about this Time, King Claries H 
the Parliament received Advice, ' That Charles lands in thelfle 
Stuart, eldeft Son of the late King had left S/. of J^V' 
Germains, and was arrived in the Ifland of Jerfey, 
with a Retinue of about 300 Perfons, where he 
had been proclaimed King ; and that, upon an 
Invitation from the Marquis of Ormond, he in- 
tended fpeedily to embark for Dublin' 
His Majefty continued in Jerfey fome Months ; 
but being inform'd of Cromwell's great Succefles in 
Ireland, gave over all Thoughts of going thither, 
and removed to Breda ; where Commiflioners from 
the States of Scotland having attended on him with 
fome Propofitions for his Reftoration, he refolved 
to embark for that Kingdom. During his Stay in And 
the Ifland of Jerfey, he iflued the following De-F*. 60 ^ 
claration ; which, as the Prefs was at this Time crown 8 , 
under fo heavy an Embargo in England by the late 
Licenfing Act, we may well prefume could not be 
printed in this Kingdom ; and that probably was 
the Reafon of its being done at the Hague p . 


p Printed by Samuel Broun, Englijh Bookfeller, dwelling in tfce 
"X at the Sign of the Englijh Piiating-hcufc. 

220 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Juter-regnum. His MAJESTY'S DECLARATION to all his loving 
1649. Subjects in his Kingdom ^England and Dominion 

* -v - ' of Wales, publifljed with the Advice of his Privv 

CHARLES, the Second of that Name, by the 
Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, 
France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. 
To all Perfons within our Kingdom of England 
and Dominion of Wales, to whom thefe Pre- 
fents fhall come, greeting. 

cannot , without unfpeakable Grief and Sor- 
row, call to Mind, nor, without Horror, ex- 
prefs, how that our Dear and Royal Father, King 
Charles, of ever blejfed Memory, hath been moft bar- 
laroujly and moft cruelly murdered by the Hands of 
bloody Traitors and Rebels, within our Kingdom of 
England, with Proceedings and Circum/lances Jo 
prodigious, that the Particulars induce rather 
Amazement than Exprejjion: And although we have 
hitherto feemed filent in a Matter fo highly concern- 
ing us, as not publickly to exprefs to the People of 
England our Grief of Heart and high Detejlation 
of that heinous Fatt ; yet being now fafely arrived 
in a ftnall Part of our own Dominions, at the IJland 
of Jerfey, we have thought fit rather from hence, 
where our Kingly Authority takes Place, than from 
any foreign Country, where we have been hitherto 
necejjitated to rejide, publickly to declare, That, out 
of a bitter Senfe and Indignation of thofe horrid 
Proceedings again/I our dear Father, we are, ac- 
cording to the Laws of Nature and Juftice, firmly 
refolved, by the AJJiftance of Almighty God, though 
we perijh alone in the Enterprise, to be a fevere 
jfvenger of his innocent Blood, which was fo barba- 
rouJJy fpilt, and which calls fo loud to Heaven for 
Vengeance. And we Jhall therein, by all Ways and 
Means pojjible, endeavour to purfue and bring to 
their due Punijhment thoje bloody Traitors, who were 
either Affors or Contrivers of that unparaleird and 
inhuman Murder 


Of ENGLAND. 221 

And Jince it bath phafed God fo to difpofe, as by inter-regnum. 
fuch an untimely Martyrdom to deprive us of fo good 1649- 
a Father, and England of fo gracious a King? we ^- ~v" & 
do further declare, That, by his Death, the Crown * overaber 
of England, with all Privileges, Rights, and Pre- 
heminences belonging thereunto, is, by a clear and 
undoubted Right of SucceJ/ion, juftly and lineally de- 
fcended upon us, as next and immediate Heir and 
Succejfor thereunto, without any Condition or Limi- 
tation ; -without any IntermiJJion or Claim ; without 
any Ceremony or Solemnity whatsoever : And that y 
by virtue thereof, we are now in Right laiufully 
feized of the faid Crown, and ought, by the Laws of 
God, and that Nation, to enjoy a Royal Power there > 
as vjell in Church as Commonwealth ; to govern the 
People of that Kingdom according to the antient and 
known Laws ; to maintain them in Peace andjitftice$ 
and to proteff and defend them from the Opprejjion. 
of any ufurped Power whatfoever. And the People 
of that Nation, by the like Laws, owe unto us, and 
ought reciprocally to pay, Duty and Obedience, a? 
unto their Liege Lord and Sovereign. This Royal 
Right of ours is grounded upon fo clear a Title, is 
jettled by fuch fundamental Laws, confirmed by fo 
many Oaths of Allegiance in all Ages, is fupported 
by fuch a long-continued SucceJJion in our Royal Pro- 
genitors, and by fuch a conjiant SubmiJJion of all the 
People, that the fame can admit of no Difpute : No 
Aft of our PredcccJJbrs can debar us of it; no Power 
on Earth can juftly take it from us j and, by the un- 
doubted Laws of that Nation, to oppofe us, either 
in the Claim or Exercife thereof, is a Treafon of the 
bigbeft Degree. 

And although the bloody Contrivers of our Father's 
Murder, out of a pernicious Hatred to all Monar- 
chies, have by Force, as much as in them lies, dijin- 
herited us of our Princely Right thereunto ; banijb'd 
and profcrtb'd us ; feized all our Revenues ; prohi- 
bited all Intercourse and Supplies to be fent to us ; 
and have, by Violence, impofed upon the People of 
England a new Yoke of popular Tyranny, to the ut~ 
ter Subvcrjion not only ofourjujl Rights, but of their 


222 %/je Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Laws and Liberties ; yet zve do profefs that we can- 
1 6 49- not pcrfuade ourf elf that the Body of the Engl ifh Na- 

i n"'~ v '"""'"' tion hath jo far degenerated from their antient Loy- 
' alty and Virtue, as to confcnt to thefe horrid Pro- 
ceedings againji us, or to approve the cajiing off that 
Kingly Government under which they and their Fore- 
fathers have happily fiourifoed fo many Ages pa/I, to 
the Envy of all their Neighbour Nations. Jrlow can 
that once happy Nation of England dejpair of blejfed 
Days under a Royal Scepter, and vainly hope for 
them under the Iron Rod of an infolent Multitude ? 
No, we cannot look upon thefe fad and dijmal Changes 
as the Defires or Intentions of the better Part of our 
Subjefts of that Kingdom ; but rather as the Dc/igns 
and Contrivances of thofe wicked Murderers of our 
Father; whofe Ambition is endlefs; whofe Avarice 
is unfatiable j and whofe Guilt hath made them de- 
fperate : And therefore, out of a Confidence we have 
of the Loyalty and good Affections of many of our 
Subjects of that Nation, and as well for their En- 
couragement, who Jiill perfift in their natural Alle- 
giance and Obedience to us, as for the Security of 
fuch as Jhall yet return to their Duties and Loyal- 
ties, we have thought fit hereby further to declare. 

That we are gracioujly p leafed to receive all Per- 
fens of our Kingdom of England and Dominion of 
Wales, other than fuch who voted or ailed in that 
bloody Murder of our dear Father, into our Royal 
Grace, Mercy, and Protection ; owning and efteetning 
them all as our good and loving SubjecJs, whom, upon 
Accefs to cur Kingly Authority, we Jhall hold ourfelf 
bound, according tc the Law ofGcd, the known Laiv* 
of that Nation, and the Duty of cur Kingly Office^ 
to protefl, maintain, and preferve in J'l r calth, Peace 9 
and Happinefs. And for a clear Evidence of our 
good Intentions towards them, lue Jhall be contented 
freely to pardon, or ctherwife by Aft to declare or 
hold indemnified, allPerfons within our faid Kingdom 
of England and Dominion of Wales, except as be- 
fore excepted, for any Matters whatsoever relating 
to. the late unhappy Wars and Diftraftions. And 
we Jhall t according to the Example of our dear Fa- 

Of E N G L A N D. 223 

ther, be ready, upon tin EJiabliJhment of our Royal . inter-regnmn. 
Throne, to make fuch further Concejffions, for the l6 49- 
Satisfaction and Security of our good Subjefis in ge- V TT" V "7 I " J 
neral, and of all Interejls in particular, as jhall be 
adjudged mo ft to conduce to the Peace and Happinefs 
of that Kingdom. ^ 

And we do further declare, That ^ue Jhall give 
cur utmojl Ajfylance to reft ore Parliaments to their 
antient Dignity and Honour ', and jhall prejerve their 
juji Privileges, and join to repair all thofe Injuries 
'and Affronts which have been done to the Members 
of that High Court. 

And becaufe all IVays of gaining a mutual Confi- 
dence betwixt us and our good Subjefis are at prc- 
j'ent objiruffed, by the ufurp'd Force and Power now 
prevalent in that Kingdom, we are therefore refolved 
to make Ufe of fucb Expedients as Jhall be necejjary 
for the Supprejfion of that tyrannical and unjujl 
Power now exercifed over them, and for bringing to 
their due Puni/hment thofe bloody Murderers of our 
dear Father ; for Jhaking off" the heavy Burdens and 
Taxes they now groan under, and for reftoring our 
jujl Rights, and the antient Liberties and Freedom 
of the Englifli Nation ; not doubting but zue jhall 
find all our good Subjects ready to concur and to ajjift 
us in qur jujl and pious Undertakings for thofe 

And, in the mean Time, ive require and command 
all our faidSubj efts, according to their Duty to God, 
their Allegiance to us, their feveral Oaths and Pro- 
teflations, and the Love and Affeffion they bear to the 
Peace of their native Country, that they do not be" 
tray their laivful King, nor the glorious Liberties 
and Laivs of England, into a perpetual Slavery, by 
Acknovjledgment of, or voluntary Submijfion to, any 
new Forms or Models of Government, under the 
Name or Majk of a Free State, nor under any other 
Title or Pretence whatfoever. 

Given at our Court at Caftle- Elizabeth, in our 
Ifle of Jerfey, the 318: Day of O&ober, 1649, 
in the firft Year of our Reign. 


224 Tkc Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- reenuir.. On the 24th of laft Month the Houfe having re- 
l6 49- ceived Information that Clement Walker, Efq; (one 

* -v ' of the fecluded Members) had published a Book, 
' intitled, Anarclna Anglicana a , he was ordered to 
be fent for in Cuftody of the Serjeant at Arms, with 
Power to enter into any Houfe, and break open 
any Doors or Locks for that Purpofe ; alfo to fearch 
for, and feize, all his Papers and Writings. And 
it was referred to the Council of State to find out 
the Printers and Publifhers of the faid Book, and 
all others who had any Hand therein. On the 
1 3th of this Month Mr. Walker having been ap- 
prehended accordingly, he was committed Pri- 
foner to the Tower, in order to his Trial for Hi^h, ' 
Treafon. Whoever perufes this Piece will be at 
no Lofs to account for the Parliament's high Re- 
fentment againft the Author of it. 

Nov. 1 6. This Day came a Letter from Lieute- 
nant-General Cromwell, concerning the Surrender 
of the Town of Rofs, in Ireland^ addrefs'd to the 
Speaker b . 

SIR, Rofs, Oft. 25, 1649. 

The Town of Qlnce my laft from Wexford, we marched to 
rcd ' O Rofs, a wall'd Town, fituated upon the Bar^ 
4 row, a Port Town, up to which a Ship of 7 or 800 
' Tons may come. We came before it upon 
' Wednesday the zyth Inft. with three Pieces of 
' Cannon : That Evening I fent a Summons ; 

* Major- General Taaff being Governor, refufed 
' to admit my Trumpet into the Town, but took 

* the Summons in, returning me no Anfwer. I 
4 did hear that near 1000 Foot had been put into 


a This makes the Second Part of The Hiflory cf Independency, 
publifli'd in the Name of Theodora Verax. A Third Part was after- 
wards publi/hed, by the fame Author, intitled, The High Court of 
Jitftice, or Cromwell's new Slaugbter-Houfe in England. It is 
highly probable, from many Circumftances, that Mr. Prynne had 
a Share in this Performance. It was reprinted in 1660, with 
Mr. Walker's Name to it, and a Fourth Part added by another 

b From the original Edition printed by John field for EdiwJ 
Eufiandf, Printer to the Parliament of England, 

Of ENGLAND. 225 

s this Place fome few Days before my Coming to Inter-regnum. 

* it. The next Day was fpent in making Prepa- 

* rations for our Battery ; :ind in our View there jft^nber 
c were boated over from the other Side of the Ri- 

* ver, of Englljk, Scots, and Irijh, 1500 more, Or- 
' mond-t Cajflehaven, and the Lord of Ardes, being 

* on the other Side of the Water to caufe it to be 

6 done. v 

4 That Night we planted our Battery, which 
' begun to play very early the next Morning. The 
' Governor immediately fent forth an Anfwer to 

* my Summons, Copies of all which I make bold 
' herewith to trouble you ; the rather, becaufe you 
' may fee how God pulls down proud Stomachs. 
c He defired Commiffioners might treat, and that 
' in the mean Time there might be a ceafing of 
' Acts of Hoftility on both Sides ; which I refu- 
' fed, fending in Word, That if he would march 
c away with Arms, Bag and Baggage, and give me 
' Hoftages for Performance, he mould. Indeed 
c he might have done it without my Leave, by the 

* Advantage of the River. He infifted upon ha- 
' ving the Cannon with him, which I would not 
' yield unto, but required the leaving the Artillery 

* and Ammunition ; which he was content to do, 
4 and march'd away leaving the great Artillery, and 

* the Ammunition in the Stores to me. 

* When they march'd away, at leaft 500 Eng- 

* lijb, many of them of the Munjler Forces, came 

* to us. 

* Ormond is at Kilkenny, Inchiquin in Munfter y 
e Henry O'Neal^ Owen Roe's Son, is come up to 
' Kilkenny, with near 2000 Horfe and Foot, with 
' whom and Ormond there is now a perfect Con- 
' junction : So that now, I truft, fome angry 
' Friends will think it high Time to take oft" their 
' Jealoufy from thofe to whom they ought to exer- 
' cife more Charity. 

' The Rendition of this Garrifon was a feafon- 
' able Mercy, as giving us an Opportunity towards 
' Munjler, and is for the prefent a very good Re- 

* fremment for our Men. We are able to fay no- 

VOL. XIX. P ' thing 


226 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

thing as to all this, but that the Lord is ftill plea- 
led to own a Company of poor worthlefs Crea- 
tures ; for which we defire his Name to be mag- 
nified, and the Hearts of all concerned may be 
provoked to walk worthy of fuch continued Fa- 
vours. This is the earned Defire of 

Your mojl bumble Servant^ 


' P. S. Col. Norton is lately dead of the Coun- 
' try Difeafe, leaving a Son behind him. He was 
6 a Perfon of great Integrity and Courage : His 
' former Services, efpecially that of the laft Sum- 
' mer, I hope will be had in Remembrance.' 

The Houfe ordered the foregoing Letter, with 
the Articles of Surrender, to be printed and pub- 
lifhed ; but the latter are rather foreign to our 
Purpofe, and the Subftance of them is given in the 
Letter itfclf. They likewiie referred it to the 
Council of State to fend over Supplies of all Kinds 
forthwith to the Army in Ireland. 

In the Proceedings of this Month, as Mr. Whit- 
locke informs us, ' "There was a great Peak taken 
againft the Lawyers ; infomuch that the old Odium 
againft them was revived, and it was laid in the 
Debate, * That it was not fit for Lawyers, who 
were Members of Parliament, if any Lawyers 
ought to be there at all, to plead or pra&iie as 
Lawyers during the Time they fat as Members of 
Parliament ;' which gave Occafion to one of that 
Profeffion, meaning himfelf, to fpeak as follows : 

Mr Speaker ', 

uV T Was un 

- JL upon this 

ajjjff again to have troubled you 
Argument, had I not been again 

of Lawyers be- , 

ing ekaedMem- call'd up by the Miftakes of the worthy Gentle- 
ment * Parlia " man tnat fpo^ e ^ft? to give a true Account of thele 
Matters, and to vindicate the Honour of that Pro- 

feffion whereof I am an unworthy Member. 



4 The Gentleman was pleafed to intimate, That inter- regnum. 
Lawyers were heretofore excluded from being Mem- l6 49- 
bers of Parliament : I fiippofe he had not much ^ J '~ v ~ 
frudied the Records of that Matter, and therefore 
related the Difcourfes of others by hearfay only ; 
but for his Conviction, and for the Satisfaction of 
others, I fhall acquaint you with the clear Pafiages 
of what he aimed at, as I fuppofe ; and as I find 
them upon Record, which is much more authentic 
than fome (perhaps) Table-Talk, or Difcourfes at 

The Statute 23, Edw. III. call'd the Members 
of Parliament the learned Aden \ whereof many were 
learned in the Laws, and therefore luppofed to have / 
had that Title. But fhortly after this the great 
Men degenerating, in the old Age of the fame 
King, into feveral Factions, and being much of- 
fended with thofe who were learned in the Laws, 
becaufe they hindered their OpprefHons by plead- 
ing the Right of Law on the Behalf of theirClients, 
in 46 Edw. III. they petition'd that Nul Home de 
Ley purfuont Befoignes en le Court le Roy ; ne Vif- 
count) pour le Temps qu'il eft Vifcount^fotent retour- 
nez ne accepter Chivaliers des Counts es : c That no 
4 Man of Law, following Bufmefs in the King's 

* Courts, nor Sheriffs, be returned or accepted for 
* Knights of Shires.' 

' To this the King anfwers, Voet le Roy que Cbi~ 
lialiers^et Serjeants des meauxVaultes duPays^ folent 
retuurnez dejore Chivaliers en Parliaments, et qu'ils 
Jtlent eleus en pleine Count e : ' The King willeth 

* that Knights and Serjeants (that is, Efquires) 

* of the beft Rank in the County be from hence- 

* forth returned to be Knights in Parliament, and 
1 that they be chofen in full County/ 

* After this Ordinance, and purfuant to it, a 
Claufe was inferted into the Writ for chufing 
Members for the Houfe of Commons, 5 Hen. IV. 
to this Effect, Nolumus out em quod tu y feu aliquis 
alius Vlcecomes Regni noflri^ jive aliquh alius Ho- 
mo adLegem^ a li qua liter fit elettus: ' We will not 

* that you, or any other Sheriff of our Kingdom, 

P 2 'or 

1649. . 


228 *rhe Parliamentary HISTORY 

* or any other Man of Law, by any Means be 

* cholen.' 

* According to this Ordinance and Claufe of 
Nolumus, the Sheriffs have been fince excluded 
from fitting in Parliament as Members, during the 
Time of their Sherifaltyj the Debate of which 
Point was had, and full of Learning, in a former 
Parliament, in the Cafe of a very learned and wor- 
thy Perfon, Sir Edward Coke, whom moft of us 

' He, being made Sheriff of Bucks upon Dif- 
plcafure' againft him, was chofen Knight of the 
Shire for Bucks, and fat in Parliament ; and I had 
the Honour then to be a young Parliament-Man, 
in the fecond Year of the late King. 

* The Objections againft him were the conjlant 
Ufage not to permit Sheriff's to fit as Parliament- 
Men ; their Oath to refide in their Counties, the 
Cujlody whereof was committed to them ; and that 
their Office was but annual, and fo the Difability 
Was but for that Time only. 

* But for a Man to be difabled from being a 
Parliament-Man, in regard of his being a Lawyer, 
is to difable him during his Life, or his Continu- 
ance in his Profeffion by which he gains his Live- 
lihood ; and they are not public Officers, obliged 
to another Attendance on the public Affairs, as the 
Sheriffs are. 

' Yet it is true that in the Parliament, which was 
held 6 Hen. IV. all Lawyers were excluded, and 
none of them returned to ferve in that Parliament ; 
and perhaps from fome general Difcourfe hereof 
by others, the worthy Gentleman is pleafed, with 
Confidence, to vent his Doctrine and Motion : 
But in cafe he did read, and underftand the Re- 
cords of this Ordinance, and of the Claufe of No- 
lumus, yet, I fuppofe he never look'd into the 
Ground of this Bufmefs, nor into that which fol- 
lowed thereupon ; wherein I fhall hope to fatisfy 
him, and fo as to alter his Opinion. 

' King Henry IV. being in great Want of Mo- 
ney, fummon'd that Parliament, and cafufed to be 


Of E N G L A N D. 229 

inferted in the Writ this Claufe of Nolumus to ex- Inter-regn 
elude the Lawyers ; becaufe he doubted that they l6 49- 
Would oppofe his exceflive Demands which he was ^"" v ~b~ 
to make to the Parliament. 

Thomas Walfmgham faith % That all the 
Lawyers being excluded, the Demands of the King 
were by this Means obtained ; and by this Parlia- 
ment was granted an unufual Tax, and to the People, 
triftabilis & valde gravis, ' a Tax full of Trouble 
' and very grievous;' whereof, the Hiftorian faith, 
he would have fet down the Manner, had not the 
Granters and Authors of the fame deiired to be 
conceal'd for ever to Pofterity, by caufing the Pa- 
pers and Records thereof to be burnt b . 

' Mr. Speaker, This is the Precedent intimated 
by the worthy Gentleman ; and this was the Oc- 
cafion and Iflue of that Precedent, the like where- 
of, I prefume, is not wifti'd by him. 

' Walfmgham ftyles that Parliament, in the Mar- 
gin, Parliamentum indoftorum, c the Parliament of 
' unlearned Men.' 

Speed, in his Hiftory, faith, That this Parlia- 
ment was called the Lack-learning Parliament, ei- 
ther for the Unlearnednefi of the Perfons, or for 
their Malice unto Learning. 

' But God hath blefs'd this Nation with fuch an 
Age of learned Men at this prefent, that former 
Times knew not; and we muft acknowledge that, 
though the Houfe mould lack all their Members 
who are Lawyers, yet the reft are of fo great Abi- 
lities that there would be no Lack of Learning : 
Yet, Sir, I am fure that the Addition of thofe ma- 
ny learned Gentlemen of our Profeffion hath been, 
and will be, fome Help in your Affairs, and will 
not be defpifed by any prudent Men. 

' The worthy Gentleman was pleafed flightly to 

call them Gownmen, who had not undergone the Dan- 

gers and .Hardjhips that Martial Men had done: 

And truly it might lefs become the Gentleman that 

P 3 faid 

a Hifl. Ang. Anno 1404, p. 370. t> Tf^dlgma NeuJIri*, 

Anm 1404. See alfo our fecoad Volume, p. 83, rt utra. 

Inter- regnum. 

< - s~* 


230 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

faiil it, than others, to make that Obfervation, if 
it had been fo. 

' Tiie ancient Romans were Soldiers, though 
Gownmcn ; nor doth that Gown abate either a 
Man's Courage or his Wifdom, or render him lefs 
capable of uling a Sword when the Laws are filent, 
or you command it. 

* You ail know this to be true by the great Ser- 
vices periorm'd by Lieutenant- General Jones, Com- 
miflary Ireton^ and many of the Members, and 
other Lawyers ; who, putting off their Gowns 
when you required it, have ferv'd you ftoutly and 
fucccisfully as Soldiers, and undergone almoft as 
many and as great Dangers and Hardfljips, as the 
Gentleman who fo much undervalues all of them. 
But we are now fpeaking of their Right to be cho- 
len, and to fit as Members of the Parliament ; 
which doubtlels is as much and the fame with all 
other the Commoners of England. 

* v The Hiftorian laft mentioned faith, That the 
Commons of England, who have Liberty in the 
Choice of their Knights and Burgefles, would not 
be debarred thereof by the Ordinance of Edw. III. 
nor by the Claufe of Nolumus inferted in the Writ 
by Hen. IV, but have made a conftant Choice of 
fome of them to ierve for them in all Parliaments. 

* The Lord Coke^ 4. Inftit. p. 48, holds, That the 
Ordinance, 46 Edw. III. by the general Words of 
5. Ricb.ll. Stat. 2. Cap.t^. and 7. Hen.lV. Cap. 15. 
was repealed : However, we read not of any Par- 
liament, except that; unhappy one 6 Hen. IV. in 
which the Lawyers were excluded ; and after not 
3 few confiderable Services, both Civil and Mili- 
tary, perform'd by fome of them for you, it was 
fomewhat an ungrateful Motion now to have ex- 
cluded them. 

* We may lay afide the Claufe of Nolumus, left 
other Claufes of Nolumus , which we find in the 
Writs of Summons, do come as near home to others. 
Sometime Claufes were inferted in the Writs for 
Election of Commoners, to this Purpofe, Nolumus 
Gutem quod aliquis de Retinentia Domini nojlri Re- 

Of E N G L A N D. 231 

gis aliqualiter fa eleflus : c We will not that any Inter- regnum. 
* the Retinue of our Lord the King, in any wife, be l6 4-9- 
' chofen.' * ^~> 

* Tho', Sir, I acknowledge that worthy Gen- 
tleman, and many others who have been the King's 
Servants and Courtiers, have been very faithful to 
you, and done you acceptable Services ; and fo 
fome of them have done in former Parliaments, 
and I hope you all do think fo ; yet the Underva- 
luing of our Profeffion to be Members of Parlia- 
ment, hath lefs Strength coming from fuch Gentle- 
men, than from others j becaufe of them, fome 
from abroad will be apt to fay, though fcandaloufly, 
That Courtiers and King's Servants ufed to fit in 
Parliament rather to promote their Mafter's Ends 
than their Country's Rights j but fuch Objections 
are now out of Doors. 

* The like Paffage with this we are now deba- 
ting is related in the Roman Story, when the Law 
Cinna was made, whereby it was provided, That, 
for pleading of Caufes^ no Man Jbould take either 
Money or Gift ; and this Law was endeavoured, up- 
on the like Grounds, to be fet on Foot prefently 
after the Death of Tiberius Cafar. 

* But when fome alledged that this would caufe 
the want of Counfellors and Advocates, whereby 
the Poor would be opprefs'd by the Rich and 
Mighty; that Eloquence did not come by Chance, 
or gratis^ without Study and Labour i that the 
Care of a Man's own Family ws negleited, whilft 
he attended other Men's Affairs ; that fome main- 
tained their Life by War, fome by tilling the Earth, 
yet no man laboured in thefe Callings, or to at- 
tain Knowledge, but for the Commodity arifmg 
thereby ; that the meaneft of the People endea- 
voured what they could to better their Eftates, 
and that if the Reward of Studies fhould be ta- 
ken away, Studies alfo would decay, as having 
neither Glory nor Honour. Upon thefe Reafons 
the Senate thought it not juft, and I hope this Se- 
nate will be of the fame Judgment* to take away 


232 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

the Honorarium of Advocates ; but limited the 
fame to 1000 Sefterces, which fome compute to 
be about 787. of our Money. 

* Neither, faith Tacitus, Annal. lib: u, did that 
Law continue or gain Compliance to it. Neither 
do I think that fuch a Law amongft us would be to 
any Effect, or have any Compliance to it. 

' But I hope this honourable Engiijh Senate, and 
that worthy Gentleman, a Member of it, will be 
iatisfied with the Reafons given in the Roman Se- 
riate, who were very wife Men ; and not trouble 
themfelves about fuch new Laws, which will be 
ineffectual, prejudical to many, ami good to none. 

* But the Gentleman objected, and it is much 
urg'd in thefe Times, againft the Profefiion of the 
Law and the Profeflors of it, That they are the Oc- 
cafion of Multiplicity of Suits, and of Delays in 
them ; and therefore, after the Example of fome 
foreign Countries, not to be permitted. 

' f have obferved to you before that thofe in 
Power have moft Reafonto be difpleaied with this 
Profeflion, as a Bridle to their Power ; but that 
the Profelfion occafions Multiplicity of Suits, is as 
improbable as any other of his Reafons or his Ar- 

' Mr. Speaker, the Reafon of the Multiplicity of 
Suits and Law Caufes amongft us, is the Great- 
nefs of our Trade, which caufeth a Multitude of 
Contracts, and thefe occalion a Multitude of Law 

' In thofe Countries, mentioned by that worthy 
Gentleman, there is not one of his Profeflion, one 
Merchant, or one Contra&er, for a hundred in 
England; that is the Caufe they have fo few Law 
Suits and we fo many. 

* And give me Leave, Sir, to tell him, that in 
the Netherlands, and Countries where there is 
much Trade, there are proportionably as many 
Law Suits as there are in England. 

' Another Ground of what I affirm, is that, in 
foreign Countries, every Man's Eftate is difpofed 


Of E N G L A N D. 233 

of by their Law, after a certain Rule and Propor- Inter-regnum. 
tion, which the Pofleflor cannot, either by Con- l649 ' 
veyance or by his Teftament, afterwards alter. As '^j^^T 
when one dies, his Eftate is thus divided by the 
Law; his Wife hath a Part fet out for her, the 
eldeft Son hath a double Portion, and all the other 
Sons have equal Portions, and every two Daugh- 
ters have as much as one Son, of the whole Eftate 
of their Father thus divided by Law. Whereas, 
with us, every PoiTeflor of an Eftate hath Power 
to difpofe of it by his Deed, or by his Will, as he 
pleafes, which muft necefTarily occasion the more 
Differences and Suits at Law, upon Conftruclions 
of thofe Deeds and Wills, and Contefts of Parties 
claiming, than where the knov/n Law gives a cer- 
tain Rule and Diftribution of Eftates, which none 
can alter. 

' Another Ground of what ITay is the Freedom 
of our Nation, where every one hath equal Right 
and Title to his Eftate, and there is as full Pro- 
perty to the meaneft as to the greateft Perfon ; 
which caufeth our Countrymen to infift upon their 
Right and Privileges, and to conteft for them with 
the greateft Men, or the Prince himfelf, if the 
Right of Law be on their Side. 

' This occafions many more Law Suits than do 
arife in thofe Countries where the Boors and Pea- 
fants do wholly depend upon the Will of their 
Lords-, to whom they are Slaves, and dare not dif- 
pute any Matter of Right with him, but tamely 
fubmit unto their Lord's good or bad Pleafure. 

* And though in fome of thefe Northern Coun- 
tries they have no Counfellors at Law, as a public 
Profeflion, becaufe the Smallnefs of their Law Bu- 
finefs will not maintain them, and the great Lords 
are oft-times there Parties and Judges themfelves ; 
yet \nGermany , France^ Spain, and other Countries, 
the Doctors and Profeflbrs of the Law are in great 
Numbers and Credit, and gain vaft Eftates, tho* 
by fmall Fees, yet often taken, and long continu- 
ing; whereof, particularly in France, there are ma- 

2 J4 T^ e Parliamentary HISTORY" 
ny Precedents. And if we look fo far as the Times 
of the antient Romans and Grecians^ their Lawyers 
will be found numerous, and of Efteem among i 
ovcm er. t ] ]em . an( j vvnen t j ie j r Commonwealth enjoyed 
the grea,eft Freedom, this Profeflion was in the 
bigheft Reputation. 

' Sifjthe worthy Gentleman was pleafed to men- 
tion one Thing with fome Weight, That Lawyers 
were permitted to counfel and plead for Men in Mat- 
ters touching their Ejlates and Liberties ; but in the 
greatejl Matters of all others^ concerning a Man's 
Life and Pofterity, Lawyers were not permitted to 
plead for their Clients. 

' I confefs I cannot anfwer this Objection, That, 
for a Trefpafs of a Sixpence Value, a Man may 
have a Counfellor to plead for him j but where his 
Life and Pofterity are concern'd, he is not admitted 
this Privilege andHelp of Lawyers. A Law to- 
seform this, I think, would be juft, and give Right 
to the People. 

* What is iaid in Defence or Excufe of this 
Cuftom is, That the Judges are of Counfel for the 
PrifoncrS) and are to fee that they have no Wrong. 
And are they not to take the fame Care of all Caufes 
that (hall be tried before them I 

' To that Part of the Gentleman's Motion, That 
Lawyers^ being Members of the Houfe, Jbould, du- 
ring that Time^ forbear their Practice and Pleading^ 
I fhall only give this Anfwer, That, in the A<t 
which he may be pleafed to bring in for this Pur- 
pofe, it may likewife be inferted, that Merchants 
ihall forbear their Trading, Phyficians from viftt- 
ing their Patients, and Country-Gentlemen for- 
bear to fell their Corn and Wool whilft they fit 
as Members of this Houfe ; which hath the fame 
Reafon as to debar Lawyers from their Practice. 

* But I doubt, Sir, I have held you too long. 
My Profeflion, and the Subjeft Matter of the De- 
bate, will plead in my Excufe ; and I hope, Sir, 
by your Prudence, fuch Motions as thefe will be 
lefs frequent among us.' 

Of E N G L A N D. 235 

We prefume the foregoing Arguments put a Inter-regmim. 
Stop to this Attack upon the Gentlemen of the l6 49- 
Long Robe ; for we hear no more of it. ~ 

December. Bufmefs, material enough for thefe En- 
quiries, now grew very flack in the Houfe ; they did 
not lit above four Days in a Week, conftantly ad- 
journing themfelves from Friday till Tuefday follow- 
ing ; and when they did meet their Numbers were 
fo few, as frequently to divide, in all under forty. 
We may fuppofe then that the molt important Af- 
fairs of , the Nation were tranfac.~r.ed by the Council 
of State; which is out of our Sphere, theCompafsof 
our Delign obliging us only to follow this Fag-end 
of a Parliament through all its various Revolutions, 
and the Tranfadlions relative to them. 

Cromwell went on purfuing his Victories in Ire- 
land with great Rapidity ; and, in a ftiort Time 
after this, made himfelf Mailer of the whole King- 
dom. The dreadful Execution at Drogbeda opened 
all before him, few Places daring to refift, for fear 
of being ferv'd in like Manner ; fo that that poor 
Nation was now harrafs'd and torn up to the very 
Roots. On the I2th of this Month the following 
Letter from him was read in the Houfe : 

For the Honourable WILLIAM LENTH ALL, Efa 
Speaker of the Parliament of England. 

Mr. Speaker ', 

* r i SHE Enemy being quartered between the General Crm- 

|_ two Rivers of Noer and the Barrow, and ^f^f^J* 
' Matters of all the Paflages thereupon, and giving o^ hi s 3 ukbgVf 

* out their Refolution to fight us ; thereby, as vitEniftery,Carrick f 

* conceived, labouring to get Reputation in the 
< Countries, and Acceflion of more Strength ; it 

* was thought fit our Army ftiould march towards 

* them, which accordingly, upon Tuefday the 151!! 
' Inftant, was done. 

' The Major- General and Lieutenant-General 

* (leaving me very fick at Refs> behind them) with 

' two 

236 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regmim. ' two Battering Guns, advanced towards Emjlery^ 
1649. a little walled Town, about five Miles from Rojs, 

* *--*-' * upon the Noer, on the South- Side thereof, which 

nber< was poflcfled by the Enemy ; but a Party of our 
' Men, under the Command of Col. Abbot, the 
' Night before approaching the Gates, and at- 
' tempting to fire the fame, the Enemy ran away 
' through the River, leaving good Store of Provi- 
' fions behind them. Our Commanders hoped, by 

* gaining of this Town, to have gained a Pafs, 
' but indeed there fell fo much fudden Wet, as 
' made the River unpaflable by that Time the Ar- 

* my was come up ; whereupon, hearing the Ene- 

* my lay about two Miles off, near Thomas 
' Town, a pretty large walled Town, upon the 

* Noer, the North Side thereof having a Bridge 
' over the River, our Army marched thither; but 

* the Enemy had broken the Bridge, and garrifon'd 
' the Town, and in the View of our Army march'd 

* away to Kilkenny; feeming to decline an Engage - 
' ment, although, I believe, they were double our 
' Numbers, which they had Power to have necef- 
6 fitated us unto, but was no ways in our Power 
' (if they would ftand upon the Advantage of the 
' Paflage) to engage them unto; nor indeed to con- 

* tinue out two Days longer, having almoft fpent 

* all the Bread they carried with them. 

' Hereupon, feeking God for Direction, they 
' refolved to fend a good Party of Horfe and Dra- 
' goons, under Col. Reynolds, to Carrick, and to 
' march the Refidue of their Army back towards 
' Rofs, to gain more Bread for the Profecution ot 

* that Defign, if, by the Blefling of God, it mould 
' take. Col. Reynolds, marching with twelve 
' Troops of Horfe and three Troops of Dragoons, 
' came betimes in the Morning to Carrtck, where 

* dividing himfelf into two Parties, whilft they- 
' were amufed with the one, he entered one of the 
8 Gates with the other ; which the Soldiers per- 
' ceiving, divers of them and their Officers efcaped 
over the River in Boats; about 100 Officers and- 

4 Sol- 

Of E N G L A N D. 237 

* Soldiers taken Prifoners, without the Lofs of one 

* Man on our Part. In this Place is a very good 

' Caftle, and one of the antienteft Seats, belong- 

f Tin j T i i L r December, 

c ing to the Lord Ormond, in Ireland; the fame 

e was rendered without any Lofs alfo, where was 
' good Store of Provifions for the refreshing of our 
' Men. The Colonel giving a fpeedy Intelligence 

* of God's Mercy in this, we agreed to march, 
' with all convenient Speed, the Refidue of the 
' Army Up thither, which accordingly was done 
4 upon Wednefday and Thurfday^ the 2 1 ft and 22d 
c of this Inftant, and, thro' God's Mercy, I was 

* enabled to bear them Company. Being come 

* thither, we did look at it as an efpecial good 

* Hand of Providence to give us this Place, inaf- 
' much as it gives us a PafTage over the River Sewer 
' to the City of Waterford, and indeed into Mun- 
'Jler, to our Shipping and Provifions, which 
' before were beaten from us out of Waterford 

* Bay, by the Enemy's Guns. It hath given us 

* alfo the Opportunity to befiege or block up Wa- 
c terford\ and we hope our gracious God will 
' therein dire<5i us alfo. It hath given us alfo the 
' Opportunity of our Guns, Ammunition, and Vic- 
' tuals, and indeed Quarter for our Horie, which 

* could not have fubfifted much longer: So fweet 

* a Mercy was the giving of this little Place unto 
< us. 

' Having refted there a Night, and by Noon the 
' next Day gotten our Army over the River, lea- 
' ving Col. Reynolds with about 1 50 Foot, his own 
' fix Troops of Horfe, and one Troop of Dragoons, 

* with a very little Ammunition, according to the 
' Smallnefs of our Marching-Store, we marched 
' away towards IVaterford upon Friday the 23d, 
4 and on Saturday about Noon came before the 
' City. The Enemy not being a little troubled at 
' this unfufpccled Bufmefs, (which indeed was the 
c meer Guidance of God) marches down with 
' great Fury towards Carrick^ with their whole 
' Army, revolving to fwallow it up ; and, upon 
' Saturday the 24th, aflaults the Place round, 

' thinking 


238 The Parliamentary Hi s T OR Y 

4 thinking to take it by Storm ; but God had other- 
4 wife determined, for the Troopers and the reft 

* of the Soldiers, with Stones, did fo pelt them, 
December, e t j^ e y continuing very near four Hours under the 

4 Walls, having burnt the Gates, which our Men 

* barricaded up with Stones ; and likewife dig- 

* ged under the Walls and fprung a fmall Mine, 
4 which flew in their own Faces ; but they left 
4 above 40 or 50 Men dead under the Walls, and 
4 have drawn off, as fome fay, near 400 more, 

* which they buried up and down the Fields, be- 
4 fides what are wounded ; and, as Inckiquin him- 

* felf confefled in the Hearing of fome of their Sol- 

* diers lately come to us, hath loft him above 1000 
' Men. The Enemy were drawing off their Dead 
4 a good Part of the Night. They were in fuch 

* Hafte upon the Affault, that they kill'd their own 

* Trumpet as he was returning with an Anfwer to 
4 a Summons fent by them. Both in the taking 

* and defending of this Place, Col. Reynolds' 1 * 
4 Carnage was fuch as deferves much Honour. 

4 Upon our coming before Waterford, I fent 
4 the Lieutenant -General with a Regiment of 

* Horfe and three Troops of Dragoons, to endea- 
' vour the reducing of PaJJage-Fort, a very large 

* Fort, with a Caftle in the Midft of it, having five 

* Guns planted in it ; and commanding the River 

* better than Duncannon^ it not being much above 

* Mulket-fhot over where this Fort ftands, and we 

* can bring up hither Ships of 300 Tons, without 

* any Danger from Duncannon. Upon the At> 
4 tempt, though our Materials were not very apt 
4 for the Bufinefs, yet the Enemy call'd for Quar- 
4 ter, and had it, and we the Place : We alfo pof- 
4 fefTed the Guns which the Enemy had planted to 
4 beat our Ships out of the Bay two Miles below. 
4 By the taking of this Fort we fhall much 
4 ftraiten Duncannon from Provifions by Water, 
4 as we hope they are not in a Condition to get 
4 much by Land ; befides the Advantage it is of to 

us, to have Provifions come up the River. 

4 It 

Of E N G L A N D. 239 

. c It hath pleafed the Lord, whilft thefe Things Inter-rcgnum. 

* have been thus traniacting here, to add to your 1649. 

* Interetl, mMunfter t Bandon-Bridge- % the Town, u v ^ 

* as we hear, upon the Matter, thrufting out young Deambcr 
' "Jepfon, who was their Governor, or elfe he de- 

' lerted it upon that Jealoufy : As alfo Kingfale and 
the Fort there, out of which Fort 400 Men 

* marched upon Articles when it was furrendered ; 

* fo that now, by the good Hand of the Lord, your 

* Intereft in Munfter is near as good already as 
' ever it was fince the War begun. I fent a Party 
' about two Days ago to my Lord Broghill^ from. 

* whom I expert to have an Account of all. 

* Sir, what can be faid to thefe Things ? Is it an 
( Arm of Flefli that doth thefe Things ? Is it the 

* Wifdom and Council, or Strength of Men ? It is 

* the Lord only; God will curfe that Man and his 
' Houfe that dares to think otherwife. Sir, you 

* fee the Work is done by Divine Leading; God 

* gets into the Hearts of Men, and perfuades them 
' to come under you. 

6 I tell you a confiderable Party of your Army is 

* fitter for an Hofpital than the Field : If the Ene- 
' my did not know it I fhould have held it impo- 
c litic to have writ it : They know it, yet they 
4 know not what to do. 

4 I humbly beg Leave to offer a Word or two. 

* I beg of thofe that are faithful, that they give 
' Glory to God ; I wifh it may have Influence up- 
' on the Hearts and Spirits of all thofe that are now 

* in Place of Government in the greateft Truft, 
' that they may all in Heart draw near unto God - y 

* giving him Glory by Holinefs of Life and Con- 
' verfation, that thefe unfpeakable Mercies may 

* teach dilTenting Brethren on all Sides to agree, at 

* leaft in praifing God : And if the Father of the 
' Family be fo kind, why Ihould there be fuch Jar- 

* rings and Heart-burnings amongft the Children ? 

* And if it will not yet be received that thefe are 

* Seals of God's Approbation of your great Change 
' of Government, (which indeed was no more yours 
' than thefe Vi&ories. and Succeffes are ours) with 


240 The Parliamentary Hi STORY 

Inter-regnum. us fay even the moft unfatisfied Heart, That both 
are the righteous Judgments and mighty Works 

' of God, that he hath pulled down the Mighty 
r i-c L u A a J 

4 from his beat, that calls to Account innocent 

' Blood ; that he thus breaks the Enemies of his 
4 Church in Pieces j and let them not be fullen, 
' but praife the Lord, and think of us as they 
4 pleafe, and we (hall be fatisfied and pray for 
4 them, and wait upon our God ; and we hope we 
4 mall feek the Welfare and Peace of our native 

* Country ; and the Lord give them Hearts to do 

* fo too. Indeed I was conftrained in my Bowels 

* to write thus much : I alk your Pardon, and reft 

Your moft bumble Servant^ 


For which a Thefe repeated Succefles produced an Order for 
Thankfgiving public Thanks to be given to Almighty God, on 

Day is appoint- , - 

and about the City of London ; where the Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland's Letter was to be publickly 
read to the Congregations. 

Notice has been already taken of the heavy Tax 
continued upon the Public in the laft Month : In 
this the Houfe was as bufy in framing an A6t for 
laying an Import or Excife on all foreign Commo- 
dities imported into this Nation ; and on the I4th 
the Bill was reported to the Houfe, when fome 
Regulations were made, and a Refolution of Parlia- 
ment pafs'd, c That the Houfe do, in the firft 
Place, confider who fhall pay the Excife on Com- 
modities imported :' And the Queftion being put, 
That thefe Commodities fhould be accounted for 
and paid by the firft Importer of them, the Houfe 
divided, when it was carried in the Negative by 35 
againft 1 5 ; and ordered to proceed in the Debate 
on the particular Rates imported, another Day ; 
and, in the mean Time, to refer it to the Com- 
mittee of Excife, to confider of the beft Way of 
collecting this Impoft on Goods imported. 


Of ENGLAND, 241- 

Dec. 14. An Act was read a third Time and inter-regntittt 
piaffed, For dijabling divers P erf ons from being elei- 1649. 
ed Lord Mayor, Alderman, or other Officer of Trujt, ^- \^~- *J 
within the City of London, for one tear. Hereby De "ber. 
it was enacted, ' That no Perfon who had been 
impriibned, or had his Eftate fequeftered, for De- Ab parted fat 
linquency ; aflifted the late King againft the Par- dibbling divers 

liament ; fubfcribed to the treasonable Enease- * erf ? ns {ror * 

. ' , 1,1 . . i P"T fervina any Of* 

rnent m 1647 ; had been concern d in bringing in fi ce in London,, 
the Scots Army under the Duke of Hamilton, or 
abetting the Tumults in London, Kent, EJJex, &c. 
in 1648, (hould be elected Lord Mayor, Alder- 
man, Common-Council-Man, or any other Offi- 
cer of Truft, nor be capable of voting at any fuch 
Election ; nor any one who promoted the Perfonal 
Treaty with the late King at London, in 1648 ; or 
that fhould refufe to fubfcribe the Engagement to 
be true to the Commonwealth of England, as efta- 
blimed without a King or Houfe of Lords, upon 
Penalty of 200 /.' 

Dec. 1 8. Another Act was pa/Ted, For difabling 
fill Perfons within the la ft mentioned ReJlriflionS) 
from being elected Con/tables, ghiejlmen, or other 
fubordinate Officers in the City of London, or the 
Liberties thereof* 

Several Days more were employed in debating . Another for Jay* 
the Bufmefs of Excife, and many Divifions of the J."f ta a ^ 
Houfe thereupon, till Dec. 21, when it was finally dities. 
brought to a Conclufion, arid pafled. The feveral 
Rates, impofed on Goods by this Aft, are particu- 
larly fpecified in the 'Journals of this Month, to 
which thofe may recur who would compare them, 
with the Duties laid on the fame Commodities in 
our own Days. 

Mention has been made, in this Volume, of the 
famous Col. Lilbourne, and his Commitment to the 
Tower by the Council of State. Having been tried 
by a fpecial Commiflion at the Guild-Hall, but 
acquitted by his Jury j and, foon after, elected a 

VOL, XIX. " Q. Common- 

242 tte Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Common- Council-Man of the City of London; on 

l6 49- the 26th of this Month a Petition was prefented to 

^ -v-^ the Houfe, from feveral Aldermen and the Sheriffs 

of the fame, againft him, on which they refolved, 

Col Litioume's That Lieutenant-Colonel John Lilbourne was, by 

Election as a the late A<Sl of Parliament, For difabling the Elec- 

CommonCoun- ^ O f Divers Perfons to any Office or Place ofTrufi 

t'\r within the City of London, difabled to be chofen a 

void by Parlia- Common-Council-Man ; and his Election (be- 

ment. j n g on fa e 2 ift Inft. the At taking Place on the 

I4th) was void. So great Apprehenfions had the 

Houie of the Influence of Lilbourne's Popularity. 

Afls for banifh- The laft Things which end this Month, and this 
ing of Papifts, Calendar Year, worth Notice in the Journals , are, 
MdlbTReUrf of an Act for banifhing from the City of London^ 
infolvent Debt- and twenty Miles round it, all Papifts, Officers or 
ore. Soldiers of Fortune, and other Delinquents ; but 

at the fame Time, to (hew a little Commiferation 
- for fome of their Fellow Creatures, another Act 

was parted for the farther Relief of Infolvent 

Debtors, being a Kind of Supplement to that pafs'd 

in September foregoing. 

Eflimate of the January. This Month begins with an Eftimate 
charge of the o f the Charge of fitting and letting out a Fleet of 

simmer's &r- 44 Mcn f Wal " and 28 Merc . hant Shi P s > Hiann'd 

via- for 1^65^. with 8082 Men, to ferve for eight Months on the 
narrow Seas, as a Summer's Guard for the Year 
1650. The Houfe approved of this Eftimate, a- 
mounting to 886,220 /. and ordered the Commif- 
iions of their three Admirals to be renewed for one 
whole Year. The Names of all the Ships intend- 
ed for this Summer's Guard are enter'd on the 
Journals; three of which being there ftyled the 
Prince^ the Charles, and the Mctry, the Houfe or- 
dered that it be referred to the Council of State to 
give other fit Names to thofe Ships : So intent were 
they upon eftablifhing their new Republic, and ex- 
tinguifhing all Remains of Monarchy, that they 
would not hear the Mention even of the Names of 
the late King, or any of his Family. 


Of E N G L A N D. 243 

Jan. 2. All that is entered in the Journals to Inter-regnant 
be done this Day, was reading a third Time and l649> 
pafting an Adi for fubfcribing the late Engagement. i z ^^ 
The Preamble to which runs thus, Whereas di- 
vers difiafrected Perfons do, by fundrv Ways and x 

r J '. , } . An Ad requi- 

Means, oppofe and endeavour to undermine the nn g all Perfonij 
Peace of the Nation under this prefent Govern- bei ng *8 Years 
ment ; fo that unlefs fpecial Care be taken, a newf .^ ge ' ' fubi 

_,_ ) i i_ j r i r> i . lenbe an Engage* 

War is likely to break forth : r or the preventing m ent to be true 
thereof, and alfo for the better uniting of this Na- to a Common- 
tion, as well againit all Invafions from abroad, J^ 1 * Gevern ' 
as the common Enemy at home ; and to the 
end that thofe who receive Benefit and Protec- 
tion from this prefent Government, may give 
Aflurance of their living quietly and peaceably 
under the fame, and that they will neither direct- 
ly nor indirectly contrive or practice any Thing 
to the Difturbance thereof:' 
Then it proceeds to enact, ' That all Men 
whatfoever, of the Age of eighteen Years or up- 
wards, (hall take and fubfcribe the following En- 
gagement : / do declare and promife that I will be 
true and faithful to the Commonwealth of England, 
as it is now eftablifbed^ without a King or a Houfe 
of Lords.' 

And, in order the more effectually to enforce 
the Taking of this Engagement by the whole Na- 
tion, it was further enacted, ' i, That if any Perfon 
enjoying any Office, Place, or Employment, did 
not fubfcribe the fame before the 20th of February 
enfuingS he fhould not only be depriv'd of fuch 
Office, &c. but alfo forfeit double the Value of the 
Profits thereof by him received. 

2. * That in cafe any Perfon, being Plaintiff or 
Demandant in any Suit before the Courts at JVeJl- 
minjler^ or before any other Court, in any County* 
City, or Town Corporate, (hould not have taken 
the faid Engagement, the Defendant might move 
in Arreil of Judgment, or for a Superfedeas to flop 
Q_2 all 

' The Time for fubfcribing this Engagement was, afterwards, 
txtended to the loth of April following : But it was entirely re- 
pealed by Crwuitll and his Council, the igth of January, 1653. 

244 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jmer-rcgnum. all further Proceedings, untill the Plaintiff or De- 
l6 49- mandant fubfcribe the fame. 

4 All Subfcriptions were to be taken before the 
Commiflioners of the Great Seal, or Juftices of 
the Peace for the County, City, or Town where 
the Parties dwelt; their Names and Places of 
Abode to be enter'd in a Book for that Purpofe by 
the Juftices of Peace, to be by them certified to 
the refpeclive Sheriffs, and delivered to the Clerk 
of the Parliament, whenever fo required by the 
Houfe or the Council of State.' 

The Homo re- Jan. 8. The Parliament having received Letters 

foivethat Gen. from General Cromwell, Lord-Lieutenant of Ire- 

^edTcom e de " ^ a "^ Major-General Ireton, and the Lord Broghil^ 

home. CC dated at Cork the i8th and igth ult. it was refolv'd 

that the faid Lord -Lieutenant be defircd to come 

over, and give his Attendance in Parliament: And 

that the Council of State do prepare a Letter to be 

fent to him for that Purpofe, to be fign'd by the 

Speaker ; and at the fame Time to render him the 

Thanks of the Houfe for his great Service and 

Faithfulnefs to the Commonwealth. 

The fame Day a Bill, which had been fome 
Time dep'ending, for fettling certain Lands upon 
Cromwell and his Heirs, was reported to the Houfe, 
and ordered a fccond Reading. 

"Jan. 9. All this Time we hear no further of the 
intended Adjournment of this Parliament, than 
Tvhat has been before mentioned ; but now the 
Hcufe was upon a higher Point, which feemed to 
tend to their own JDifipliitioffi, with a ftrong Refe- 
rence to the Manner of electing future Parliaments. 
There had been a Committee appointed, the I5th 
port from the o f frj a y } a f t p^ to conuder of this Affair ; and 
poimTd ttTconH-th' 8 ^ S Y Sir*Kwrjr lP<Mi*, Jim. made the Report 
dcrof the Man- from them, by which it appears to have been the 
future f p e ^ ing Opinion of that Committee, firft that the feveral 
ineot. * ' Counties, Cities, Boroughs, and Places within the 
Commonwealth of England, fhould have the re- 
fpeclive Numbers hereafter expreiied, to be by 


Of E N G L A N D. 24$ 

them, from time to time, elected to fit and ferve in Jnter-regnum. 
Parliament ; to confift, in the whoJe, of 400, viz. 

Bedfordjhire, and 1 Northumberland,^. 8 

all the Places > 6 Nottingham/hire, &c. 6 

within the fame, 3 Oxfordjhire, &c. 6 

Buckingham/hire, &c. 9 Rutlandjhire, &c. 2 

Berkjhire, &c. 6 Sta ford/hire, &c. 6 

Cornwall, &c. 10 Sakf 3 *8& 8 

Cumberland^ &c. 4 Surrey, &c. 7 

Ca?nbridgejhire, &c. 8 Southampton j f hire,&c.. 13 

Chcjhire, &c. 5 /*#, &c. 1 6 

Derby foire^ &c. 5 So?nerfetjhire^ &c. 14 

Devonjhire> &c. 20 <%fcv, fee. 14 

Dorfetjhire, &C. 8 Weftmoreland, &c. - 3 

Durham^ &c. 4 Wiltjhire, &C. 13 

J&^JT, &c. - 14 Warwickjhlre^ &c. - 7 

Glocejlerfilre^ &c. 8 Wore eft erjhire^ &c. - 7 

Hertfordjhire, &c. - 6 Torkjhire^ &c. 24 

Hereford/hire^ &c. - 6 Anglefey, &c. I 

HuntingdonJhtre^&CC. 4 Brecknockjhire^ &c. - 2 

.&?/, &c. 1 8 Cardigan/hire^ &c. - 2 

Leicejhrjhire, &c. 6 Carnarvonshire, &c. I 

Lincolnshire, &c. 15 Denbighjhire,?x,c. 2 

Lancajhire, &c. 12 Flintjhire, &c. I 

Middlefex, (except 7 /- Glamorgan/hire, &c. 3 

London) 5 Merioneth/hire, &c. I 

London, and Liber- 7 Monmoutb/bire, &c. 3 

ties thereof, J ' Montgomeryjhirefac. 2 

Norfolk, &c. 14 Pembrokejhire, &c. - 3 

Northampton/hire, &c. 8 Radnorjhire, &c. c 2 

The Committee were alfo to know the Pleafure 
of the Houfe, whether there fhould be a particular 
Diftribution of the foregoing Proportions, upon fe- 
veral Places in each refpeHve County. 

The other Heads of this Report related to the 
Rights and Privileges of electing and fending of 
Members to Parliament ; the Time of the Conti- 
nuance of each Parliament; the Manner of elect- 
ing the fame ; with the Qualifications of the Elec- 
tors and Elecled. This 

c The Total hereof amounts only to 386 : But the Numbers 
ftand fo in the J<3urntls t 

2.i6 72>* P arliamentary HISTORY 

This Report having been read, by Parrs, all 
that the Houfe refolved upon was, That the Num- 
ber of Perfons to be eledted to ferve in Parliament 
U!ary * for tliis Nation, {hall not exceed 400. The De- 
bate on this great Affair took up many Days this 
Month in a Grand Committee ; but they adjourn'd 
from Time to Time without coming to any farther 
Refolutions upon it. 

Jan. 10. The Houfe ordered their Attorney- 
General to prepare a Patent to be parted under the 
Great Seal of England^ appointing Major-General 
Jreton to be Prefident of the Province of Munjhr^ 
he obferving fuch Jnitructions as fhould be given 
him by the Parliament, Council of State, or the 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland for the Time being. 
As Cromwell's Commiflion to the lart-menticned 
Poft was granted for three Years, this Advance- 
ment of his Son-in-Law, Ireton^ mufi have been 
a prodigious Addition to his Influence and Autho- 
rity in that Kingdom. 

Jan. 29. The Parliament refolved that every 
Friday in the Week they would take into Confi- 
deration the beft Ways and Means to advance the 
Gofpel of Jefus Chrift and Piety ; and ordered that 
the Speaker do put them in Mind thereof. In 
confequence of this Order Bills were afterwards 
brought in for providing a Maintenance for 
Preachers in different Parts of the Nation, for en- 
forcing the Obfervation of the Lord's Day, for the 
more fevere Puniftiment of profane Curfing and 
Swearing, and for fuppreflmg the deteftable Sins 
of Inceft, Adultery, and Fornication. Of thefe 
Acls of Reformation Notice will be taken in their 
proper Order of Time. 

The Houfe re- J an ' 3- Upon the Lord Grey's Report from the 
folvc upon a Style Council of State, That they had agreed that the 
of Addrefs to Style to be ufed in all Tranfa&ions' with foreign 
Powers hould run thus, Reipublic* Anglican* 
Ordines, unlefs the Parliament thought fit to 


Of E N G L A N D. 247 

appoint any other : After Debate it was refolved, Inter-regnum. 
That, in all Negotiations and Tranfattons with J 
foreign States, the Style or Title to be ufed fliould ^^ruaT"' 
be P arliamentum Reipublicts Anglits : That the 
Lords Commiflioners of the Great Seal be requir'd 
to pafs, under the Great Seal of England, feveral 
Commifiions in common Form, mutatis mutandis, 
to the two Agents appointed by the Council of 
State, to be employed to Spain and Portugal : And 
that the Style and Title of every Addrefs to 
the Parliament from foreign Princes and States, 
{hall be The Portion. ent of the Commonwealth of 
England, and no other Style or Title whatfoever.' 

Jan. 31. The Houfe received Letters from the Several Garri- 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, at Cork, dated the ad fons in Munjter 
and loth Inftant, advifmg that feveral Garrifons p^^^ 
in Munfter had furrendered to the Parliament's Forces. 
Forces without Blood, or finking a Stroke ; and 
that the Army was in fo good Health that Regi- 
ments which lately marched only 400 Men, now 
inarched 8 or 900 ; and that the Horfe were dif- 
pofed of into Garrifons. Thefe Letters were re- 
ferred to the Council of State. 

February 2. Mr. Anthony Afcham having been 
appointed by the Parliament to go as their Agent 
into Spain, Mr. Charles Fane to Portugal, and 
Mr. Richard Bradjhaw to Hamburgh, the Houfe 
ordered the Commiflioners of the Great Seal to 
iflue out Commiflions accordingly. And this Day 
the Lord-Commiffioner IVbitlocke reported a 
Draught thereof from the Council of State, which, 
after fome Amendments, was agreed to by the 
Houfe as follows : 

P Arliamentum Reipublicte Angliae, Omnibus 6f The Form of * 
Singulis, ad quos prafentes ha noftr<s Liter<e c m m n to 
07 x> / ft their Agents a- 

pervenerint, oalutem. Lum Annum jam pojt recu- broad, 

peratam Libertatem, fc? reftitutam, favente Deo, 
Angliae Rempublicam, a Parliament!) deer-stum, nee- 

248 The Parliamentary HISTORV 

Jnter-rcgnum. )ion E ditto edito promuhatum fit, velle atque admo~ 
* 6 49- dum cupere Populum Anglicanum, fcf, quod ad j'e 
VK v fJ pttinet, Operam daturum, ut qua fibi Amicitia cum 
!ar ^' extern quibujcunque Nutionibus vel antiquitus vel 
recent intercedit, farta tefia confervetur, vel ettam 
redintegrato, Ji opus ejjet, Feeder e renovetur : Nos 
idarco, ne Incept urn tarn bonum^ tamque $acipcnm\ 
Flnem fperatum non affequeretur^ cmnes Status, 
PrincipeS) Civitates, ac Populos^ & prafertim Se- 
renijjimum Hifpaniarum Regem^ hoc de re certiorem 
faciendum effe decrevimus. Sciatis igitur, quod Nos y 
DUlgentlee^ Solertles^ Fidel, ac Probitati leflijjirni 
Viri Antonii Afcami plurimum tribuentes, ipfum 
prtsnominatum Antonium noflrum verum & indubi- 
tatum Comtniffarium, Procuratorem, Agentem, tjf 
Deputatum, ad prcediftum Negotlum fccimus, con- 
Jlituimus, ordinavimus, ^ deputavimus, acperPra:- 
fentes facimus, conjlituimus, ordinamus, iff depu- 
tamus ; dantes eldeyi & committentes plenam Pctef- 
tatem & Autborltatem, Nomine nojlro, cum pree- 
ditto Serenijfimo Hifpaniarum Rege, ejufque Procu- 
ratoribus, Deputatis, ac Nuntiis, ad hoc fufficien- 
tem Authoritatem & Potejlatem habentibus, comtnu- 
nicandi, traftandi, & tranfigendi ea omnia, ques ad 
Atjiicitiam, & liberum ac antiquum Commcrcium in- 
ter Anglos & Hifpanos, & qnafcunque fub eorum 
Ditione pofito?, promovendum & ftabiliendum ton- 
ducunt & faciunt, fecundum ea Mandata, quee vfl 
a Par.liatnentO) vel a Concilia Status Parliamenti 
Author itate conjlituto, jam accepit, out per Literaf 
accept urns eft; promittentes, bona Fide, nos, qucs in- 
ter prcsdiftum Hifpaniarum Regem, ejufque Prscu- 
ratores, Deputatos, ^3* Nuntios, atque preEnom\na~ 
turn Antonium Afcamum, noflrum Commijfarium, 
Agentem, tf Deputatum, tranfacla & conclufa fue- 
rint, mcdo illo quo fupradicium eft, ea omnia ra.ta 
(ic firma habituros, & ex ncjira Parte obfervaturos. 
In cujus Rei Tejl'umnium, hifce Literis, quibus 
Manus Prolocutoris no/hi fubfcribitur, Magnum 
Reipubiicee Sigillum apponi fecimus. Datum in Pa- 
lat'w Weftmonafterienfl. 


Of E N G L A N D. 249 

Feb. 4, The Houfe were inform'd of the Death inter-regnum. 
of Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Montgo- l6 49- 

mery, and Knight of the Garter. We (hall not *~^^ J 

meddle with the Character of this Noble Peer, 
who condefcended to take a Seat amongft the Com- 
mons, as one of the Representatives or the County 
of Berk*) it being amply drawn by Lord Clarendon 
and others. But no doubt the Houfe where he laft 
fat had a great Regard for him ; fince it was this 
Day ordered, That all the Members mould attend 
his Corpfe out of the Town the tfadnefday fol- 

Complaint having been made of feveral Books 
being lately publifhed, containing many horrid 
Blafphemies and damnable and deteftable Opini- 
ons, and particularly one call'd A Fiery jly ing Roll, 
compofed by one Coppe ; all the Copies thereof 
were ordered to be feized upon by the Serjeant at 
Arms, and burnt by the Hands of the common ( 
Hangman. The Houfe alfo refolved to appoint 
the laft of this Month to be obferved as a Day of 
folemn Humiliation, Fading, and Prayer ; the 
Grounds and Reafons whereof were ordered to be 
publifhed in the following Terms, which as it 
tends to fhew the particular Turn of thefe Times, 
we fhall give from the original Edition in our own 
Collections. b 

' r |"^HE Lord who ruleth over Nations, who A Faft-Day ap- 

* 1 difpofeth and ordereth all Things accord-^ b- 

' ing to the good Pleafure of his own Will, nathij/hing certain 
< in our Ao;e (as well as in former Generations) blafphemous 

* exceedingly glorified his Wifdom, Power, and Books '^ 

* Mercy, that he might warn and awaken theln- 
' habitants of the Earth unto a diligent Inquiry after 
' him, a faithful and fruitful living before him ; his 


b Printed by Edward Hu/bands and Jzbn Field, Printers to the 
Parliament of England, 1649. 

Hitherto the feveral Als and Proceedings of this Parliament 
have run thus, printed by John Field for Edward Hujbands : But 
on the zfth of January the Houie voted that Mr. Field, upon 
the Nomination of the Speaker, be Joint-Printer. with Mr. ///- 
bands., for the future, and have an equal Share of the Ptotits. 

250 T/je Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-rffgnum. c Voice and his Hand hath been heard and feen 
1649. < in this Land moft eminently, in refcuing us out 

* v ' * of the deftroying Hands of Tyranny, Popery, and 
fchiuary. < Superftition : Which Experience of the Lord's 
' wonderful Goodnefs and Mercy towards this Na- 
' tion, might have wrought an anfwerable Return 
' of Duty ?nd Obedience ; and the Senfe of the 
' Want hereof ought to fill us with Shame, Afto- 
' nifhrnent, and Confufion of Face, efpecially 
when (inftead thereof) we find in the Midft of it 
' fuch crying Sins, hideous Blafphemies, and un- 

* heard-of Abominations, (and that by fome under 

* Pretence of Liberty, and greater Meafure of 

* Light) as, after all our wonderful Deliverances, 

* do manifeft themfelves to the exceeding Diftio- 

* nour of God, and Reproach of our Chriftian 
' Profefiion : To the End therefore that this Na- 

* tion in general, and every one in particular, may 
' have an Opportunity to know and acknowledge 
' their Sins in the Sight of God, and be truly 

* humbled for them ; and that earneft Prayer and 
' Supplication may be put up on behalf of this 

, ' Commonwealth, for the Advancement of the 
' Kingdom of Chrift, and Propagation of his Gofpel 
' throughout the fame, and all the Dominions 

* thereof; that the good Hand of God may be con- 
' tinued with us in perfecting his great Works, 

* which have been carried on to fo good a Degree 

* in England and Ireland; that all Differences 

* among Brethren might be reconciled in Love ; 
' that the Defigns, Combinations, and Confpira- 

* cies of all wicked Men (whether within or with- 
' out us) to embroil this Nation in a new War, 

* may be difcovered and prevented ; and that whilft 
' ungodly Men do make the Arm of Fielh their 

* Confidence, we may teftify (from an abundant 
' Experience of the Lord's Goodnefs) that our 

* Strength is only in the living God : Be it there- 

* fore enacted and declared, That Thurfday the 

* laft Day of February -, 1649, be appointed and 
' kept as a folemn Day of Fafting, Prayer, and 

* Humiliation, for the Ends aforeiaid.' 


Of E N G L A N D. 251 

Feb. 12. The Time appointed for the Conti- Inter-regnum. 
nuance of the preient Council of State being up the . J 4 ^* 
Middle of this Month, the Houfe proceeded to ^^~ 
the Election of a new one for the next Year , and 
firii agreed That the Number of Perions to act in A Council of 
this Hi"-h Station fhould not exceed forty-one. State ekfted for 
They next read over a Lift of the Names of the the 
prefent Council, and proceeded to vote every fingle 
Peribn into the Office or reject them, by putting 
the Queltion upon each ; when they were all re- 
elected except the Earl of JMulgrave, Lord Grey 
of IVarke, and Sir John D'Anvers. The two 
firft were rejected without a Diviiion, the laft by 
a Majority of 40 Voices againft 34 : And there 
being only 37 Perfons agreed upon, the Houfe re- 
folved, That it be referred to a Committee to con- 
fider of the beft Way of electing four Perfons 
more to be of the Council of State for the Year 
enfuing, in the room of the three who had been 
rejected, and the Earl of Pembroke^ deceas'd. * 

The next Day, Feb. 13, the Powers given to 
the Council of State by their former Instructions, 
palled the 1 3th of February, 1648, were read and 
agreed to, with this Addition, ' You have alfo 
' hereby Power to appoint Committees, or any 
' other Perfon or Perfons, for Examinations, re- 
' ceiving of Informations, and preparing of Bufi- 
* nefs for your Debates and Refolutions.' The 
other Articles, being already given under their pro- 
per Date, are unneceflary to be repeated here. 

The filling up the four Vacancies in the Council , 
of State gave Occahon to much Debate and many 
Divifions of the Houfe. At length, on the 2Oth 
of this Month, it was refolved to elect five Per- 
fons to be of this Council a j when Mr. Thomas 
Chaloner^ Mr. John Gourdon, Col. Herbert Mor- 


a The Manner of this EJeftion is very minutely described in 
the Journals j but there feems to be a Miftake as to five Perfons 
being reported to have the greateft Number of Subfcriptions, and 
then giving the Names of feven ; nor do thefe Authorities afiign 
any Reafon for electing five inflead of four. 

252 The Parliamentary Hi s T OR Y 

Inter-regnum. hy, Sir Peter Wentwortb, and Lord Howard, were 
1649- chofen. Sir Henry Vane, fen. was rejected by a 
V- \^- / Majority of 54 againft 44, and the new Earl of 
Pembroke without a Divifion b . 

Feb. 25. Notice has been already taken, that 
the Parliament had defired Lieutenant-General 
Cromwell to come over into England; and this 
Day it was ordered, That his Excellency have the 
Ufe of the Lodgings call'd the Cockpit , the Spring- 
Garden, St. James's Houfe, and the Command 
of St. James's Park. 

Although the Parliament had fet apart every 
Wedncfday in the Week to go on with their Pro- 
ceedings in the A<5r. for an equal Reprefentative 
and the Regulation of Elections, nothing more was 
concluded on than what we have already men- 

March. The Proceedings of the Houfe iri this 
Month ran chiefly on private Affairs, few Matters 
of Moment coming before them. 

A Book, aflfert- On the 8th Complaint being made of a Book 

ing the Obferva- lately publifhed, intitled, The Doftrine of the 

SVabbat^or- Fourtb Commandment as deform d by Popery, re- 

^r'dtobcburnt./ 5 ''^'^ an d rejior'd to its primitive Purity, &c. 

which afcertained the Oblervation of the jewijb 

Sabbath : It was refolved that the faid Book is 

erroneous, fcandalous, and profane ; contrary to 

the Practice of the Apoftles, and of all Chriftian 

Churches ; that all the printed Copies thereof be 

burnt ; that the Author be apprehended ; and the 

Printer and Publifher punifhed according to Law. 

ABAftforerdft- Th f D Aa p or fh better ^ avance _ 

ing a new Col- /. i ^ r t , r T -Tt i 

Jege, fife, at ment fij the (jojpel and oj Learning in IreJand, was 
Dublin, read a third Time, pafs'd, and ordered to be print- 

ed. Hereby it was enabled, ' That all Manors 


b He was eleted for Glamorganjhire at the Beginning of this 
Parliament, and continued to fit among the Commons after his Fa- 
ther's Deceafe ; whereupon the Houfe appointed him to fucceed to 
the Offices of C-jJlos Raulorum for the Counties of Derby and Wilts, 

Of E N G L A N D. 253 

and Lands, lately belonging to the Archbifhoprick Int--regnum 
of Dublin, the Dean and Chapter of St. Patrick's, ^ ' 
and the Biihoprick of Meath, mould be fettled in '^JJJch. ' 
Truftees, for the Ufe of Trinity College, Dublin ; 
alfo for creeling another College and a Free School 
in that City ; and for Maintenance of a Mafter, 
Fellows, public Profeflbrs, Scholars, We. in fuch 
Manner as by the faid Truftees fhould be thought 
proper, if approv'd of by the Lord-Lietenant of 
Ireland, who was authorized to place or remove 
all the refpedtive Officers thereof ; to allow them 
fuch Stipends out of the Premifles as he fhould 
think fit ; and to make Rules and Orders for the 
Government thereof, fubject to fuch Alterations 
as the Parliament of England fhould think proper. 

The Houfe having received Advice that their 
late Acl for laying an Excife upon Beer and Ale, 
by being extended to private Families, had given 
Occafion to great Difcontents ; the Speaker was 
ordered to write Letters to the Judges who were 
to go the Circuits at the Lent Affizes, to take Care 
for fuppreffing all Tumults ariling thereby, and a 
new Method was agreed on for collecting the Duty. 

On the nth of this Month an Act was pafs'd, For felling the 
For felling all the Fee-Farm Rents belonging to //^Fee-Farm Rents 
Crown, in order to the better carrying on the War f theCrown 
in Ireland, and other emergent Affairs of the Com- 
monwealth ; for which Purpofe thefe Eftates were 
vefted in Truftees, who were impowered to fell 
the fame at eight Years Purchafe, but not under ; 
nor was any Truftee to be admitted as a Purchafer 
of any Part of the Premifles. 

A Bill had been ordered to be brought in, ForAnA eftablifting 
eftablijking a Court-Martial within the Cities of 3 - High Court of 
London and Weftminfter, and the late Lines fl /M ice ' 
Communication ; which being read twice on the 
I4th, it was refolved, That the Court, to beeredt- 
ed by this A61, fljould bear the Name of an High 
Court of Jujlice. The Bill was then committed ; 


254 tte Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intsr-reghum. and the Committee were to have Power to confider 
1650. O f f uc h Perfons as were Judges in the Trial of the 
L ~ V T~ Duke of Hamilton^ &c. and fuch others as they 
fhould think fit, and prcfent them to the Houfe. 

March 21. This Day the Houfe refumed the 
Debate on the foregoing Aft, when fome Amend- 
ments were made to it, and fome Commiffioners 
named, and ordered it to be cngrofled ; but it was 
not finally concluded till 

March 26. When being read, and a Provifo 
added, * That this Adi, nor any Thing therein 
contained, (hould extend to the diminifhing or lef- 
fening any Power or Authority formerly given to 
the Lord-General or his Council of War, or to 
the Admirals at Sea, by Authority of Parliament, 
for executingof Martial Law,' the Aft patted 
without any Divifion. 

TheEftates of Towards the latter End of this Month a Report 
5din nq lE!d ie " was macle to the Houfe from the Council of State, 
ordered to be' fe-T nat ^ appeared, by Letters, that Sir Chriftopber 
cured. Hattcn, called the Lord Hatton^ was beyond the 

Seas, with the late Queen and her Son, and is ac- 
tive there againft this Commonwealth, and yet en- 
joys his Eftate here by Compofition. After fome 
Debate en this Matter the Houfe rcfolved, on the 
Queftion, * That the Eftate of Sir Cbrijlopbcr 
Hatton be forthwith fequeftred :' And, to carry 
this Blow farther, it was at the fame Time refolved, 
' That all fuch Perfons as had compounded for 
their Delinquency, and were then beyond the Seas 
without Leave, their Eftates, Real and Perfonal, 
fhould be forthwith fecured.' And it was referr'd 
to the Sequeftrating Committee, who had long fat 
at Goldfmitbs-Hall) to fee this Vote fpeedily put in 

We {hall end this Month with obferving that, by 
a Report made to the Houfe from the Committee 
of the Army, it appeared that the Monthly Charge 
thereof in England and Ireland, amounted to 
101,578 /. 


O/ E N G L A N D. 255 

April. The State the Nation was in at this Time Inter-regnunu 
under this new Republic, was far from being ferene l6 5- 
and profperous. The Jealoufy of the Royal Fa- u "~~ v ""~'-' . 
mily, and Infurre&ions in their Favour j the late 
great Difturbance by the Levellers, whom indeed 
they had crufh'd, but not flain ; and new Seels of 
Principles, equally dangerous to them, every W^ek 
fpringing up. Add to thefe, the Wars in Ireland^ 
and the Expectancy of another Invafion from Scot- 
land\ all which muft, together, make this Govern- 
ment uneafy on all Sides. 

However, this Fragment of a Parliament had af- The Parliament 
fumed to themfelves not only all the LegiuVive Sentence fix Per- 
Powers that were ever enjoyed by the other twoj h n e s Ja^^t 
more antient States of the Kingdom, but they even Forgery. 
abforbed and exercifed the Jurifdiction of the more 
ordinary Courts of Juftice, by trying and giving 
Sentence, to the Pillory or otherways, againft Per- 
ibns convened before them, fecundum Arbitrium^ 
as Mr. Whltlocke exprefly tells us a ; fome Inftances 
of which now lie before us : For this very Day, 
April i, fix Perfons were adjudged to be fet in the 
Pillory, and lofe both their Ears ; alfo to be com- 
mitted to the Houfe of Correction, there to be 
kept to hard Labour for one Year, for forging Bills 
of Exchange, and counterfeiting Warrants, where- 
by they had defrauded the Government of 3000 /. 

The Debate on the Bill for regulating Elec- 
tions, and making an equal Reprefentative, ftill 
continued every Wednefday; and this Day, April 3, 
it was again refumed in a Grand Committee of 
the whole Houfe, without concluding any Thing. 
Adjourned the Debate to the fame Day Se'nnight. 

Ordered, * That all Patents for creajting o rAU Titles of Ho- 
granting any Titles of Honour to any Perfon or " our 6 rante . d 
Perfons whatfoever, after the carrying away the ^GreatSS to 
Great Seal to Oxford, be annulled and made void: Oxford, declare* 
And that no Perfon prefume to give them the faid void< 
Title of Honour ; nor the faid Perfon or Perfons, 
to whom fuch Title is fo granted, do take the faid 


Memorials, p. 424. 

256 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnum. Title upon him. The Lords Commiffioners to 
1650. bring in an A61 accordingly. 

The fame Day feveral Aldermen of the City of 
London prefented a Writing to the Houle, intitled, 
e bumble and thankful Acknowledgment of the 
refolvc to Lord Mayor i Aldermen^ and Commons of the City of 
fupport the Par- L on d on } giving Thanks to the Parliament for their 
Gift of Richmond New Park to the City; and that 
they do declare and refolve, (thro 5 God's Afliftance) 
with the Hazard of their Lives and Eftates, to frand 
and fall with the Parliament againft all wicked Prac- 
tices and oppofite pretended Powers whatfoever. 
Which being read, the laid Aldermen were again 
called in, and the Speaker, in the Name of the 
Houfc, returned them Thanks. 

The King's April 9. This Day the Houfe refolved that the 

Arms ordered to A f h j t fhould be taken down in all 

be taken down jn . 111? i /~i 

ell Churches, ohips of, and belonging to, this Commonwealth ; 

Ships, &c. as alfo of all Merchants or others inhabiting with- 
in the fame ; and that the Admirals at Sea be re- 
quired to fee the fame done accordingly. Alfo that 
all Juftices of the Peace in the refpedtive Counties, 
and all other public and Officers, 
Churchwardens, and Wardens of Companies, be 
authoriz'd and requir'd to caufe the Arms of the late 
King to be taken down and defaced in all Churches, 
Chapels, and all other public Places within Eng- 
land, Wales, and the Town of Berwick. This 
Order to be forthwith printed and publimed; and, 
confonant to it, the King's Arms were taken down 
every where, and the States Arms put up in their 

April 12. The Houfe having received a Letter 
from Col. Heivfon^ Governor of Dublin^ with Ad- 
vice of the Surrender ofi the City and Caftle of 
gilkemy furren- Kilkenny, in Ireland, the Speaker was ordered to 
write him a Letter of Thanks, as an Acknow- 
ledgment of his good Services therein. 

The reft of this Month was taken up in deba- 
ting and voting fmall Matters in regard to this Hif- 


Of E N G L A N D. 257 

tory, and therefore we omit them. Abftradls from Inter- regnuih; 
fome particular Ac"ts paffed in it, will fall in the l6 5 0i 
Sequel. A Bill for fupprefling Adultery, Inceft, ^~~~^ mJ 
and Fornication, was carrying on at this Time, Apn ' 
under very fevere Penal ties: For this Day, April 12, 
the following Claufe was agreed upon to be added 
to the Bill : That in cafe any married Woman foall, 
from and after , be carnally known by any Man 
but her Hufband^ except in cafe of Ravi/hrnent^ and 
of fuch Offence be convitfed, it flail be adjudged 
Felony : And every fuch Man or Woman offending 
therein^ and confejjing the fame ', or being conviffed by 
VerdiSl^ /hall fuffer Death , as in cafe of Felony^ 
without Benefit of Clergy. Provided, That this 
flail not extend to any Man tuho, at the Time of 
fuch Offence committed^ is not knowing that the Wo- 
man is then married : And that this Act do not ex- 
tend to Women wbofe Hujbands are beyond the Seas j 
or who abfent themfelves from their Wives for the 
Space of five Tears , when there is a common Fame 
that their Hujbands are dead. This Act took up 
ftill more Time in perfecting ; for, April 26, the 
Time to be limited, as to a Hufband's Abfence, ei- 
ther for five or three Years, being put to the Que- 
ftion, it was carried for the latter, by 22 againft 14. 

The Acts pafled this Month, worth ou r Notice, Afts P affed f <** 
(of which it will be fufficient to give the moft ma- ^/c^f ? 
terial Claufes) were, one For Provijion for Mini- r 
Jlers^ and other pious Ufes. Hereby it was enacted, - 
' That out of the Impropriations,Tythes, &c. late 
belonging to Bifhops, Deans and Chapters, an 
Augmentation be made to the Stipends of preach- 
ing Mlnifters; that 2OOO/. per Ann. be paid to the 
Matters and Heads pf Houfes in the two Univer- 
fities, not exceeding ioo/. to any one of them; 
and 80 /. per Ann. to the Lady Margaret's Profef- 
for of Divinity at Oxford,' with feveral Claufes and 
Provifoes reciting former Acts on this SubjecT:. 
Another Acl was pafled, For inflifling certainPe- 7or!ifil ' l&er ^ b " 
nalties for Breach of the Lord's Day and other ^jjjjjjf ^ f f . the 
lemn Days. By which it was enabled, * That 

VOL, XIX. R Goods 

258 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-rccnum. Goods cried or put to Sale on the Lord's Day, o'r 
1650. Days of public Humiliation or Thankfgiving, 
be feizcd : Travellers, Waggoners, &c. 
not obferving thofe Days, to forfeit los. Any 
Writ, Warrant, sV. executed on thofe Days, to 
be of no Effect, and the Perfon offending to forfeit 
5/. No Perfon to ule or travel with Boat, Horfe, 
Co;- r _h, or Sedan, except to Church, upon Pain 
of iOf. The like Penalty for being in a Tavern, 
Ale-houfe, &c. Dancing or profanely Singing on 
any of thofe Days. Where Diftrefs could not be 
found fufficient to fatisfy the refpeclive Penalties, 
the Ofren-der to fit in the Stocks fix Hours.' This 
Ac} was ordered to be yearly read in all Churches 
the firft Lord's Day in Mortb, 

The Parliament, May. The Houfe continued jealous of the De- 
being apprchc-n- fig ns o f t } ie Scots anc | tne g reat Armament they 
f!onho a mi n Sl were raifing; for, on the Receipt of a Letter 
land, make an from Edinburgh, the Qth of laft Month, they or- 
^ddition to their der'd it to be referr'd to the Council of State ; who 
were impovvered and required, by all Ways and 
Means that they fliould think fit, to prevent all In- 
vafions from abroad, and to preferve the Peace of 
this Nation from all Tumults and Infurrections 
at home. 

May 7. In purfuance of this Order Col. Morley 
reported from the Council of State, that they found 
it neceflary, for anfwering the laid Ends, that, be- 
fides the prefent Forces, there be yet this Addition 
made to them, viz. That the eight Regiments of 
Horfe of the {landing Army, being now 480 Men, 
be made up 600 each : That two new Troops of 
Dragoons be added to the eight now in being; and 
all the ten Troops to confift of 100 Men each : 
That two Troops of the faid Dragoons be arm'd 
and paid as Horfe, for fuch Time as the Council 
of State fhall think neceflary : That a Troop of 
Horfe, to confift of 80, be raifed for the Safety of 
the Ifle of Wight : That three Troops of Horfe, 
of zoo each, be raifed for the Service of the Gar- 


Of E N G L A N D. 259 

rifons of Newcajile* Berwick, and Carlljle : That Inter-regnumf 
there be alfo two new Regiments of Foot raifed, * '"^ 
each to confift of 1200 Men, to be paid only for Mayi" 
fo long Time as the Council of State fliall find it 
neceflary for the Service of the Commonwealth. 
And that this Increafe of the Army will be an ad- 
ditional Charge of 8259 /. IOS - %d. per Men fern. 

After reading this Report the Houfe refolved 
that thefe additional Forces fliall be raifed in the 
Manner as above propofed, and be paid by the 
Committee of the Army as they receive Significa- 
tion thereof from the Council of State. 

It may be remembered that, under the Tranf- 
aclions of Auguft, 1648 a , we took Notice of a 
Charge of High Treafon being prefented to the 
Houfe of Lords againft General Cromwell by Ma- 
jor Huntington ; but that failing in his Attempt to 
lay it before the Commons, he threw up his Com- 
miffion, and publifh'd a Narrative of his Reafons 
for fo doing. From that Time we hear no more 
of this Affair till this Day, May 7 ; when the Ma- 
jor having applied for Payment of the Arrears due 
to him from the Parliament, the Houfe not only 
ordered them to be ftopp'd, but referred it to a 
Committee to confider and examine the feditious 
Practices of the faid Major, againft the Parliament 
and Commonwealth of England^ at the Time when 
the Scots invaded this Nation. 

May 10. The Act for fupprefling the deteftable* 
Sins of Inceft, Adultery, and Fornication, was 
read a third Time, and fome Provifoes were added 
to it, as, 

1. c That no Party's Cohfefllon fhould be taken 
as Evidence, within this Adi, againft any other but 
only fuch Party fo confeffing. 

2. ' Nor any Hufband to be a Witnefs againft 
his Wife, nor any Wife againft her Hufband. 

3. * Nor any Servant againft his or her Mafter 
er Miftrefs, for any Offence punifhable by this Act.' 

R 2 But 

In our i yth Volume^ p. 359, 

260 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. But the 'latter Provifo being put to the Queftion, 
1650. it was carried in the Negative; as was alfo ano- 
>*" "^ ther for continuing it only for three Years ; after 
AiJ ' which the whole A61, being put to the Queftion, 
paffed without any more Divifion about it. The 
ro.nwft material Claufes thereof were thefe ; < That 
ft, Adultery, all Perfons guilty of Inceft mall fufFer Death, as in 
and Fornication, cafe of Felony, without Benefit of Clergy ; that 
inceftuous Marriages (hall be void, and the Chil- 
dren illegitimate : That Adultery fhall alfo be 
deem'd Felony, and punimed with Death ; but 
this (hall not extend to any Man who, at the Time 
of committing fuch Offence, did not know the 
Woman to be married ; nor to any Woman 
whofe Hufband mail be three Years abfent from 
her, fo as fhe did not know him to be living. In. 
cafe of Fornication, both Parties, for the firft Of- 
fence, were to fufFer three Months Imprifonment 
without Ball, and alfo give Security for their good 
Behaviour for one whole Year after. Every com- 
mon Bawd, for the firft Offence, to be openly 
whipp'd, fet in the Pillory, and there mark'd with 
a hot Iron in the Forehead with a B; alfo to be 
committed to the Houfe of Correction for three 
Years without Bail, and untill fufficient Security 
be given for good Behaviour during Life : And the 
Perfons a fecond Time found guilty of the laft re- 
cited Offences were to fuffer Death. All Profe- 
cutions to be commenced within twelve Months. 
Mr. JVkitlocke tells us h , That Mr. Henry M&r- 
iin declared his Opinion, That the Severity of the 
Punifhment by this Act, being Death, would caufe 
thefe Sins to be more frequently committed, be- 
caufe the People would be more cautious in com- 
mitting them for Fear of the Punifhment ; and, be- 
ing undifcovered, would be embolden'd the more in 
the Commitment of them.' 

May 1 6. The Houfe ordered a competent Num- 
ber of the Acts againft Adultery, and for the bet- 
ter Obfervation of the Lord's Day, &c. to be forth- 

t> Materials, p. 440. 

Of E N G L A N D. 261 

with printed at the Public Charge ; and that the Inter-regnum. 

Council of State take Care to fend them to every 

Parilh in the feveral Counties. juT"*"^ 

The Council of State had made divers Reports 
on the Order, of the gth of April laft, for fecuring 
the Peace of the Nation, which were all agreed 
to by the Houfe : And on the i5th of this Month 
another Report being made from that Council, on 
occafion of raifing Money to pay the additional 
Forces neceflary for that Purpofe ; and the Acl: 
pafs'd in December laft, touching the Monthly Af- 
iefTment expiring at Midfummer enfuing, the T}ie M ont fjj 
Houfe refolv'd, on the 2ift of this Month, to con- Affeflment, for 
tinue the fame to Chriftmas, at the Rate of 90,000 /. Maintenance of 
per Men/em for the firft Quarter, and 60,000 /. for JJ 
the fecond, for Maintenance of the Forces raifed 
for the Service of England and Ireland. 

The fame Day, May 21, the Houfe appointed 
the 1 3th of June next for a Day of public Failing 
and Humiliation, in an Adi: parted for that Purpofe. 
The Preamble to which, expreffing the Occafion, 
we deliver from that Authority. 

' Altho' this Nation hath enjoyed many Bleflings, A Faft appointed 

* and great Deliverances from the Hands of God ; for the Succefs of 

< yet have the People thereof multiplied their Sins, r h j^ a f rliament ' 3 

* as God hath multiplied his Bleflings upon them, 
' efpecially the Sins of Unthankfulnefs and Un- 
' fruitfulnefs, under fuch Gofpel Means and Mer- 

* cies ; which may moft juftly provoke the Lord 
' to multiply his Judgments upon this Nation : 
' The Parliament taking the fame into ferious 
6 Confederation, as alfo the pernicious Defigns of 
' the Enemies of this Commonwealth, to engage 
' the fame in a new and bloody War ; and being 
c truly fenfible of their own Inability to prevent or 

* difappoint the fame ; and to teftify that their 
' whole Dependence is upon the Lord alone, and 
' upon the Freenefs of his Grace in Chrift, do 

< enacl: and ordain thztTburfday the 1 3th of June 

* next enfuing, be obferv'd and kept in all Churches 

R < and 

262 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

$nter-regnum. ' and Chapels in England and Wales, and the 
1650. Town of Berwick upon Tweed, as afolemn Day 

\r**~**~* "J of Fafting and Humiliation for the foremention- 
jMa) ' ' tion'd Sins, and for all other the Tranfgreflions 

* whereof this Nation is guilty ; and for imploring 
' the Favour of God for a Blefiing upon the Coun- 

* fels and Endeavours of the Parliament, and upon 

* their Forces by Land and by Sea ; and that our 

* gracious God would be pleafed to give the People 

* of this Nation a Heart to ferve him in Sincerity ; 

* and to unite them againft all Combinations and 

* Practices of foreign or domeftic Enemies to this 
Caufe of God, (which the Parliament hath and 

* fhall, by his Blefling and Afiiftance, maintain to 

* the End) that fo at laft, through the Goodnefs 

* and Mercy of God, this Commonwealth may 

* be eftablifh'd in all Truth and Peace, to the 

* Glory of God, ana the Happinefs of this Nation. 

* And the Minifters of the refpedlive Churches 

* and Chapels aforefaid, are hereby required to 

* give Notice hereof on the Lord's L)ay next pre- 

* ceding the faid 1 3th of June ; at which Time 
< alfo the faid Minifters are required to publilh this 

* prefent AcV 

The reft of this Month was chiefly taken up with 
making more Preparations for withftanding the ex- 
peeled Invafion from the Scots ; in which great Care, 
was taken by placing Forces, Garrifons, &c. in aH 
fufpedted Counties, to hinder any Infurredlions, at 
that Time, which might favour fuch Attempts. 
The Militia was alfo regulated by Orders and Or- 
dinances for that Purpofe. 

We ihall conclude the Tranfaclions of this 
Month with mentioning a Piece of State the Houfe 
put on, in refufing to accept a Letter from the Lord 
Gerard Schaep, fent over as a Commifiioner from 
the States of Holland and IJSeJl-FrieJland, direded, 
A Monf. Monf. William Lenthall, Orateur de la. 
Republique ^'Angleterre, ^Weftminfter; and or- 
dered three of their Members to wait on him, and 
fell him, That they can admit of no Addrefs to 

them a 

Of E N G L A N D. 263 

them, by any foreign State or Prince whatfoever,but Inter-n-gnum. 
in the Style already enacted and declared, viz. To l6 5- 
the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England. *~~T V ~' J 

* June}. 

June 4. This Day Cromwell^ the Parliament's Gen. Cromwtfl 
victorious General and Lord- Lieutenant of Ire- returns l iol ^ e 
land) who had been lent for over, as already men- 
tioned, took his Seat in the Houfe ; when the 
Speaker, by Order, gave him Thanks (in an elo- 
quent Oration, as the Journals exprefs it) for his 
faithful Services ; fetting forth the great Providence 
of God in thofe great and ftrange Works, which 
God had wrought by him as the Inftrument. 

June 6. The Parliament having refolved to ap- The p ar jj ament 
point a {landing Council for the Commonwealth, appoint their 
they this Day agreed upon Sir Thomas Wlddrington Ending Cpunql. 
and Serjeant Green for that Purpofe, by the Title of 
Serjeants at Law for the Commonwealth) and Ro- 
bert Reynolds , Efq; to be their Solluitor-General ; 
And the Lords Commiffioners of the Great Seal 
were ordered to fign Patents for them accordingly. 

June 7. We have already taken Notice of an 
At being pafs'd far the fuppreffing of Inceft, Adul- 
tery, and Fornication, with feveral other piousA&s, 
which gave fuch Encouragement to the Reforming 
Members, that a Bill was order'd to be read the Fri- A Bj ]j on j ered ia 
day enfuing, againil the Vice of Painting, wearing againft immodeft 
black Patches',' and immodeft Drefles of Women : ^ re n ffes of w - 
But no Mention is made of it in the Journal of that ^"L ^ does 
Day, nor in ScoleFs Jfls ; from whence it feems 
the Ladies had Intereft enough to nip this Project 
in the very Bud. Probably it was the Cafe then, 
as in more modern Times, for thofe Women who 
would be thought modeft, to copy their Fafhions 
from fuch of the Sex as were known to be other wife, 

"June ii. All the Members having been requi-Gen. Cromwell 

yed to give their Attendance this Day by Nine inS ive 
the Morning, General Cromwell ftanding up in his th^Stat" of /. 
Place in the Houfe, made a Narrative of the State land, 


264 Tfo Parliamentary HISTORY 

Ir.t .-r-rcrnum. of the Garrifons and Forces of the Enemy in Ire- 
' 6 5- land, and their Intereft there ; and likewife of the 
* v ^ Parliament's Forces, in Garrifon and in the Field, 
their Condition, in what Employment they were, 
and under what Commands. At the End of which 
it was reiblved, That it be referred to the Council of 
State to take Care of fending fuch fpeedy Supplies 
of Money for Ireland^ as (hall be neceflary for the 
carrying on of that Work; and to fee what Money 
there is in prefent View that can be made effec- 
tual for that Service, and how the Obftruclions 
againft bringing it in may be removed. Alfo to 
confider by what Ways and Means the Reduction 
and Settlement of Ireland may be perfected to the 
beft Advantage, and the future Eafe of the Charge 
of this Commonwealth. 

A Commiflioner The fame Day theCommiffioner from the States 
P f t j e -5 tatc ! of Holland vn& IVeft-Friefland^ whom we men- 

pf Holland and. . . . / .,/. i_ A j j / 

Wefi.FncJland tioned to have been miltaken in his Addrefs to 
admitted to an their High Mightinefles at Wejlminjler, (having al- 
his Style according to their Order) was ad- 
mitted to an Audience ; where he delivered in his 
Credentials, and the Defires of his Matters, in 
French i by word of Mouth. Soon after the Houfe 
refolved to give an Anfwer to this Commiflioner 
on a Day* appointed ; when being come into the 
Court of Wards, and the Houfe apprized of it, 
the Serjeant was fent to attend him, together with 
the Matter of the Ceremonies : Being come with- 
in the Door uncovered, he came up to the Bar, 
the Serjeant at Arms attending on his Right Hand, 
and the Matter of the Ceremonies on the Left ; 
where, after mutual Compliments between him 
and Mr. Speaker, all the Members ftandino;, he 
fat down in a Chair, placed at the ufual Place, on 
the North Side of the Houfe ; and, being fet, Mr. 
Speaker delivered this Anfwer unto him by Word 
pf Mouth, viz. 

* The Parliament of the Commonwealth of 
e England have taken into their feripus Confidera- 
' tion what your Lordmip did lately deliver unto 
^ them in Behalf of your Superiors, the High and 



Potent Lords the States of Holland and Weft- Inter-regnum. 

* Friejland^ unto which I am commanded, in their 

Name, to return this Ani'wer : **~~\ f ~~**' 

4 The Parliament, both from the Motives re- ^ un< 

* membered in your Lordihip's Paper, and from 
4 many other Reafons and Experiences of their 

* own, hath, ever imce it pleafed God to reftora 
4 this Commonwealth to its juft Freedom, been fo 
4 apprehenfive of the common Benefits apparently 

* redounding to this Nation, together with the 
4 High and Mighty Lords the States of the United 

* Provinces, by a ftridl Alliance between them, 

* that they thought fit long fince to employ for that 
4 Purpole Walter Strickland, Efq; a Member of 
4 Parliament, with Addrefles as well to the States 
' General, as to the High and. Potent Lords the 

* States of Holland and Weft-FrieJland\ which 

* Proceeding of theirs doth give a fufficient Tefti- 

* mony on their Behalf, that the Fault hath not 

* been in them if fo defirable an Union and Friend- 
4 fhip b*etween the two Commonwealths hath not 
4 been attained. 

e And although the Applications made by our 
4 faid Refident to the States General, on fo friend- 
4 ly a Subject, and for fo good an End, have been 

* hitherto neglected, and not fo much as an Audi- 
4 ence yet given to him ; which the Parliament can- 
4 not but take Notice of, as not underftanding why 

* the Friendmip of this Commonwealth fhould be 
4 of fo fmall Confideration with them : Yet the 

* Parliament are fo well fatisfied with the De- 

* portment of the HigTi and' Mighty Lords the 
4 States of Holland and Weft-Friefland towards this 
4 Commonwealth and their faid Refident Walter 
4 Strickland, in the Applications which he hath 
4 made on their Part, and of the Endeavours 
4 which the faid High and Potent Lords, from, 
4 Time to Time, have ufed with the other Pro- 
4 vinces, not only to prevent any Mifunderftand- 
4 ing, but to maintain all friendly and good Cor- 
4 refpondency between the two States, that they 
4 do the more chearfully and readily entertain what 


266 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

hath been propundcd to them by your Lordfhrp ; 
and do refolve to anfwer thole AfTurances of 
Friendfhip and neighbourly Commerce which 
your Lordfhip doth give on the Behalf of your 
Superiors, with moft real Returns of good Ac- 
' ceptancej defiring, as an happy Refult from the 
' fame, that this Commonwealth and the States of 

* Holland and IVeft-FrieJland may not only corre- 
4 fpond together in a neighbourly and friendly Com- 

* merce, but may at laft grow up to fo ftri6l an 

* Union and Alliance, as may be found necefiary 
' for the Good of both. 

' And as there fhall be Occafion for your Lord- 
' fhip to reprefent any further Particulars concern- 
' ing the Intereft of that Province, or of any Mem- 
' ber thereof, whereunto there is no proper Reme- 

* dy applicable in the ordinary Courfe of Juftice, 

* the Parliament hath empowered the Council of 

* State to receive the fame, and give fuch Anfwers 

* from Time to Time as fhall be requifite, and 

* may witnefs the Regard which this Common- 

* wealth hath to the Friendfhip of thofe by whom 

* your Lordfhip is deputed/ 

This being ended, Mr. Speaker, by the Ma- 
tter of the Ceremonies, delivered the fame Anfwer 
to the Commiilioner in Writing, fign'd by the 
Clerfc : Which having received, he return'd a 
Reply to this Effea : 

Here follotvs an Hiatus in the Journals, and we 
are left in the Dark as to the dnfwer made by 
the Cotnmiflioner* 

The Houfe ha- June J2. The Houfe voted that the Lord-Ge- 
li n rd r S>A* hatneral Fatr f ax and Lieutenant-General Cromwell, 
and Gen. c>cw-(^ or ^'^'i euteriant f Ireland) {hould both be com- 
ivell ffiould manded to go upon the Northern Expedition, 
march with an ^nd that the Council of State do acquaint them 

Arrny^uito M ^.^ .^ ^ ^ Q ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ 

wajrds Scotland. 

June 14. Sir Gilbert Pickering reported from the 
Council of State, that they had communicated the 


Of E N G L A N D. 267 

Order of the Houfe to the two great Officers of jnter-regnum. 
the Army ; that both of them expreflfed their Rea- 1650. 
dinefs for this Employment; and alfo that Things ^ -v- ' 
were put in fuch a Courfe, that the Army will be J un e. 
ready to march in a fhort Time. But 

yune 25. The Lord-Commiffioner Wbltkcke And Lord F/V- 
reported from the Council of State, That they b**%?* ^~ 
ing acquainted by the Lord-General Fairfax, that JhTcomSTii 
ibme Difficulties were upon him concerning the that Expedition, 
undertaking of the Service required of him by the 
new Commiffion lent to him from the Parliament ; 
thereupon the Council had appointed a Committee 
to confer with his Lordmip for his Satisfaction, 
which was endeavoured by them, upon a long De- 
bate with his Lordmip : The Refult upon which 
Conference was to this Efter, ; That the Lord- 
General doth conceive that, upon the new Com- 
miffion coming to him, the former Commiffion of 
General is at an End, and he freed from that 
Charge ; and in regard of his own Infirmities and 
want of Health, and want of Freedom to under- 
take this Service as a new Employment, and the 
Greatnefs and Weight of the Charge, he kumbly 
defired to be excufed ; and for that Purpofe in- 
tended to fignify his Mind herein >unto the Parlia- 

Here follsvjs another Hiatus in the Journals, 
where, mo/l probably ', the Lord Fairfax'* real 
Reafons for refigning his Commiffion were en- 
tered: But this Deficiency is amply made up by 
J-fr.Whitlocke in his Memorials, who has alfo 
given us a Narrative of the whole Conference 
on this very remarkable Occafion between Lord 
Fairfax and the Committee from the Council of 
State i of which himfelf was one. This there- 
fore we Jhall give in his own Words. 

' The Junfto of the Council of State with whom A Committee of 
Cromwell confulted, having Intelligence of the? 6 Cou " cil of 

_,.. , T> r i r r. i r \ r L State endeavour 

King s Refolution for Scotland, of the Laws there to pcr fiiade him 
made, and of Forces to affift him in his intended to it, 
Jnvalion of England^ whereof they had more than 


268 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

ordinary AITurance ; they therefore thought it not 
prudent to be behind-hand with their Enemy, nor 
to b e p ut to an After-game, to ftay till they fhould 
fa&'mvzAt England -. but rather to carry the War, 
from their native Country, into Scotland. 

4 As to the Objection, That their Invading of 
Scotland would be contrary to the Covenant, they 
were fatisfied that the Covenant was broken and 
diflblved before by the Scots, and was not now 
binding betwixt the two Nations : That the levy- 
ing Forces in Scotland, and marching fome of them 
to the Borders of England, with the hoftile Acts 
done by them formerly, were fufficient Grounds 
for the Parliament to provide for the Security of 
themfelves and Countrymen; the which could not 
be fo effectually done, as by carrying the War, 
which they defigned upon us, unto their own 

4 Upon thefe and many other weighty Confide- 
rations, it was refolved here, That having a form'd 
Army, well provided and experienced, they would 
march it forthwith into Scotland; to prevent the 
Scots marching into England, and the Miferies, 
accompanying their Forces, to our Countrymen. 

' The Lord-General Fairfax being advifed with 
herein, feemed at firft to like well of it; but after- 
wards being, hourly, perfuaded by the Prefbyte- 
rian Minifters and his own Lady, who was a great 
Patronefs of them, he declared himfelf unfatisfied 
that there was a juft Ground for the Parliament 
of England to fend their Army to invade Scotland: 
But that in cafe the Scots fhould invade England, 
then he was forward to engage againft them in De- 
fence of his own Country. 

4 The Council of State, fomewhat troubled at 
his Excellency's Scruples, appointed Cromwell, 
Lambert, Harrifon, St. John, and Whitlocke, to 
be a Committee to confer hereupon with him ; and 
to endeavour to fatisfy him of the Juftice and Law- 
fulnefs of this Undertaking. 

* Accordingly this Committee met Lord Fair- 
fax^ and being Ihut up together in a Room in 


Of E N G L A N D. 269 

Whitehall, they went firft to Prayer, that God inter-regnwn, 
would direct them in this Bufmefs ; and Cromwell l6 5- 
began. Moft of the Committee alfo prayed, after v "v*-*, 
which they difcourfed to this Etfeft : J une * 

CROMWELL. My Lord-General, we are com- An Account of 
tnanded} by the Council of State , to confer with your ^ e Conference 
Excellency touching the prefent Defjgn (whereof you n{ fioa * 

have heard fame Debate in the Council) of marching 
the Army under your Command into Scotland ; and 
becaufe there jeemed to be fame Hejitation in yourfelf 
as to that Journey, this Committee were appointed 
to endeavour to give your Excellency Satisfaction in 
any Doubts of yours which may arij'e concerning that 
Affair, and the Grounds of that Refolution of the- 
Council for the Journey into Scotland. 

Lord-General FAIRFAX. / am very glad of 
the Opportunity of conferring with this Committee* 
where I find fo many of my particular Friends, as 
well as of the Commonwealth, about this great Bu- 
finefs of our March into Scotland ; wherein 1 d& 
acknowledge my f elf not fully fatisjied as to the, 
Grounds and Juftice of our Invafion into Scotland, 
and I Jhall be glad to receive Satisfaction therein bj 

LAMBERT. Will your Excellency be pleafed ta 
favour us with the particular Caufes of your Diffa- 
tisfaftion ? 

Lord-General. 1 Jhall very freely do //; and I 
think I need not make to you^ or to any that know me, 
any Proteftation of the Continuance of my Duty and 
Affection to the Parliament^ and my Readinefs to 
ferve them in any Thing wherein my Conscience will 
give me Leave. 

HARRISON. There cannot be more dejired nor ex- 
pected from your Excellency. 

WHITLOCKE. No Man can doubt of the Fide- 
lity and Affeftion of your Excellency to the Service of 
the Commonwealth ; you have given ample Tejlimony 
thereof, and it will be much for the Advantage of 
their Ajfairs if we may be able to give you Satisfac- 

270 Tlie Parliamentary HISTORV 

Inter-rfgnum. tion (as I hope we Jhall) touching the particular 

1650. Points ^uherein your Doubts arife. 
*" ~v~ ' ST. JOHN. I pray , my Lord, be pleafed to ac- 
quaint us with your particular Objections againjl this 

Lord- General. My Lords, you will give we 
Leave then, with all Freenefs, to fay to you, That 
I think it doubtful whether we have a jrijl Caufe to 
make an Invafion upon Scotland. 

With them we arc joined in the National League 
and Covenant ; and now for us, contrary thereunto r , 
and without fufficient Caufe given us by them, to en- 
ter into their Country with an Army, and to make 
War upon them, is that which I cannot fee the Juf- 
ticc of, nor how w'e Jhall be able to jujiify the Law- 
fulnejs of it before God or Man. 

GROMWELL. I confefs, my Lord, that, if they 
have given us nv Caufe to invade them, it will not be 
juftifiable for us to do it ; and to make War upon 
them without a fufficient Ground for it, will be con- 
trary to that which in Confcience we ought to do, and 
dijpleafmg both to God and good Men. 

But, my Lord, if they have invaded us, as your 
Lordfiip knows they have done, fence the National 
Covenant, and contrary to it, in that Action of the 
J)ue of Hamilton, ^vhith was by Ordzr and Au- 
thority from the Parliament of that Kingdom, and 
fo the Aft of the whole Nation by their Represent a- 
tives : And if they now give us too much Caufe of 
Sufpicion that they intend another Invafion upon us^ 
joining with their King, with whom they have made 
a full Agreement, without the AJJent or Privity of 
this Commonwealth, and are very bufy at this pre- 
fent in raifing Forces and Money to carry on their 
Deftgn : If thefe Things are not a fufficient Ground 
and Caufe for us to endeavour to provide for the 
Safety cf cur own Country, and to prevent the Mi~ 
Jeries which an Invajion of the Scots would bring 
upon us, I humbly fubmit it to your Excellency's 

That they have formerly invaded us, and brought 
a War into the Bowels of our Country ', is known to 


Of E N G L A N D. 271 

<?//, wherein God was pleafed to blsfs us with Sue- Inter-regnurm 
tefs againfl them ; and that they now intend a new 
Invafion upon us I do as really believe, and have as 
good Intelligence of it, as we can have of any Thing 
that is not yet afied. 

Therefore I fay, my Lord, that, upon thefe Grounds^ 
I think we have a mo ft juji Caufe to begin, or rather 
to return and requite their Hojiility firjl begun upon 
us ; and thereby to free our Gauntry (if God /hall 
be pleafed to afjift us, and I doubt not but he will) 
from the great Mifery and Calamity of having an 
Army of Scots within our Country. 

That there will be a War between us, I fear is 
unavoidable* Tour Excellency will foon determine 
whether it be better to have this War in the Bowels 
of another Country or of <rur own ; and that it will be 
in me of them, I think it is without Scruple. 

Lord-General. It is probable there will be a War 
between us, but whether we Jhould begin this War+ 
and be on the offenfive Part, or only ftand upon our 
Defence, is that which I fcruple. And although 
they invaded us under the Duke of Hamilton, who 
pretended the Authority of the Parliament then Jit- 
ting for it, yet their fucceeding Parliament difown'd 
that Engagement, and punijhed fame of the Promo-* 
ters of it. 

WHITLOCKE. Some of the principal Men in that 
Engagement of the Duke of Hamilton'*, are now in. 
great Favour and Employment with them, especially 
in their Army fence raifed, and now almojl ready to 
advance into England ; and I believe your Excel- 
lency will judge it more Prudence for us (who have 
an Army under your Command ready formed, and 
experienced Soldiers, whom God hath wonderfully 
prospered under your Conduft) to prevent their 
coming into England, by viftting of them in their own 

Lord-General. If we were affur'd of their coming 
with their Army into England, / confefs it were 
Prudence for us to prevent them, if we are ready 
to advance into Scotland before they can march into 
England ; but what Warrant have we to fall upon. 


272 *Tbe Parliamentary HISTORV 

Inter- regnum. them, unlefs we can be affured of their Purpose ta 

l6 5- fall upon us ? 

* "* ' HARRISON. I think, under Favour, there cannot 
be greater AJJiirance or human Probability of the In- 
tentions of any State, than we have of theirs to in- 
vade our Country ; clfe what means their prefent 
Levies of Men and Money, and their quartering 
Soldiers upon our Borders ? It is not long fin'ce they 
did the like to us, and we can hardly imagine what 
other Defign they can have to employ their Forces. 

Lord-General. Human Probabilities are not fuf- 
ficient Grounds to make M/ar upon a Neighbour Na- 
tion, efpecially our Brethren of Scotland, to whom 
we are engaged in a Solemn League and Covenant. 

ST. JOHN. But, my Lord, that League and Co- 
venant was firji broken by themfelves, and fo dif- 
folved as to us ; and the difowning of the Duke of 
Hamilton'* Attion, by their latter Parliament, can- 
not acquit the Injury done to us before. 

CROMWELL. / fuppofe your Excellency will be 
convinced of this clear 'Truth, that we are no longer 
abliged by the League and Covenant which themfeives 
did fir ft break. 

Lord-General. / am to anfwer only for my own 
Confcience, and what that yields unto as jujl and 
lawful, I Jhall follow ; and what feems to me, or 
what I doubt to be otherwije, I mu/i not do. 

WHITLOCKE. Tour Excellency is upon a very 
right Ground, and our Bufmefs is to endeavour your 
Satisfaction in thofe Doubts you make : If we Jhall 
Jtay till they firjl invade us, we Jhall Juffer much 
Mifery to come among us, which probably we may 
prevent by fending firft to them ; and furely, by the 
Law of Nations, if an Ally enter in an hojlile Man- 
ner into his Neighbour Nation, contrary to the Al- 
liance, and be beaten out again, that Nation thus 
invaded may lawfully afterwards invade the other, 
to requite the former Wrongs done unto them : But 
beftdes this we cannot but Jee their prefent Prepara- 
tions to be again/I us, for they are in Amity with all 
others ', and their Conjunction now with the King's 


Of E N G L A N D. 273 

Party, may plainly enough difcovcr their Dcfigns Inter-regnut 
again/I this Commonwealth. l6 5- 

Lord -General. 7 can but fay-, as I faid before, ^ v 
That every o:ie mujl jiand or fail by his uwn Con- ' 
Science : Thofe who are fatiijied of the JuJJice of this 
lVar, may chearfully proceed in it ; thoje vuho jcruple 
it (as I confefs 1 do) cannot undertake any Service in. 

I acknowledge that which hath been faid to carry 
much height and Reafon with it ; and none can have 
more Power upon me than this Committee, nor none 
he more ready to ferve the Parliament than myfclf y 
in any Thing wherein my Confcience foall be fatisfied. 
Jn this it is not ; and therefore, that I may be no Hin- 
der ance to the Parliament 's Dejigns, I foall willingly 
lav down my Commijfton, that it may be in their 
Hands to chafe Jome worthier Perfon than myfelf^ 
and who may, upon clear Satisfaction of his Con- 
ference, undertake this Bnf;nefs, wherein I defire to 
be excufcd. 

CROMWELL. / am very ferry your Lord flip 
foould have Thoughts of laying down your Commif- 
Jion, by which God hath blejjed you in the Perfor- 
mance of fo many eminent Services for the Parlia- 
ment. I pray^ my Lord, confider all your faithful 
Servants^ us who are Officers, who have ferved 
under you, and defire to ferve under no other Ge- 
neral. It would be a great Difcouragement to all of 
m, and a great Difcouragement to the djfairs of 
tbe Parliament, for our Noble General to entertain 
any Thoughts of laying down his CommiJJion. I hope 
your Lordjhip will never give fo great an Advantage 
to the public Enemy, nor fo much dijheartcn your 
Friends, as to think of laying down your Commif- 

LAMBERT. If your Excellency Jhould not receive 
fo much Satisfaction as to continue your Command in 
the Parliament's Service, I am very fearful of the 
Mifchiefs which might enfue, and the Dijlraclioa. 
in the public Affairs, by your laying down your Com- 
mijjion ; but I hope that which hath been offered unto 
you by this Committee, upon your ferious Confidera- 

VOL. XIX. S //,, 

274 ^ : ' e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ticn, will fo far prevail with your noble and pious 
l6 5- Difpofition, and with your Affettion to this Caufc 
wherein we are fo deeply engaged, as that you will 
not) efpecially at this Time, leave your old Servants 
and Officers, and the Conclufion of the moji glorious 
Caufe that ever Men were engaged in. 

HARRISON. It is indeed ', my Lord, the mojt 
righteous and the mojl glorious Caufe, that ever any 
of this Nation appeared in ; and now when we 
hope that the Lord will give a gracious, IJfue and 
Ccnclufion to it, for your Excellency then to give it 
over, will fadden the Hearts of many of God's 

Lord-General. What would you have me do? 
As far as my Conjcience will give Way I am willing 
to join with you Jl ill in the Service of the Parlia- 
ment ; but where the Confcience is not fatisjied, none 
of you, I am fure, will engage in any Service ; 
that is my Condition in this, and therefore I muji 
defire to be excufed. 

Thus far the Conference between Lord Fairfax 

and the Committee from the Council of State. 

Upon which Mr. Whitlocke remarks b , ' That tho' 
none of them were fo earneft to perfuade his Lord- 
fliip to continue his Commiffion as Cromwell and 
the Soldiery, yet there was Reafon enough to be- 
lieve they did not over-much defire it.' But Mr. 
Ludlow's Account of the Lieutenant-General's Be- 
haviour on this Occafton goes farther. This Me- 
morialift informs us c , ' That Cromwell, upon 
Lord Fairfax's Unwillingnefs to march into Scot- 
land, prefs'd that, notwithftanding this, the Par- 
liament would yet continue him General ; pro- 
felling, for his own Part, that he would rather 
chufe to ferve under his Lordfhip in his Poft, 
than to command the greateft Army in Europe.' 
He adds, ' That at the Meeting of the Committee 
of the Council of State, which had been appoint- 
ed upon Cromwell's own Motion, he adtcd his 


b Memorials, p. 446. c Memoirs, Vol. I. p. 315. 

Of ENGLAND. 275 

Part fo to the Life, that our Author really thought Inter-regnuts, 
him in earneft ; which, fays he, obliged me to itep l6 5- 
to him as he was withdrawing, with the reft of the ' ju^T" 1 
Committee, out of the Council-Chamber ; and to 
(iefire him that he would not, in Compliment and 
Humility, obftruft the Service of the Nation by 
his Refufal : But the Confequence made it fuffici- 
ently evident that he had no fuch Intention.' 

The fame Day that Mr. JWritlocke had reported The Parliament 
to the Houfe Lord Fairfax's Defire of refigning his P al ' s a Vote of 
Commiffion, they refolved, That a Committee be J^/f^ 
appointed to go to his Lordfliip, and let him know Faithful Services* 
the Parliament's high Efteem and good Accepta- 
tion of thofe eminent and faithful Services, which 
have, by the Blerfing of God upon his Endea- 
vours, been by him performed for the Common- 
wealth, to which they are perfuaded of his con*- 
tinued Fidelity and Affedtion. 

It was alfo ordered, That all the/Records be- 
Jonging to the late Houfe of Peers, be delivered to 
Air. Scobell) the prefent Clerk to the Parliament. 

The next Day, June 26, the firft Thing refol- 
ved on was, That all the Members of Parliament 
be called out of Weftminfter-Hall; that the out- 
ward Room be cleared, and the Door of the Houfe 
fhut. Then the Lord Commiflioner Whitlocks- 
made another Report from the Council of State, 
That, in purfuance of the Order of Parliament of 
the 9th of April laft, they had put an Army in Rea- 
dinefs, and had given them Orders to march 
Northward: And that, upon mature Confideration 
of what was required by the faid Order, it was the 
Opinion of that Council, That they cannot pre- 
vent an Invafion from Scotland? but by the march- 
ing of an Army into that Kingdom : The Juilice 
andNeceflity of which Expedition was fet forth in a 
Declaration ; a Draught whereof was offered to 
the Confideration of Parliament. 

The faid Declaration being read by Parts, and 

every Part put to the Queflion, it was with fomc 

S 2 Amend" 

276 Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnirm. Amendments afTented unto, nem. con. Afterward 

1650. i t was refolded , upon the Queftion, nem. con. ' That 
*- "v ' it was jufr and neceflary for the Army of England 
- to march into Scotland forthwith.' The Decla- 

ration was alfo ordered to be printed and publifhed, 
farfan Army ^*h Several other Papers annex'd thereto, (which 
into Scotland ' we have already given in their proper Order b ) un- 
iorthwith, der the Infpe&ion of the Council of State ; to whom 
it was referred to take Care for the flopping of all 
Correfpondency, Intelligence, Traffic, or Com- 
merce, between England and Scotland, as they 
fhould fee Caufe. 

Neither this Declaration, nor fo much as an 
Abftradl of it, is printed in Clarendon, Whltlocke, 
or any other Hiftorian of thefe Times. It is pre- 
ferved, however, in our Collection of old Pam- 
phlets ; and fince it muft be now a Curiofity to 
fee the Motives that induced the Parliament of 
England to fend an Army to invade their Brethren, 
of Scotland at this Time, contrary to the Solemn 
League and Covenant long fmce made between 
them, we {hall give it in its own Words c . 

land, upon the marching of their Army into Scot- 

A!fo publifh a A \ H E Miferies and Evils which are the fad 
Declaration of and inevitable Confequences of every War, 

the Tultice and -^ * r 

Neceffity there- are * g reat > tnat lC ought not to be undertaken 
of, * or profecuted but upon Grounds of Juftice and 

' Neceffity ; efpecially between thofe with whom 
' no Arguments are wanting for common Defence, 
'and where Profeffion of the fame Religion fhould 
' be a ftronger Bond of mutual Union. 

' This Confideration hath long held back the 

* Parliament of England from making Ufe of Force, 
' in reference to Scotland, notwithftanding the Juf- 
' tice of their Caufe, and the Greatnefs of their 

* Provocation; that they might avoid the EfFufion 


b In this Volume, p. 40, -47; 141,2,4. 
c Printed by William Duganl, by the Appointment of the Coun- 
cil of State, 1650. 

Of E N G L A N D. 277 

e of Blood, and thofe other Miferies and Calami- Inter-regnum. 
6 ties which muft in common involve even fuch of l6 5- 
' that Nation, who may have kept themfelves free * <* ~v ^ 
' from the Guilt of thofe Things which compel ^ une ' 
' this War; and whofe Principles may difpofe them 
' to the fame Ends with us, when they ihall have 

* difcovered their own true Intereft. 

* And, in the mean time, the Parliament hath 
e not been wanting in the Ofter of all fair and ami- 

* cable Means for compofing the Difference and 

* obtaining due Satisfaction; nor fufrcred their juft 
' Refentment of the Slight and Rejection of thofe 

* Offers, to carry them out immediately to the laft 

* Remedy; but have with much Patience expected, 
*. if the good Providence of God (hould mercifully 

* difcover any fit Expedient, whereby they might 
4 obtain their jult Ends, rather than by Arms. 

' But by all the Obfervations we can make of 
' their Actions, and out of their Declarations, and 
4 by the beft Intelligence of their prefent Motions 
4 and Defigns, their total Averfenefs to Amity and 

* Friendfhip with this Commonwealth is moft ap- 
4 parent, and the fame hoftile Difpofition conti- 

* nues, notwithftanding the fignal Hand of God 
4 againft them upon their late Invafion. 

* Their Defign is ftill carried on, and they have 
' not loft their Time in Preparations to execute 

* it, both by their Treaties and Correfpondences 
4 abroad, and by putting all Things in a Pofture 
4 for it at home. 

* The Parliament of England, upon ferious Con- 
4 fideration hereof, and of their Duty to this Com- 
4 monwealth, with whofe Good and Safety they 
' are entruited, have judged it juft and neceflary, 

* that an Army be forthwith fent into Scotland : 
' The Juftice, Neceflity, and Ends whereof they 
' declare in the Particulars following : 

4 Wherein, not to infift upon many Wrongs and 

* Provocations from the Commiflioners of Scotland^ 

* while they were here refident, and while nothing 
' but Friendfhip and Unanimity in the fame Caufe 

* was pretended by them ; their Ufurpation upou 

S 3 A6U 

278 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

< Ats of the Legiflative Power ; their frequent 
' Pr-tenfions to, and .Conteftations about, a joint 

* Intereft in fomc Adts of it ; their feducing the 

* People of this Commonwealth from their Affec- 

* tion and Duty to the Parliament, and to embrace 

* and promote the Intereft of the late King, un- 

* der Pretence of the Covenant ; laying among the 

* People Foundations of Concurrence with their 
' future Invafion, fufficiently evidenced by the ma- 

* ny Infurre&ions breaking forth in England in 
' the Year 164.8, when they invaded this Nation : 
' Which Concurrence of Trouble might greatly 

* have endangered the Return of Tyranny and Mi- 

* fery upon us, had not the Hand of Almighty God 

* mightily manifested itfelf in the carrying on of 
' that Caufe, which he hath (till own'd, even with 

* very great Difadvantage of Numbers and Prepa- 

* rations. 

* We fhall let thefe, and divers other Particulars, 
' pafs, and come to that which demonftrates the 

* Juftice of this prefent Undertaking ; the late Inva- 
' fion of this Nation, authorized and commanded 
by the Parliament of Scotland: All of them con- 

* curring in Defign to make a Prey to themfelves 

< of the Engiijb) tho' fome Difference fell amongd; 

* them who fhould have the greatcft Power of 

* Command, and thereby the greateft Opportunity 

* of advancing the Intereft of either Party, under 

* the fpecious Pretence of the Covenant. 

* And therein may be remembered, firft, their 

* taking of Berwick and Carlijle, and putting Gar- 

* rifons into them in the Year 1648, contrary to 

* the Large Treaty in the Year 1640, pafled by 

* the Parliaments of both Nations, by which thofe 

* Towns, or any other Frontier Towns of either 

* Nation, were not to be garrifon'd ; and accord - 

* ingly were fo left by the Engltjh. 

' By that Treaty alfo three Months. Warning 

* was to have preceded War ; yet this Invafion 

* was made by the Authority of the Parliament of 

* Scotland, while that Treaty was in Force ; and 

* that without any previous Declaration of War 

4 or 

O/ E N G L A N D. 279 

c or Hoftility, as by that Treaty ought to have Inter- regnum. 
'been. This alfo at a Time when the Parliament l6 5- 
' of England had Commitfioners at Edinburgh, of- *""""*7 V 7""""*' 

* fering to compofe all Differences between the 
' Nations by a Treaty, which they refufed ; and 
' their wicked Defign carried on, not only by a 

* Conjunction with the late King's profefs'd Party 

* under Langdale ; but they feduced from their 
' Duty, and drew from their Obedience, feveral 
' Forces of their own Nation, and fome Englifa, 
4 who were in the Pay of the Parliament of Eng- 
' land, to come over out of Ireland, and treafonably 

* to affift them in this Invafion. 

' When it plcafed our good God wonderfully to 
c appear for us, in fubduing and punifhing our 
' faithlefs Invaders ; the Army, by our Authority, 
' and by the Invitation of the Committee of Eftates 
' of Scotland fitting at Edinburgh, (Sir Andrew Carr 

* and Major Strachan being fent by them with Let- 
' ters of Credence, for that Purpofe, to the Head- 
' Quarters of our Army, then near Berwick) did 
' march into Scotland ; and, upon further Invita- 

* tion from the Committee of Eftates, by the Mar- 

* quia of Argyle, Lord Elcbo, and others, a great 

* Part of our Army did march clofe to Edinburgh, 
' the better to countenance and encourage their 
' Army ; they being then in Treaty with the Earl 
' of Crawford and Lindfay, the Lord Lanerk, Sir 

* George Monroe, and the reft of their Enemies, at 
' Stirling Bridge ; which having produced the de- 
' fired Effects, our Army was received with great 
' Expreffions of Contentment and Rejoicing for 
' the good Succefs which God had given them. 

' The Enemies in the North Parts of England 
t not being fully fubdued, and our Army ready to 
' return into England, upon the further and ear- 
' neft Defire of the Committee of Eftates, a con- 

* fiderable Part of it was left in Scotland, untill that 
' Nation was fettled in a peaceable Condition, and 
' fuch Forces raifed for their Defence as they thought 
' fit. This being done, our Army returned into 

* England^ having been Inftruments, by the Blef- 

' fing 

280 The Parliamentary HISTORY" 

' fing of God, of fo much Good to that Nation, 
1 and fettling them in the Power which they now 
4 enjoy; then highly by them acknowledged, own- 
' ing our Army for their Prcfervators, as indeed, 
4 under God, they were ; and profeffing their ear- 
* neft Defires and firm Refolution to continue a 
' grateful and conftant Amity and Friendfhip with 

4 Vet now, laying afide all Confideration of for- 
4 mer Kindnertes, and of their Expreflions and En- 
4 gagements of Juftice and Treaties, the common 
4 Bonds of human Society, they endeavour to exer- 
4 cife their Power for the Deftru<5tion of thofe by 
4 whofe Means they did receive it ; they again in- 
4 fift upon the fame Pretenfions to Matters of our 
4 Government, and take upon them to determine 

* what is fundamental here; and direct and threaten 
4 us, if we change not what is now eftablifhed, and 
4 form it to their Mind, or accommodate it to their 
4 Intereft. 

* This is fufficiently cleared by the Proteftation 
4 made and fent to us by their Commiflioners, the 
4 Earl of Lothian, Sir John Chie/ley, and Mr. Glen- 
4 dinning, upon which we then gave our Senfe in 
4 a flaort Declaration ; yet thofe Commiflioners 
4 were owned and juftified by the Parliament of 
4 Scotland) and no Cenfure parted on them, tho' 
4 defired by the Parliament of England, who fent 
4 them with a Guard to Berwick) to be delivered 

* to fuch as the Parliament of Scotland fnould fend 
4 to receive them. 

4 But becaufe real Injuries and great Provoca- 
4 tions may, and ought fometimes to be, parted 
4 over without War, though the Grounds of that 
4 War be juft, if it be not alfo neceflary, Reafons 
4 both of Prudence and Chriftianity requiring and 

* perfuading it; the Parliament of England doth 
4 hereby declare the Neceffity under which they are 
4 concluded to make this preient Expecliti&n, which 
4 they have already evidenced to be juft. 

* All fair and amicable Ways of procuring 

* Reparation of thofe great Damages which this 

O/ ENGLAND. 281 

Nation hath fuftaincd by them, and by Occafion j nt er- re gnum, 
of their Invafion, have been rejected and denied; 165- 
and that by the prefent Parliament of Scotland, * v- ' 
and Power now ruling there, whereby they have J un ** 
owned the Wrong and Damage done to this Na- 
tion by that Invalion ; which, upon due Confi- 
cleration, will be found to amount to vaft Sums, 
if all fhould be put upon their Account which this 
Commonwealth hath fuffered by them and their 
Influence, both in refpect of Ireland, the Revolt 
of Part of the Fleet appointed for that Summer's 
Service when they invaded, the feveral Infurrec- 
tions at home, and their Invalion. 

4 Their Defign and Refolution again to invade 
us, will be the more evident, if we remember, 

Firfti c That, upon Occafion of demanding only 
a Treaty for Satisfaction for their former Inva- 
fion, they do, in exprefs Terms, declare them- 
felves Enemies to the Government of this Com- 
monwealth, and all that adhere thereto, and lay 
Foundations of Sedition, and new Infurreclion, 
amongft ourfelves. 

Secondly, ' In purfuance of thefe Grounds, they, 
who cannot claim to themfelves the leaft Colour 
of Authority or Dominion over us, yet have ta- 
ken upon them, in Scotland, to proclaim Charles 
Stuart .to be King of England and Ireland ; and, 
in their Treaty fince with him, have promifed 
him their Afllftance againft this Nation. 

Thirdly, ' Before the late Invafion from Scot- 
land^ the Parliament of England, upon Forefight 
of their Difpofition to What followed, and feeing 
their Preparation, and the Party they had feduced 
in order thereunto, believing what the Event was 
like to be, fent thither Commiffioners to treat for 
preventing the Effufion of Blood ; but the Treaty 
was refufed, and anfwered only with the imme- 
diate March of their Army into England. Having 
therefore again refufed the amicable Offer of a 
Treaty for Peace, we have reafon to expect an- 
other Jnvafion. 


282 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Fourthly-, ' They have equally declared againft 
us as Sectaries, as they have againft thofe of 
Montrofe's Party, putting us into the fame Rank 
' with Malignants and Papifts; although they can- 
' not but know the Faith which we profefs, who 
' defire to worfhip God in the Spirit, rejoicing in 
' Jefus, and have no Confidence in the Flefti ; ha- 

* ving our Hope of Juftification and Remifiion of 

* Sins in the Blood of Chrift, and Salvation by the 

* free Grace of God ; mourning, from our very 

* Souls, that any turn that Grace into Wanton- 

* nefs j being ready to bear our Witnefs againft 
' them, and defirous that the licentious Practices 

* of thofe who do fo, fhould be punifhcd by the 
' Magistrate. We cannot but think that an Inte- 

* reft of Dominion and Profit, under a Pretence of 

* Prefbytery and the Covenant, is, by thefe Men, 
of more Value and Efteem than the Peace and 
' Love of the Gofpel, to which all that may be 
called Difcipline or Government in the Church 

* is, and ought to be, fubordinate ; and for which 

* the leaft Violation of the Love and Peace before- 

* mentioned ought not to be. Their Defign and 
' Purpofe being thus evident, a Neceflity is upon 

* us to ufe our befl Endeavours, with God's Af- 
fiftance, to prevent them, and not leave them to 

* invade us at their chofen Opportunity, and our 
sreateft Difad vantage, when they fhall have com- 
pleated their Defign with Foreign States for their 
' Aid, and with their Faction and Party in this Na- 
' tion for Correfpondence and Concurrence in their 
' Attempts upon us ; and that we may not be at 

* the infupportable Charge of keeping feveral Ar- 
mies in our own Bowels, and fubjet ourfelves to 
' the Contributions, Plunderings, and barbarous 
' Ufage of a Scots Army, if we fuffer them again 
' to enter; or of keeping one form'd Army con- 

* flantly upon the Borders, for preventing or re- 

* fifting thofe Attempts upon us, which they are 

* waiting an Opportunity at their beft Advantage 

* to make. A Burthen from which we ought to 


Of E N G L A N D. 283 

'apply our beft Endeavours to free the People, Inter-regn im. 
' who have fuffered fo deeply already by their 

< Means; which hath been Part of their Defign, 
hereby to bring the People to a Difcontent with 
' the Government from the Senfe of Charge, with- 

* out confidering the Caufe of the Continuance 

* thereof, that fo they may be fitted to receive their 
c Impreffions, and carry on their Faction among us, 

* and keep it ready for them to make ufe of when 

* they (hall fee Caufe. 

' And although the Injuries and Provocations 
' have been great and prefiing above Meafure, 

* which have been put upon us, as is evident by 
' what is before alledged ; and that the Wrong- 

< doers have left us no other Ways of Remedy or 

* Vindication, faving what the Sword can produce; 
' which, with the Bleffing of God, fucceeding, 
' might invite Returns anfwerable to their Defigns 

* and Attempts upon us, if we mould tread in their 
Steps : Yet the Lord is our Witnefs, thatDomina- 

* tion, Revenge, or worldly Gain are not the Mo- 
tives of our Engagement in this greatUndertaking; 
but our Ends therein are, the Advancement of 
4 God's Glory ; the furthering of a juft Freedom, 

* where God (hall minifter the Opportunity ; the 
' procuring of a fit Satisfaction for what is paft ; 
' and the fettling of a clear Security for the Time 

* to come, againft the like Injuries and Mifchiefs ; 

* which, as we hold it moft juft and neceflary for 
' us to feek after, for Prevention of our further 

* Sufferings by them, and their further Guilt ; fo 
' we mall much rejoice if it may be attained with- 
' out Blood ; and that thofe who fear God in both 

* Nations may be led, by thefe great Shakings, out 

* of all carnal Confidence and Expectations, to 
' meet together in the Power of true Religion and 

* Holinefs, to ferve and worfhip God according to 
' his Mind reveal'd in his Word ; which is our 

* Hearts Defire to make the Rule of our Ways and 

Cleric. Parliament. 


284 7#* Parliamentary Hi s T OR Y 

jnter-regnum. The fame Day, June 26, the Earl of Pembroke 

l6 5- reported from the Committee appointed to attend 

* -v ' the Lord-General Fairfax with the Vote of the 

Houfe of Yeilcrday, That they had accordingly 

attended on him ; and that his Lord(hip return'd 

his humble Thanks to the Parliament for their 

And appoint great Favour and Rcfpecls to him. The Houfe 

Cromwell Cap- being alfo informed that Mr. RuJJjzvortlj, his Lord- 

tain-Ocncral, on . t> / 

Lord Fairfax's ihip s Secretary, was at the Door, he was called 
refigning "his in ; and acquainted Mr. Speaker, That the Lord- 
Commiffion. General had commanded him to prefent to the 
Parliament the laft Commiflion he received from 
them ; and likcwife his firlt Commiffion, [which 
"was granted in the Name of both Houfes] if they 
pleafed to command it: Accordingly the laft Com- 
rniffton was delivered in. Next, it was refolved 
, that Mr. Rujhunrtb do likewife deliver in the fir ft 

Commiflion, which was done. After all this Ce- 
remony, an A61: for repealing the Ordinance and 
A61 of Parliament for conflicting Thomas Lord 
Fairfax Captain-General and Commander in Chief 
of all the Forces raifed by their Authority, was 
twice read, pafled, and ordered to be forthwith 
printed and publiflied ; as was alfo another for ap- 
pointing Lieutenant-General Cromwell to fuccecd 
his Lord (hip in that important Station. 

Mr. Whithcke attributes the great Expedition 
jnacle in palling thefe two A6ts, to the Contrivance 
of Cromu'eirs Friends, who urged the ill Confe- 
quences of the Army's being without a Head ; and 
adds, * That great Ceremonies and Congratula- 
tions of the new General were made to him from 
.all Sorts of People ; and that he went on roundly 
with his Bufmefs.' It is alfo obfervable, That 
though Cromwell (when in Ireland) had been twice 
fent to by Order of the Houfe, requiring him to 
give his Attendance in Parliament, yet he always 
excufed himfelf, on pretence that the public Ser- 
vice requir'd his Stay there, untill he was inform'tl 
by his Friends that Fairfax was fully determined 
rot to fight the Scots, and had Aflurances that the 
Parliament would confirm his Appointment of his 


Of E N G L A N D. 285 

Son-in-Law, Ireton, to be Deputy-Lieutenant of Inter-regnum. 
Ireland in his Abfence. Having thus fecured the L 

Government of one Kingdom in his own Family, jTjC^ 
he was left at Leifure to form the Conqueft of a 
fecond ; and, by his Succefs in that Attempt, a few 
Years after, arrived at the abfolute Command of 
all three. And indeed it appears to have been 
Cram-well's great Mafterpiece of Policy to be al- 
ways courted to accept what he moft ardently 
wilh'd to obtain. 

'June 28. The only Aft pafled this Month worth . 

VT i r j I r I \ An Aft pa fad 

our Notice, befides thofe above-mentioned, was, aga i n (t profane 
For better preventing and fupprejffing of profane Swearing. 
Sivearing and Curfmg ; whereby it was enacted, 
That every Perfon ftyling himfelf a Duke, Mar- 
quis, Earl, Vifcount or Baron, (hould, for the firft 
Offence, forfeit 30*. a Baronet or Knight, 20 s. 
an Efquire, iQs. a Gentleman, 6s. 8;7. and all 
inferior Perfons 3 j. \d. double for the fecond, 5V. 
to the ninth ; and for the tenth to be bound to the 
good Behaviour. The like Penalty on Women 
offending ; a Wife or Widow to pay according to 
the Quality of her Hufband, and a {ingle Woman 
that of her Father. Penalties to be recovered by 
Diftrefs and Sale of the Offenders Goods; and, in 
Default thereof, the Party, if above twelve Years 
of A:j;e, to be fet in the Stocks ; if under, to be 
publickly whipt. This A6t, which repealed the 
Statute 21. Jac. was ordered to be printed, and 
alfo pubiifhed on the firft Market-Day, in every 
Town, after the Receipt .thereof. 

July. About the Middle of laft Month Mr. Afcham t Mr. dicta*, the 
whom the Parliament had fent as their Agent into parK *J n * s *'? . A " 
Spain, was affaffinated at an Inn in Madrid, toge- hiving" been 'af- 
ther with one Signer Riba, his Interpreter, byfafii 
fix Englifnmen ; who inquiring for Mr. Afcham^ 
and being admitted to his Chamber, as he rofe to 
falute them, the foremoft laid hold on him by the 
Hair and ftabb'd him ; whereupon the Interpreter, 
endeavouring to make his Efcape, was ftabb'd by 


286 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-repnum. another. The Murderers having fled for Refuge 
1650. t o t ne Venetian Ambaflador's Houfe, who refufed 
* v ' them Entrance, they took Sanctuary in the next 
J u y * Church. When the Parliament was inform'd of 
this Affair by Mr. Fifoer, their late Agent's Secre- 
tary, they firft ordered that a Letter mould be writ- 
ten to the King of Spain, and fign'd by their 
Speaker, to demand Juftice on the Murderers of 
Mr. A f chain. Next Sir Henry Mildmay having re- 
ported from the Council of State, That (in regard 
of the faid horrible Affaffination and Murder, and 
alfo of feveral late Advertifements they had receiv'd 
of divers Perfons being come into England with In- 
tention of like Murder and Afl'aflination ; and that 
fome faithful Perfons to the State are particularly 
defigned to be attempted upon) it was the faid 
Council's Opinion the Houfe (hould be moved to 
take intoConfideration what they publimed, in their 
Declaration of the i8th of May, 1649, on occafion 
of the Murder of Dr. Dorljlaus a ; and give Order 
, that fomething may be done effectually in purfu- 
ance thereof, to difcourage and deter fuch bloody 
and defperate Men, and their Accomplices, from 
the like wicked Attempts for the future: Hereupon 
the Houfe refolved that fix of thofe Perfons who 
have been in Arms againft the Parliament, not be- 
ing admitted to C'ompofition, and are now in their 
Power and at their Mercy, be fpeedily proceeded 
againft to Trial for their Lives, before the High 
Court of Juftice, upon their former Offences, on 
occafion of the horrid and execrable Affaffination of 
Mr. Afcham, Agent for the Parliament to the King 
of Spain, and of his Interpreter. Then it was fur- 
The Houfe re-ther refolved that Sir John Stawel, Knight of the 
folve that fix at /j David Jenkins, Efq; a Welch Judge, Col. 

RoyaJifts be tried rr t or n \ r> r> r> n / i. r 

^ and Lapt. Browne Bufiel, be four 

of juftke, for of the fix ; and it was referred to the Council of 

^inft^h"? a "^ tate to confidcr the Cafe of the feveral Prifoners; 

monwellth. m " an ^ to pr^ en t Names to the Parliament, out of 

which they "might elel two more. A Committee 

was alfo appointed to confider of the Powers already 

a In this Volume, p. 124. S ivcn 

Of E N G L A N D. 287 

given to the High Court of Juftice, and to prepare a Inter-regnum; 
Draught of a Supplemental Act to impower that I 5 *. 
Court* to proceed againft the faid fix Perfons ac- T^T" 

July 3. Purfuant to the foregoing Order of the 
Houfe, tor adding two more Perfons to the four 
already named, as a Sacrifice to the Manes of their 
Agent Afcham, the Committee this Day prefented . 
to the Houfe the Names of fix Perfons for them to 
chufe two out of them, who were thefe following: 

Sir John IVintour^ now Prifoner in the Tower ; 
William Davenavtj called Sir William Davenant ; 
Col. Legge, Prifoner at Exeter-, Col.Gerrard, Pri- 
foner in Caernarvon Caftle, who had been in Arms 
againft the Parliament, and in the Rebellion in 
Ireland ; Capt. John Randolph, taken in the Infur-. 
redtion with the Earl of Holland; and Henry Stan- 
ley^ for endeavouring to carry away a Frigate be- 
longing to the Commonwealth. Out of thefe ths 
Houfe firft voted Col. Gerrard for one, without a 
Divifion; then Sir William Davenant, the famous 
Poet, being put to the Queftion, the Houfe di- 
vided, the Yeas and Noes each 27, when the 
Speaker faved him by his fingle Voice. Henry 
Stanley alfo parted in the Negative. The Houfe 
then left it to the Council of State to name one 
more themfelves, to make up the Number of fix 
Perfons doomed to Trial ; and the next Day they 
named Capt. Randolph, but the Houfe changed 
him for Sir JJ^illiam Davenant ; and foon after the 
Act for Trial of Sir John Stawell> and the reft, 
palled without any Divifion. 

July 9. This Day the Houfe voted that no Commiffion<?n 
Perfon, employed as a Commiflioner of Excife, of E * cife P roh '~ 

n u i LI- T7 i bited holding an'/ 

ihould continue in any other public Employment ot h er Employ- 
for which he fhall receive any Salary from the meat. 
Commonwealth ; nor trade or traffic in any Com- 
modity excifeable, during the Time he fhall con- 
tinue a Commifiioner of Excife. This Vote was 
not carried without two Divifions, on the Queftion, 



288 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

in the Houfe, and run fo near as 29 againft 24, 
and 27 againft 26. 

The fame Day the Parliament received Advice 
from Ireland, of a great Victory obtain'd there 
againft the Rebels, the 28th of "June lafl, with a 
A great viftoryLift- o f their Commanders flain or taken Prifoners 
ParHanJen^s the in the Adtion ; for which a Day of Thankfgiving 
Forces com- was appointed to be held on the 26th Inftant, 
imnded by Sir throughout all p .; land, Wales ^ and the Town of 
C "' Jt> ^ Berwick. An rt ct for that Purpofe, with a Decla- 
ration expreffing the Grounds and Reafons thereof, 
was alfo ordered to be brought in; which being a 
Kind of Narrative of the Action, we fhall give 
from that Authority. b 

A Declaration 
fetting /orth the 

THE mighty Wonders that God hath 
wrought in and for England, and the Mul- 
titude of Mercies with which he has followed the 
Parliament throughout, in this great Caufe which 
they have undertaken, for Afierting and Recovery 
of their juft Rights and Liberties, with the Efta- 
bliftiment of Truth and Righteoufnefs, are al- 
ways to be had in thankful Remembrance by us 
and ourPofterities,and ought to endear this Com- 
monwealth, after a molt peculiar Manner, to 
feek the Lord, and become a People in whom 
his Soul may take Delight : For he it is that hath 
removed our Shoulders from the Burden, and 
hath delivered us from Tyranny and Bondage : 
He hath gone forth with our Armies, nnd the 
Weapons that have been form'd againft us he 
hath not fuffered to profper. 
' A moft eminent Example of this his Grace and 
Goodnefs to us, we have Occafion at this Time 
to celebrate in refpect of Ireland; where God 
hath not only begun his faving and delivering 
Work, to our Admiration, and the Aftoniftiment 
of all our Enemies, but hath almoft made an End, 
and that in a moft glorious and remarkable Man- 
ner j fo that we may truly fay, the Lord hath foon 


b It fecms highly probable, from the Journals, that Sir Hairy 
Vane, jun r . was the Penman of this Declaration. 

Of E N G L A N D. 289 

' fubdued our Enemies in that Nation, and turned Inter-regnum. 

* his Hand againft our Adverfaries; the Haters of the l6 5- 

* Lord have been found Liars, and have not been < *""T v r"" < "'' 
' able to ft and in the Day of Battle ; but thofe cruel J " y * 

' and Blood-thirfty Men have had his juft Ven- 
' geance fo feafonably poured out upon them, that 
' the innocent Blood of the many thoufand Pro- 
' teftants there flain fmce this Rebellion, hath been 

* revenged and punifhed upon the prime and emi- 

* nent Actors of it. God, that is unfearchable in 

* bis Councils , and in his Ways pa/} finding out, ha- 
' ving call'd them to a ftrict Account, and given 
' them Blood to drink, of which they were worthy, 
' that all Nations may fear before him, and take 

* heed how they fet themfelves againft him and 
' his People. 

6 It is as yet very little more than twelve Months 

* when Dublin and Londonderry were the only con- 

* fiderable Places in all Ireland that remained un- 
' der the Power of the Parliament; and thofe were 

* fo ftraitly block'd up and befieged by powerful 
4 Armies of the Enemy, that there was nothing 
' left, but marvellous and extraordinary Appear- 

* ances of God, whereby to fet them free, and 

* make PafTage and give Footing unto the Army 

* fent laft Year from hence for the Reduction of 

* that Dominion ; whofe Progrefs, by the Blef- 

* fing of God, hath been fuch, as that, neither in 
' Field nor Garrifon, the Enemy is much confider- 

' The Particulars of this laft great Mercy given 

* unto the Parliament's Forces under Sir Charles 

* Coot, Lord Prefident of Connaugbt, againft the 

* whole Army of Irijh Rebels in Ulfter, command- 
e ed by the Popifh Bifhop of Clogher, have been, 
4 by an Exprefs from thefaid Lord Prefident, cer- 
' tified to the Parliament ; and are fiimm'd up in 
c the Narrative following, and the Letters and Pa- 

* pers themfelves herewith, and heretofore, print- 

* ed and made public, 

Voi.XIX. T IT 

*The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * IT having pleafed God fo to blefs our Armies 
1650. < j n Leinfter and Munfter, that the Enemy durft 

^-^ -v ^ * no longer keep the Field in thofe Parts, the Irijh 
' Rebels (having reduced themfelves into a Body 
c meerly Popifti, putting all Proteftants, of what 

* Quality foever, from amongft them j and, till 
when, they thought themfelves lefs capable of 
' Succefs or anyBleffing) loolc'd upon the Province 
' of Uljier as the fitteft Refuge for their Prcfervation 
' and Subfiftence, where the Parliament's Forces lay 
fcattered in fmalleft Proportion, and (as the Na- 
' ture of that large Country required) at greateft 
' Diftances ; and where the Country was well near 
4 wholly at their Devotion, the Papifts (which in 
c thofe Parts are the moft zealous, and therefore 
' the firft in the Rebellion, and moft bloody in the 
Execution) upon their own Account entirely, and 

* the Scots upon their King's, by whofe Authority 

* and for whofe Service this Army was raifedj and 

* therefore as, by the laft Year's Experience, they 

* were fure of the Scots upon that common Intereft, 

* fo, for their Encouragement now, they did, by 
' many Declarations difpers'd among the Scots, 
' aflure them of Security and Protection, if they 

* continued to own the laid King's Authority. 

Thefe Forces which, upon the Death of Owen 
( Roe O'Neal, were deftitute of a Commander, 
,' were fupplied by Ever MacMahon^ Bifhop of 
' Clogber^ by Commiffion from Ormond^ authoriz'd 
' thereunto by Charles Stuart^ eldeft Son to the 

* late King, into whofe Service and Protection 

* they were taken, by a Treaty mention'd in the 

* faid Commiffion itfelf of the faid OrmontFs, here- 
' with printed. 

* This is that Army which, while it was under 
' the Conduct of Ow en Roe the laft Year, did oc- 
c cafion fome Jealoufies and Reproaches upon the 

* Proceedings of this prefent Parliament, as if they 
' had been taken into their Service ; and that fuch 

* bloody Rebels Ihould have been made Ufe of 
' againft the Proteftant Pajty of Engttjb and Scots, 

* then under the Command of Ormond and Man- 

Of ENGLAND. 291 

* ro-e, that had declared themfelves againft the Par- Inter-regnum, 
6 liament of England, as Sectaries, and Murderers 

'of the late King: And great Ufe was made *~~r^' 
' thereof by Minifters and others, not affected to 

* this prefent Government, to alienate the Minds 
6 of Men from their Duty to this Parliament, and 

* foment new Diffractions and Divifions amongft 

* us : But as we did then, in the Sight of God and 
' Sincerity of our Hearts, vindicate our Innocency 
' in reference to any fuch Defigns, as by the Votes 
' we then patted doth appear ; fo the vigorous and 

* conftant Oppofition all along maintained againft 

* them, and the thorough Execution now done by 
' our Forces upon them, gives an undeniable Evi- 
4 dence of our Clearnefs therein, and leaves to fu- 
' ture Ages the Marks of our juft Indignation 

* againft them. 

' This Army, provided of this General, about 
' the End of May laft, fell down into Sir Charles 

* Coot's Quarters, and prefently took by Storm a 

* Place upon the Frontier of Ul/Jar t called Dunge- 
' ven, where they put all to the Sword, except the 

* Governor, whom they fent dangeroufly wounded 

* to Charlemont ; from thence they marched to 
Bally Caftle, which was prefently furrendered to 

* them without any Oppofition, by the Treachery 
' of fome therein. 

' Thefe Succefles exceedingly puff'd up the Re- 
c bels, and made them considerable, not in their 
4 own Eyes only, but to the Judgment of Ormofidj 

* Clanrickard, and the reft of their Party, who 
' therefore advife their General, by all Means, to 
' keep off from putting Things to the Hazard of 
' a Battle ; having Hopes, upon this Foundation, 

* and by the well managing of this fo well begun 
' Succefs,to recover again, not only their late Inte- 
' reft in, but the whole Dominion of Ireland; for 

* tho' the Army, in effective Force, did not con- 
e fift of above 600 Horfe and 4000 Foot, yet they 
4 were reckoned fourteen Regiments of Foot, and 

* had Officers of all Degrees proportionable to that 
' Number i which, by their Intereft in the Coun- 

T 2 try 

292 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' try as aforefaid, and by the Countenance of thefe 

* fuccefsful Beginnings, they might reafonably pro- 

* mife themfelves; and by them upon the Place it 
' is believed, that within a very few Days they 
' would have gathered in a Force of Soldiers an- 
' fwerable to thofe Officers. 

4 In the mean Time, all the Force that the 

* Lord-Prefident of Connaugbt could draw into the 
' Field to rcfift this powerful Inroad, (leaving the 
' Garrifons tolerably provided for) was but 1800 

* Foot and 6co Horfe, whereof 1000 Foot came 
' up to him under Col. Fen-wick ', but three Days 
' before he engaged the Enemy : But England may 

* fay, as well as Ifrae!, It is as eafy with the Lord 

* to fave with few as with many ; who was pleafed 

* to put fuch Zeal and Courage into the Soldiers of 

* the Parliament, that, on the 2ift of June laft > 
4 they marched up towards this Army (fo exceed- 
' ing them in Number, and heightened in Refolu- 
' tion by late Succefles) as it lay encamp'd neas 

* Lftterkemy t upon the Side of a Mountain, in- 
' acceffible either for Horfe or Foot ; upon Sight 

* of which the Enemy drew forth upon a Piece of 

* Ground (being indeed inticed thereunto by the 

* giving-back of fome of our Forlorn-Hope, or- 

* dered for that Purpofe fo to do) and though that 
' Ground was extremely bad, yet it pleafed God 

* to put it into the Hearts of our Forces, with that 

* fmall Body to advance towards them, where they 

* prefently engaged them; and, by the wonderful 

* Bleffing of Gofl, after an Hour's hot Difpute, 
' even to Pufii of Pike, with great Refolution on 
' both Sides, the Enemy was totally routed, many 
' of them killed upon the Place, and the Execu- 
' tion purfued ten cr eleven Miles every Way that 
' Night ; fo as the Number computed to be flain 
that Day in the Purfuit, and the next Day, was 
' 3000 at the leaft ; in which Action were flain 
and taken Prifoners moft of their Officers, from 
' the higheft to the loweft, few efcaping; and 
',many of the Heads of the principal Septs orFa- 

* jmilies in that Country, of the old Irijb Rebels ; 

* ibme 

Of E N G L A N D, 293 

* fome of whom are fince executed, and their Inter-regnum. 

* Heads fet upon the Walls of Londonderry for l6 5- 

* the Terror of others, and as Monuments of v "v*-^ 

* God's Goodnefs in their Overthrow ; the moft ^ y * 

* confiderable of all which, fo far as they were 

* then difcovered and known, are fet forth in a 
' Lift herewith printed. 

' There were alfo taken in that glorious Day, 

* all their Arms, Ammunition, Colours, Bag and 

* Baggage, and moft of their Horfe ; and though 
' their General the Bifhop got off with a Party, 

* yet he was met with (fo fure doth Divine Juftice 
4 purfue, and overtake the Men of Blood) and 
e taken by Major King and his Troops, near Innif- 
c killing, whofe Head was alfo fent for by Sir 

* Charles Coot % to accompany the reft of his 

* wicked Accomplices at Derry. 

' In this Day of Ul/ter's Danger and Diftrefs, k 
( might reafonably have been expected that the 

* Scots (who, notwithftanding their general Defec- 

* tion from the Parliament to the contrary Party 
' the laft Year, had yet enjoyed Peace and Pro- 
' teclion from us) would have come out againft 
' this perfectly Popifti Army, to the Help of the Lord 
( again/} the Mighty ; but fuch was their Ingrati- 
' tude, and fo great their Hatred to them whom, 
' they term Sectaries, above what they bear to the 

* worft of Papifts and the moft bloody Rebels, as 

* that they fat neutral all the while, as referving 

* themfelves to declare and fall in with the Con- 
' queror, which they alfo did accordingly. 

' In all this Bufmefs the Lofs on our Side was 

* very fmall, fo mercifully did the Lord cover the 

T 3 Heads 

a In Lord Clarendons Vindication of James Duke of Qrmand, 
(printed Anno 1736) we find a particular Narrative of this Engage- 
ment, together with the firft Rife and Character of this Bi/hop of 
Clogber; who, as the Noble Hiftorian affirms, was hang'd by Sir 
Charles Coot's Order, with all the Circumftances of Contumely, 
Reproach, and Cruelty he could devife, tho', upon being taken Pri- 
foner, he was promiled fair Quarter. But Mr. Whitlocke writes, 
That the Bifhop died of his Wounds, a few Hours after he was 
taken Prifoner ; and that fome of the Irijb Officers confefs'd,That 
if the Parliament's Forces had been defeated, the Bifiiop intended 
to have drawn his Army into Scotland, to promote the King's De- 
%ns there. 

294 Th* Parliamentary HISTORV 

Interregnum. Heads of his Servants in the Day of Battle ; fa 

1650. c as only Capt. Sloper of Col. Venable's Regiment, 

* ""vp^ 4 with ii or 12 private Soldiers, were (lain; and 

J uy< < Col. Fenwick, Major Gore, Capt. Gore, and an 

Enfign, with fome few others, wounded : And 

4 it is a Thing moft worthy Obfervation, That 

4 thofe who firft began the Rebellion in that ve- 

* ry Country of Ulftcr^ and where they executed. 
4 moft Cruelty and Inhumanity, fhould be referv'd 
4 for God's Vengeance to be pour'd out upon them 

* in that Place ; fo that we may juftly fay, Who is 
4 a God like our God, our Enemies themfelves being 
' Judges ! To him alone therefore be the Praife 
4 and the Glory. 

4 Nor was this great Mercy more wonderful 
4 than feafonable, in regard of the Terms wherein 
4 we ftand to Scotland, and the Ncceffity of our 
4 Army's marching thither, amongft other Things, 
4 for purfuing the Head of this Army of Popifh, 
4 and Irijh Rebels, Charles Stuart, eldeft Son of 
4 the late King ; who being beaten out from his 
4 Confidences and Intimacies with the Popifh Ar- 
4 my in Ireland, by the wonderful Succefs which 
4 God hath been pleafed to give our Army this 
4 Year and the laft, hath now no other Refuge 
4 left him but Scotland,where his Hopes are (Man- 
* trofe having alfo run out his Courfe, upon whofe 
4 Affiftance it is known he moft affectionately de- 
4 pended b ) to do that by Stratagem and Deceit 
4 with the Reformed Party, which he could not 
4 carry on by Force and Power, by Means of the 


b In the latter End of ^r/7 this Year the Marquis of Montrofe 
landed in Scotland, and railed Forces for the King ; but being de- 
feated and taken Prifoner by a Party of Covenanters, he was fen- 
tenced by the Scots Parliament, in May following, to be hang'd at 
Edinburgh on a Gallows 30 Feet high, and afterwards quartered ; 
which was executed accordingly, with all poflible Circumftances of 
Jnfolence and Barbarity, notwithstanding he had the King's Com- 
miflion, and they were at that very Time treating with his Majefty 
as to the Conditions on which he was to be reftored to that Crown. 
On the 12th of June the King fet Sail under a Dutch Convoy for 
Scotland, and arrived on thatCoaft the 23d; but was compell'd to 
promife to take the Covenant before they would permit him to come 
on Shore. On the 1 5th of July he was folemnly proclaimed at </;' 
t>urgb Crdfs, 

Of ENGLAND. 295 

* Popifh Rebels and purely Malignant Party; and Inter-regnum. 

* thinks now, under th*e fair Vizard of Reforma- l6 S - 

' tion and the Covenant, (which he hath fwal- * Ty" "^ 

* lowed like ill -pleating Phyfic for a defperate *' 

* Cure) to raife up a Party for himfelf in this Na- 

* tion alfo, for the rooting up this prefent Govern- 
f ment, and with it the Englijb Liberty, purchafed 
' at fo high a Rate, and whatever elfe is near and 

* dear to honeft and good Men : But the fame 
' God, who is mighty in Strength, and alfo wife 

* in Heart, and having fhewn himfelf in Power to 

* fubdue open Enemies, will not fuffer his Arm to 
' be ftiortened, in his going forth againft Hypo- 

* crites and falfe Friends ; that he in all may be 

* glorified, and his Praife /bread abroad throughout 

* the whole Earth. 

< UPON Confideration of all which, together 
' with the Taking of Trecrogban about the fame 
' Time, and other profperous Proceedings of our 

* Forces in Ireland^ the Parliament, for Manifef- 
' tation of their high and extraordinary Senfe of fo 
f fignal and feafonable Mercies, have thought if 
' fit, and their Duty, to fet a-part a Time for pub- 
c lie and folemn Thankfgiving to be rendered to 
' the Lord, the Author of thefe Mercies : And they 

* do therefore ena& and ordain, That Friday the 

* 26th of July be obferved and kept as a Day of 

< public and holy Rejoicing and Thankfgiving to 
' the Lord in all the Churches and Chapels, and 
' Places of Divine Worfhip, within this Common- 
' wealth of England^ Dominion of Wales> and 

* Town of Berwick upon Tweed-, and that the Mi- 

< nifters of the refpe&ive ParSflies and Places afore- 
' faid be, and hereby they are, required and n- 

* joined to give Notice on the Lord's Day next pre- 

* ceding the faid 26th of July-, of the Day fo to be 

< obferved, to the end the People of their feveral 
f Congregations may the more geaerally and dili- 

* gently attend the public Exercifes of God's Wor- 

* Slip and Service there to be di/penfed upon that 

* Occafion 5 at which Time 3 that the People may 


296 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum, ' ^ e ^ e more particularly and fully inform'd of this 

1650. ' ' great Deliverance and Succefs, the faid Minifters 

C -v-^ ' are hereby required and (under the Penalty fet 

July. down in the Refolves of Parliament of the Qth 

' of Juty, 1649) enjoined to publifh and read this 

4 preient A& and Declaration d . And, for the bet- 

* ter Obfervation of the Day, the Parliament doth 

* hereby inhibit and forbid the Holding or Ufe of 
4 all Fairs, Markets, and fervile Works of Men's 
4 ordinary Callings on that Day: And all Mayors, 
4 Sheriffs, Juftices of the Peace, Conftables, and 

* other Officers, are hereby enjoined, to take efpe- 
4 cial Care of the due Obfervance of the faid Day 
4 of Thankfgiving accordingly. 

By a Lift annex'd to this Declaration and Nar- 
rative it appears, that befides the Bifhop of Clogher 9 
the Commander in Chief, there were taken Prifon- 
ers two Lieutenant-Colonels, and one Quarter- 
rnafter-General; and amongft thofe kill'd in the 
Action and Purfuit were the Lord of Enijkellen^ 
the Bifhop of Down, one Major-General, five 
Colonels, four Lieutenant-Colonels, two Adjutarjts 
-General, four Majors, five Captains of Horfe, 
and fifteen Captains of Foot, whofe Names are put 
down, but unneceflary to be repeated here ; to- 
gether with feveral other Field Officers, Captains, 
Lieutenants, Enfigns, three Priefts and Friers, 
Names unknown, 3000 private Soldiers, with all 
their Ammunition, Colours, Arms, Bag, and Bag* 

Then follows a Copy of the Commiffion under 
the Hand and Seal of the Marquis of Ormond to 
the Bifhop of Clogber^ the Original whereof was 
taken, and fent over to the Parliament. 


* By thcfe Resolutions, (which are given at large in this Vo- 
lume, p. 154) fuch of the Clergy as neglected to publirti the feveral 
Acts and Orders of Parliament, were declared to be Delinquents j 
and accordingly Mr. Jenkins, Minifter of Ckrijl's Church, London, 
having refufed to obferve a Faft-Day appointed by Order of the 
Houfe, he was, about this Time, fequeitered from his Benefice, 
banifhed twenty Miles from London) and iufpended from Preaching 
fur the future, 

Of E N G L A N D. 297 

JAMES Marquis of Ormond, Earl of Ormond and Inter-regnum. 
O/ory, V ifcount Thurles, Lor^l Baron of Arch, 
Lord-Lieutenant-General, and General Gover- 
nor of the Kingdom of Ireland, Chancellor of the 
Univerfity of Dublin, and Knight of the Moft 
Noble Order of the Garter. 

To our Trufty and Well-beloved Bifhop 


T,J/"Hereas upon the Treaty with General Owen The Marquis of 
* * O Neil, deceased, it was, amongji other p ar .0rmond^ Com- 
ticulars, concluded and agreed upon, That in caje of^^ *f J/ * 
the Death or Removal of him, fuch other General, her. 
or Commander in Chief, Jhould be authorised by Com- 
tnijjion from us, to command his Majefty's Forces of 
the Province of Ulfter, Natives of the Kingdom, as 
Jhould be, by general Confent of the Gentry of that 
Province, elected and made Choice of for the fame : 
And whereas, in a general Meeting, lately held by the 
faid Gentry for that Purpofe, it was agreed upon 9 
andfo reprefented unto us, that you Jhould exercifefhat 
Command over the faid Forces ; we therefore, upon 
Conjideration thereof, and of the Care, Judgment^ 
Valour, and Experience in Martial Affairs, as alfo 
of the Readinejs and good Affettions of you ts do his 
Majefty good and acceptable Service, have nomina- 
ted and appointed, and we do hereby nominate and 
appoint, you the faid Bijhop Ever MacMahon, to 
le General of all his Ma'jejiy's faid Forces of Horfe 
and Foot of the Province of Ulfter, Natives of the 
Kingdom \ giving hereby unto you the faid Bijhop 
Ever MacMahon full Power and Authority to take 
the faid Charge and Employment upon you t and the 
faid Forces, and every of them, to lead and command* 
according to the Ufe and Difcipline of IVar, and fuch 
further Orders and Inftruclions as you Jhall, from 
Time to Time, receive from us, or other his Maje- 
Jlys Chief Governor or Governors of this Kingdom 
for the Time being in that Behalf; willing, and 
hereby requiring all the Officers , Troopers ^ and Sol- 

298 The Parliamentary HISTORY* 

Jnter-regnum. d{ers of the faid Forces, to obey you as their Gene- 
6 5' ral, and to be at and perform your Commands , en 
i-I T^^ / they Jhall ijfue unto them upon all Occaftons of his 
Majefty's Service, as they will anfwer the contrary. 
Jn witnefs whereof we have fign'd this your 
Commiffion, and caufed our Seal of Arms to 
be thereunto affix'd, at Loghreogh, the firft 
Day of April, 1650. 

Thus much for the Affairs of Ireland^ this Time. 

The Parliament were now fo intent upon profe- 
cuting their Expedition into Scotland, that on tb. 
2Qth of June, only three Days zlterCromzuelFs being 
appointed Captain-General of the Army, he fet 
forward from London towards the North. When 
he arrived at York, the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, 
and Sheriffs attended on him, and invited him and 
his Officers to Dinner, where they were highly 
carefs'd. At Durham Sir Arthur Hafelrigg, Go- 
vernor of Newcaftle, with Col. Pride, and other 
Officers, met him, and attended him to that Town, 
where he arrived on the ifth. of July. During his 
Stay there, a Faft was kept to implore God j s Bkf- 
fing upon the Army's Undertaking, and a Decla- 
ration agreed on to be difperfed in their march - y 
which, being fent up to the Parliament on the igth, 
was by them ordered to be forthwith printed and 
publifhed in htec Verba b : 

^DECLARATION of the ARMY of England 
upon their March into Scotland. 

To all that are Saints, and Partakers of the Faitb 
of God's Eleft, in Scotland, 

the Arm y of En & land do from the 

nz.v - , . -^ TT , ... . , 

my, addrefs'd to * Y V Bottom of our Hearts, wifh like Mercy 
the Eleft Saints "< and Truth, Light and Liberty with ourfelves, 
ofSc/W,upon< f rom God our Father, and our Lord Jefus Chrift. 

their march in- A . . , /-.,- 111 , 

to that King- ' Although we have no Caule to doubt but that 
J ~u ( the Declaration of the Parliament of the Com- 

* monwealth 

b From the original Edition, printed by Edward Hufoand and 
Jobn FicJJ, Printers to the Parliament of Mxglentt, Jxfy 19, 3650, 

Of E N G L A N D. 299 

* monwealth of England, bearing Date the 26th Inter-regnum. 

* of June laft, and publiflied to manifeft to the 

* World the Juftice and Necefiity of fending their 
4 Army into Scotland^ may fatisfy all impartial and 
4 difmterefted Men in all the Nations round about 
4 us, (the Matters of Fa& therein contained being 
4 true, and the Conclufions made from thence, and 

* the Refolutions thereupon taken, agreeable to the 
4 Principles of Religion, Nature, and Nations) and 
4 therefore it may feem to fome, if not improper, 
4 yet fuperfluous, for us, their Army, to fay any 
4 more ; yet, however, out of our Tendernefs tq- 
4 wards you, whom we look upon as our Brethren, 
4 and our Defire to make a Diftinclion and Sepa- 
4 ration of you from the reft, as who, through the 
4 cunning PracYifes of fome wicked and defigning 

* Men, byafied by particular Interefts, or for want 
4 of a true and right Information and Reprefenta- 
4 tion of the great and wonderful Tranfa&ions 
4 wrought amongft us, and brought to pafs by the 
4 meer Finger of our God, may poflibly be ican- 
4 dalized at fpme late Actions in England; and 
4 thereby be involved in that common Caufe, fo 
4 much from Heaven declared againft, by blafting 
4 all Perfons and Parties that at any Time, in the 
4 leaft, under what Pretence or Difguife foever, 
4 engaged therein, and fo, with them, to become 
4 Partakers of their Miferies : 

4 We have therefore thought fit to fpeak to fome 
4 Particulars, and that as in the Prefence of the 
4 Lord, (to whofe Grace, and in the Dread of 
4 whofe Name, we do molt humbly appeal, and 
4 who, fhould we come to a Day of Engagement, 
4 will be a fore Witnefs againft us, if we utter 
4 thefe Things in Hypocrify, and not out of the 
4 Bowels of Love, to perfuade the Hearts and Con- 
4 fciences of thofe that a,re godly in Scotland) that 
4 fo they may be withdrawn from partaking in the 
4 Sin and Punimment of Evil Doers ; or that, at 
4 leaft, we might exonerate ourfelves before God 
f and Man, do remonftrate as followeth : 

4 And 

300 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' And for as much as we believe many godly 
< People in Scotland are not fatisfied with the Pro- 
' cecdings of this Nation, concerning the Death of 
the late King ; the Rejedion of his Ifliie ; the 
' Change of the Government ; and feveral Actions 

* converfant thereabout. Although it cannot be 

* fuppofed that in this Paper we fliould anfwer all 
c Objections that may be made, (thefe very Parti- 
' culars alone requiring more Lines than we intend 
' in the whole) yet we briefly fay, That we were 
' engaged in a War with the faid King, for the 

* Defence of our Religion and Liberties ; and how 

* many Times Proportions for a fafe and well- 
' grounded Peace were offered to him, and how 
' often he refufed to confent thereto, you well 
' know ; which, according to human Account, 
f he might have clofed with, had not the righte- 
' ous God, who knoweth the deceitful Heart of 
' Man, and is the Preferver of Mankind, efpecially 
' of his People in his fecret Judgment, denied him 
' a Heart to aflent thereto. 

.' By which Refufals he made it appear, that 
c nothing lefs would fatisfy than to have it in his 
' own Power to deflroy Religion and Liberties ; 
' the Subverfion whereof he had fo often attempt- 
c ed : That he was a Man guiky of more innocent 

* Blood in England, Ireland^ and Scotland, even 

* of thofe he ought to have preferved, as a Father 

* his Children, than any of his Predeceflbrs, or, 
' we think, than any Hiftory mentioneth ; the 
' Guilt whereof he brought upon his Family by 

* folemn Appeals to God : That the Son did tread 
1 in the Father's Steps, and purfue his Defigns, de- 

* ftruftive to Religion and Liberty : That a Party 

* in Parliament, falfe to God and to their Truft, 

* were willing, and did endeavour, to betray the 
' Caufe into the late King's Hands : That a re- 
4 mainingNumber in Parliament, defiring to be true 

* to God, and to the People that intrufted them, 
' (out of Integrity of Heart, and fearing that the 
4 high Difpleafure of God would fall upon them, 

Of ENGLAND. 301 

1 if they had not done it) did bring to Juftice, and inter-regnum; 
' caufe to be executed, the faid King; did reject 
' the Perfon now with you; did lay afide the Hoiife 

* of Lords (an Eftate not reprefenting the People, 
' nor trufted with their Liberties, yet at that Time 
' very forward to give up the People's Rights, and 
' obftru<St what might fave them, and always apt 
' enough to join with Kingly Intereft againft the 

* People's Liberties, whereof we wifli you have not 
' like fad Experience) ; and did, for the Good of 
' the People, refolve the Government into a Com- 
' monwealth. 

' And having done all this, that they are not 
' accountable to any other Nation, is fufficient to 
? fay to you, except it be to excite you to rejoice 

* in this wonderful Work of God, and to be thank- 
' ful to him for fo much Deliverance as you have 
' thereby, and leave the reft to the State of Eng- 

* land) to whom it doth only and properly belong ; 

* who have manifefted their regular Proceedings 
' therein, according to the true and equitable In- 
' tent of the Constitution of England, and the Re- 
' prefentors of the People in Parliament, in their 
' feveral and refpective Declarations, if they be 
' looked into, to which we refer you. Befides, 

* it is worthy Conflderation, with how many Pro- 

* vidences this Series of Adion hath been blefs'd, 

* which would require a Volume to recount. 

' If Treaties be urged againft us, it is eafy to 
' fay by whom they were broken, and how emi- 

* nently, even by the then full Authority of the 
' Parliament of Scotland, and the Invafion by the 

* Duke of Hamilton ; and yet that not the firft 
' Breach neither. And if it be faid, That hath 
' been protefted againft, and revoked fence ; we afk, 
' Doth that make up the Breach, fo as to challenge 
' England ftill upon Agreements and Articles ? 

* You know, as to Right, it doth not, except you 
' fuppofe that England made their Bargain fo, that 

* Scotland might break and England remain bound ; 

* whereas k is a known Law of Nations, that in 

< the 

302 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jater-regnum. the Breach of the League by the one Party, the 

1650. t other is no longer obliged. 

* v - ' * If the Covenant be alledged againft us, this 
J u y * ' may be faid by us with Honefty and Clearnefs, 
' Religion therein having the firft Place, Civil Li- 
' berties the next, the King's Intereft and Confti- 
' tutionof Parliament the laft, and thefe with Sub- 
' ordination one to another : The Covenant tied 

* us to preferve Religion and Liberty, as the Ends 

* of it, even when thefe were inconiiftent with the 
' Prefcrvation of the King's Intereft and the Frame 
' of Parliament ; becaufe when the Means and the 

* End cannot be enjoyed both together, the End 
' is to be preferred before the Means. 

' Now that there was a real Inconfiftency be- 

* tween the End and the Means, and that the lefler 

* did fight againft the greater, is your own Judg- 
' naent ; who, in a Book of yours, call'd A necef- 
' fary and feafonable Tejiimony againft Toleration t 

* fay thus of the two Houfes, p. 12, And doubtlefs 
( the Lord is highly dijpleafed with their Proceedings 
c in the Treaty at Newport, in reference to Religion 

* and the Covenant ; concerning which they accepted 
4 of fucb Concejfions from his Majejly^ as, being ac- 
' quiefced in, were dangerous and deftruftive to both. 
c Had we not then appeared againft thefe Con- 
' ceflions, and likewife thofe of both Houfes who 

* acquiefced in them, had not Religion and Li- 
' berty both been deftroyed, which now, by the 

* Blefling of God, are preferved ? And if that Ao 
' tion concerning the Parliament deferve a Charge, 

* yet leaft of all from yourfelves ; who, when you 

* faw the Parliament which fent the Duke of Ha- 
' milton with an Army into England, proceed in 
4 Ways deftru<Stive to Religion and Liberty, you 

* countenanced and adted with thofe that rofe up 

* for public Safety, tho' contrary to AtSts of Par- 
' liament, and call'd a new one, excluding whom 

* you thought fit ; all which was done by Virtue 

* of Authority from the Committee of Eftates 

* then fitting at Edinburgh ; which indeed was no 


Of ENGLAND. 303 

c Committee, if you refpecl: Formalities, (the Inter-regnunu 
4 Breach whereof you fo often charge upon us) l6 5- 

* being conftituted of fuch Perfons as, by Act of- L ~7 V ~ ~*j 
4 the foregoing Parliament, had not legal Right to ^ y 

4 fit or act therein ; they not having taken the Oath 

* (for faithful Difcharge of the Truft repofed in 
4 them, in reference to the late Engagement againft 
e England) injoined by that Parliament to be taken 
4 by every Member of the Committee at his firft 
4 fitting, or elfe to have no Place or Vote therein, 

* as is fully fet down in the Commifiion for confti- 
4 tuting of that Committee of Eftates. 

4 We could more particularly fet forth how the 

* Committee of Eftates there fitting, according to 

* the literal Senfe of the aforementioned Commif- 
' fion, was broken and driven away by that Force 
' raifed and acted by you as aforefaid : But we 
4 fpare, not feeking to juftify our Actions by yours, 
4 but to (hew, that you have done the fame Things 
6 for Prefervation of Religion and Liberty, which- 

* you fo highly charge as Evil upon us : And there- 

* fore we further defire you ferioufly to confider, t 
4 that the Inconfiftency of our Religion and Liber- 

' ties, with the King's Intereft and former Con- 
4 ftitution of Parliament, did not arife from our 
4 Jealoufies or Pretences ; but from the Hardnefs 
4 of the King's Heart, and the Backfliding of the 
4 greater Part of thofe that were intrufted in the 
4 Parliament, by their acquiefcing in thofe Concef- 
4 lions, and endeavouring immediately to bring in 
4 the King upon them. We therefore reckon it 
4 no Breach, but a religious Keeping, of the Co- 
4 venant according to the Equity thereof, when 
4 our Parliament, for Religion and Liberty's Sake, 
4 and the Intereft of the People, did remove the 
4 King and Kingmip. As alfo we aflert ourfelves 
4 Keepers of the Covenant, when the Competition 
4 hath been between the Form and Subftance, if 
4 we have altered fome Forms of the Government 

* in part for the Subftance Sake. 

4 As for the Prefbyterian, or any other Form of 
4 Church-Government, they are not by the Cove- 

* nant 

304 jfife Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * nant to be impofcd by Force; yet we do and are 
1650. ' ready to embrace fo much as doth, or (hall be 

l> -v *J i ma( je appear to us to be according to the Word 

J ul y- O f God. Are we to be dealt with as Enemies, 

' becaufe we come not to your Way ? Is all Re- 

* ligion wrapt up in that or any one Form ? Doth 
' that Name, or Thing, give the Difference be- 
' tween thofe that are the Members of Chrift, 
' and thofe that are not ? We think not fo. We 

* fay, Faith working by Love is the true Cha- 

* rafter of a Chriftian j and, God is our Wit- 

* nefs, in whomfoever we fee any Thing of 

* Chrift to be, there we reckon our Duty to love, 

* waiting fof a more plentiful Effufion of the Spirit 
4 of God to make all thofe Chriftians, who, by 

* the Malice of the World, are diversified, and, 

* by their own Carnal-mindednefs, do diverfify 

* themfelves by feveral Names of Reproach, to be 

* of one Heart and one Mind, worfhipping God 
' with one Confent. We are defirous that thofe 

* who are for the Prefbyterian Government, mould 

* have all Freedom to enjoy it; and are perfuaded, 
' that if it be fo much of God, as fome affirm, if 
' God be trufted with his own Means, which is 

* his Word powerfully and effectually preached, 
- * without a too-bufy meddling with, or engaging, 

* the Authorities of the World, it is able to ac- 

* complifh his good Pleafure upon the Minds of 
' Men, to produce and cftablim his Purpofes in 

* the World, concerning the Government of his 

' And as for the Blafphemies and Herefies 
' wherewith fome Statifts among you have labour- 

* ed to brand us, we can fay, That we do own 
' thofe found Grounds and Principles of the Chri- 
' ftian Religion, preached and held by the Gene- 

* rality of godly Minifters and Chriftians of thefe 
' later Times ; abhorring from our Hearts, and 

* being ready to bear our Witnefs againft, any de- 

* teftable Blafphemies and Herefies lately broken 

* out amongft us. We have already punifhed 
c fome amongft us for Blafphemy, and are further 

' ready 

Of E N G L A N D. 305 

4 ready to do it ; but how uningenuoufly we have Inter-regnum, 

* been dealt with by fome amongft you, and of our l6 5 
' own Countrymen, in heaping Calumnies upon ''"""Tv" 
4 our Heads, to render us vile and odious to our 

4 Brethren, yea and the whole World, we leave 
4 to God to judge, who will, we trull, in due 
4 Time, make thefe Things manifeft. But were 
4 Prefbytery thus to be contended for, and that in 
4 upholding it all Religion did and would flourifh ; 
4 yet how improbable it is, that the Courfe taken 
' by thofe in Authority with you will produce the 

* Things you defire, to fay no more, let your own 
4 Experiences a little mind you. 

* What Pretenders were fome Lords and other 
4 Perfons in the North of Ireland, whilft they 

* mingled the Prefbyterian with the Kingly Inte- 
4 reft j and the Minifters, by their Preaching, fe- 
4 duced the People from their Obedience to Eng- 
4 land, under the fame Pretence : But no fooner 
4 had thofe Perfons got the Power into their own 
4 Hands, but they fhook off the Minifters by 
4 Threatenings, caufing fome of them to quit the 
4 Country, and, in general, difcouraging the Ex- 
4 ercife of the Government there; declaring plainly 
4 by their Actions, that it was but a Device to 
4 draw on the Royal Intereft ; and thofe very Per- 
4 fons that did get Power into their Hands under 
' thofe Pretences, immediately joined with Owen 
4 Roe O'Ntal, and thofe bloody Irijh Rebels upon 
4 the' Kingly Intereft. 

4 It will not be unfit to mind you alfo, how the 

* Nobility and fome of the Minifters of Scotland* 
4 preaching and crying up a War againft England^ 
4 under Pretence of the Covenant, did thereby lay 
4 a Foundation to the Duke of Hamilton's getting 
4 the Command of that Army ; who, over-num- 
4 bering them in Parliament, 'Power, and Friends, 
4 and by the Advantage of Malignants, thruft all 
4 that you could call the good Party out of Power 
4 and Authority ; himfelf getting the Command of 
4 that Army into England, and leaving his Brother 
4 a,nd other Kindred in Power in Scotland. 

VOL, XIX. U < Thus, 

306 ffle Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. < Thus, upon the fame Ground and Pretence to 
1650. carry on the Kingly Intereft, have you been twice 

^ ~ v * deceived ; and now he is brought in amonc; you, 

' who hath turned every Stone, and tried all Friends 
c and Allies in foreign Parts ; endeavoured Com- 
motions at home by his wicked and malignant 
6 Inftruments ; commiffioned Rupert, the French^ 

* and all that piratical Generation, who do fpoil, 
' take, plunder, arid deftroy our Ships and Trade 
4 at Sea, and all to the end he might deflroy the 
6 People of God, and the Peace of the three Na- 
c tions : And now being, by his Mother and the 

< Popifh Interefts abroad, counfelled thereto, hath 

* made a Compliance with you, as his laft Refuge; 

* who, even whilft he was treating with you, had 
e his Heart fet upon Montrofe and his Accomplices, 
6 (writing Letters, and fending particular Orders 

< to him) and upon his Popifh Army in Ireland, to 

* whom he had given Commiflions, and whom he 
' ftill owned as his faithful Subjects, notwithftand- 
ing all the innocent Blood by them (hed ; and 
' would never be induced to comply, or clofe with 
' the Covenant and Prefbytery, till utterly difap- 
' pointed of all thofe his Malignant and Popifli 

* Hopes and Confidences. 

' Is there not now juft Caufe for all good Men 

< with you to fear that one fo bred, fo engaged and 
' interefted, and meerly in fuch a Way coming 
' in to you, doth but watch his Opportunity (to 

* fpeak nothing of the Weight of the Blood of 
' Saints under the Altar, crying ftill for Vengeance 
' upon him and that Family) till by his Influence 
' upon your Army, which you know how com- 

* pofed, he may gain his Ends upon you ; and how 
' likewife the Generality of the People of Scotland 

* are affected, is not unworthy of your moft ferious 
, ' Confideration, nor of a friendly Intimation from, 


' But that which moft awakens us is, That not- 
' withftanding all this, and all the Wrongs done to 

* England from Scotland, they refufe to do us Right ; 
' fo that what Wrongs foevcr we have, or fhall 

* fuftain, 

Of E N G L A N D. 307 

4 fuftain,muft be without Remedy,and we alfo with" 
c out Security for the future, as is fufficiently expo- 
' ftulated in the Parliament of -fiV/gvWsDeclaration 

* aforementioned ; and the Seeds laid of a perpe- 

* tual War, by talcing our grand Enemy into your 
''.Bofoms, and your Engagement to him, in the 
4 late Treaty with him, to reftore him to the Pof- 
4 feflion of England and Ireland; and therefore 
4 we call Heaven and Earth to witnefs, whether or 
4 no we have not Caufe to defend ourfelves, by hin- 
4 dering the prefent Power of ScQtland from ta- 
4 king their Time and Advantage to impofe thus 
4 upon us : And whether they have now any juft 
4 Reafon to wonder at the Approach of an Army 
4 to their Borders, and the taking fome of their 
4 Ships by ours ; yea, whether our coming into 
4 Scotland with an Army, upon fo clear a Ground, 
4 be any other than a juft and neceflary Defence 
4 of ourfelves, for Prefervation of thofe Rights 
4 and Liberties which Divine Providence hath, thro' 
4 the Expence of fo much Blood and Trealure, 
4 given us ; and thofe amongft you have engaged 
4 they will, if they can, wreft from us ; unlefs it 
4 muft be taken for granted that the Parliament 
4 of England ought to lit ftill and be filent vvhilft 
4 their Ruin is contrived, their Friends and Bre- 
4 thren deftroyed by Sea and Land, whom in Con- 
4 fcience and Duty, both before God and Man, 
4 they ought to preferve. 

* And now we come to fpeak to all thofe who 
4 are within the Compafs pf the Title of this De- 
4 claration ; that we undertake this Bufmefs in the 
4 Fear of God, with Bowels full of Love, yea, 
4 full of Pity, to the Inhabitants of the Country 

* and if it fliall pleafe God to make Scotland fen- 
4 fible of the Wrongs done to us, and to give to 
4 the Commonwealth of England a fatisfying Se- 
4 curity againft future Injuries, we fliall rejoice ; 
4 but if that may not be obtain'd, we {hall defire 
4 fuch as fear God not to join or have to do with 
4 thofe who are the Authors and Actors of fo much 
< Evil and Mifchief againft their Neighbours : And 

U 2 'we 

308 be Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' we dare fay, to the Praife of God, that that which 
1650. < moves us to this great Undertaking, is not any 

^-"**"V""""" 1 ^ ' Reliance upon the Arm of Fleih, or being lifted 
' up with the Remembrance of former Succefles, 
' or the Defire of accomplifhing any Defigns of 
' our own that we have forelaid ; but the full Af- 
' furance we have that our Caufe is juil and righte- 
' ous in the Sight of God; looking at all precedent 
' Changes, and the SuccefTes that have produced 
' them, not as the Work of the Policy or Strength of 
' Man, but as the eminent Actings of the Provi- 
' dence and Power of God to bring forth hisGood- 
' will and Pleafure, concerning the Things which 
' he hath determined in the World. And we are 
' confident, that as he hath hitherto glorioufly ap- 
' peared, fo he will ftill, bearing witnefs to the 
' Righteoufnefs of this Caufe, in great Mercy and 
' Pity of the Infirmities and Failings of us his 

* poor Creatures : And we do moft humbly implore 
' his divine Majefty to give a merciful Teftimony, 
' whether the Actings of divers Men amongft you 
' have not proceeded from worldly Intcrefts, toge- 

* ther with the Rancour and Bitternefs of their 

* Spirits, who, we fear, thro' Envy atlnftruments, 

* have refufed to acknowledge his Hand and Good- 

* nefs in the Accomplishment of thefe great 
' Changes; and whether ours have not come from 
' the Simplicity of our and other his poor Servants 

* Hearts; who, we truft, have defired, though in 

* the Midfl of manifold Weaknefles, to follow him 

* in Integrity, through difficult Paths, having no- 
( thing but Danger and Ruin appearing to the 
' Flefh, and little to encourage us, faving thofe 
' fignal Manifeflations of his Prefence in thofe 

* high Acts of his Providence, and the Fear of 
' his Name, left he going before, we fliould not 
c follow. 

And this we can further add, That nothing is 
' fo predominant within us (next to our Duty to 
' God, nor to betray a Caufe to which he hath fo 

* much witnefled) as the Lo\ r e we have towards 

* thofe that fear God there } -who may poffibly fuf- 



* fer through their own Miftakes, or our Difabi- Inter- regnum, 

* lity to diftinguifh in a common Calamity ; of l6s ' 

' which Chriftian Love we hope we gave fome **""Ty"""' 
4 Proof and Teftimony when we were ] aft in Scot- 
' land with this Army, and were by God made in- 

* ftrumental to break the Power of thofe that then j 
' opprefled the godly Party there, and were then rea- ' 

' dy, at their Defire, to do every Thing on their 
' Behalf which might put them into the Seat of 
' Authority and Power ; whofe Confciences know 

* this is true, and for which this late Aft of En- 

* gagement to their new King againft England, is 
' no good Requital ; nor their heaping on us the 

* Reproach of a Sectarian Army, a Chriftian Deal- 
' ing : All which we do with Comfort commend 
' to God, and can, notwithftanding all this, fay, 

* By the Grace of God, we can forgive and for- 

* get thofe Things, and can and do defire of God 

* that the Precious in Scotland may be feparated 
c from the Vile; which is the End of this our Paper. 
' And to the Truth of this let the God of Heaven, 
' in his great Mercy pardoning our Weaknefles, 

* judge of us when we come to meet our Enemies 
' in the Field, if, through the Perverfenefs of any 

* in Authority with you, God lhall pleafe to or- 
' der the Decifion of this Controverfy by the Sword ; 
6 which we, from our Hearts, befeech the Lord to 
' avert, and to give you the like Chriftian and 

* Brotherly Affedtion towards us, which we, by 

* God's Grace, bear towards you. 

Sign'd in the Name^ and by the Appointment^ of 
his Excellency the Lord-General Cromwell 
and his Council of Officers. 

JO. RUSHWORTH, Secretary. 

Befides the foregoing Declaration of the Army, 
To all that are Saints^ and Partakers of the Faith 
of God's Elefl) another was publifhed by Crotn- 
well, on his Arrival at Berwick; which was alfo 
reprinted at London on the 23d of this Month, by 
Order of Parliament, and therefore requires a Place 
in this Work. It was addrefled thus : 

u 3 r 

310 Tie Parliamentary HISTORY 

To the People of SCOTLAND. 
< "Y T THereas the Army under my Conduct, by 
V V tne Authority of the Parliament of the 
4 Commonwealth of England^ is to advance into 
Another to thcc Scotland^ upon the Grounds, and for the Ends, 
/wlngleral.'"' exprefled in their Declaration of June 26, 1650: 
' And considering the feveral Ways and Pra6tices 

* of fome in that Kingdom, whole Defign it hath 
' been, and ftill is, by all Manner of groundlefs 
' and unjuft Reproaches, and moft falfe Slanders, 
to make the Army odious, and to render us unto 
' the People as fuch that are to be abhorred of all 
' pious, peaceable, and fober Spirits, and to be 
' rather Monfters than Men. 

* We think fit therefore, for the clearing of our- 
4 felves, to remind you of our former Deportment 
' and Behaviour ; when, about two Years fince, 
we entered into the Kingdom of Scotland, and 
then carried in by the Hand of Divine Provi- 
dence, and through the earneft Invitation of thofe 
' now in prefent Authority and Power with you, 

* What Injury or Wrong did we then do, either 

* to the Perfons, Houfes, or Goods of any? Whofe 
' Ox have we taken ? Did we feek any Thing for 
' ourfelves ? Did we other than preferve the Beft- 

* affected from their and our moft defperate Ene- 

* mies ? And having efrablifhed our Inviters in their 

* Power, without doing the leaft Violence to any, 

* we returned to our own Nation. And, confr- 

* dering this, we have Caufe to hope that thofe for- 
' mer Carriages of ours are not fo foon forgotten, 

* and that the prefent Mifrcports of what our 

* Dealings will be, {hall not difturb nor affright 

* the People from their Houfes and Dwellings. 

* And for Satisfaction of all thofe that are Lo- 

* vers of Religion, Peace, and public Liberty; and 

* being dcfirous to put a Difference between the In- 

* nocent and the Guilty, we do hereby declare, in 
' the Integrity cf our Hearts, That, as to the Gen- 
' try and Commonalty of the Nation of Scotland, 

* whofe Habitations are in thofe Places whither the 

* Army, 

Of E N G L A N D. 311 

* Army, by the Providence of God, may come; Inter-regnum, 
' as we know full well they are not the Perfons, l6 5- 

* who, by their Councils and Undertakings, have V: "-v * 
"' lai^l the certain Foundation of a fecond unrigh- J uly * 

' teous and unjuft Invafion of England^ by doling 
c with, and entertaining of, him who ftirs up, and 
' labours to engage, many foreign Princes to invade 

* the Commonwealth of England j and hath exer- 

* cifed actual Hoftility againft the Nation, by de- 
' ftroying the People, and commiflionating Pirates 
' to kill our Men, and to rob, fpoil, and take away 
' our Ships and Goods by Sea, to the Ruin ofEng- 
' land? fo much as in him lies ; nor of thofe who 
' have refufed fo much as a Treaty with the Com- 

* monwealth of England? wherein only a juft and 

* equal Satisfaction for paft Injuries was aimed at, 
' and a Security for a firm Peace between the two 
' Nations defired : Which Denial, and other Prac- 

* tices, hath put us upon this unavoidable Necef- 
' fity of entering into Scotland? unlefs we would 
' have flood ftill, and feen not only the Deftruc- 

* tion of the Godly and Well -affected, but alfo of 

* the very Power of Godlinefs and Holinefs in both 
' Nations : So we mail not (the Lord continuing 

* his Goodnefs and Prefence to us) offer the leaft 

* Violence and Injury to the Perfons, Goods, or 
' Pofleflions of any of them ; but ftrive and labour 

* to our utmoft to prevent all Diforders that happen. 
' from an Army, and to give all fpeedy Redrefs and 

* Satisfaction that poflibly may be, when any juft 

* Complaint of Mifcarriage mall be made. 

' And upon the Confidence of thefe our fincere 
' and honeft Intentions, (which we hope our good 

* and gracious God will enable us to perform) we 
c do hereby invite all fuch Perfons to ftay and abide 
' in their own Houfes and Habitations, where they 
' may and mall enjoy what they have in Peace ; 
4 and not to fuffer themfelves to be mifled by the 

* Craft and Subtilty of any, into that which muft 

* needs prove their inevitable Lofs and Ruin, and 
' a great Hazard to their Country. 

How- ' ' 

312 72tf Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' Howfoever we have done this as our Duty to 

1650. < God, and for Satisfaction to all good Men. 
* - -v -J Signed in the Narne^ and by the Appointment , of 
his Excellency the Lord-General Cromwell and 
his Council of Officer s^ 


July 24. Sir Henry Mildmay reported from the 
Council of State, That it was their Opinion, in 
regard of the many Defigns now on Foot, if 
any Infurre&ions (hould happen, the Public Peace 
would be much the more endangered, by Occa- 
fion of the late King's Children remaining here, 
who may be made Ufe of to the Prejudice of the 
Public ; which they left to the Confideration of 
the Houfe to provide fuch Remedy therein as to 
their Wifdoms fhall feem meet. 

On which, after fome Debate, it was refolved^ 
The Parliament < That Henry Stuart, third Son to the late King, 
p?nce/5J e and and the ^ a ^ Elizabeth his Daughter, {hould be 
Princds 'jEilxa- removed forthwith beyond the Seas, out of the Li- 
betb cut 01 Eng-m\ts of this Commonwealth.' And that it be 
land. ] e f t to t ] ie Council of State to confider of a fit Place 

to remove them to, the Manner of fending them 
thither, and of a fit Maintenance for their Sup- 
port, during the Pleafure of Parliament. 

We have already taken Notice that fome Prefby- 

terian Minifters had neglected or refufed to publifh 

the Ads and Ordinances of Parliament,fmce the 

King was beheaded and the Houfe of Lords fet 

afide, which gave Occafion to the foregoing Re- 

7oSiEing n shf f olutions touching the Clergy a : And the Houfe be- 

riffs to difperfe ing informed that feveral Sheriffs of Counties had 

the Orders, fife, been equally regardlefs of their Votes and Orders, 

of the Houfe, ^^ found jt n e Ce ff ary to pa f s an &Q_ tf\\s Month, 

requiring all Sheriffs to appoint Deputies to re- 
ceive and tranfmit the Acts, Orders, and Direc- 
tions of the Parliament and Council of State, and 
to make Returns thereof, as they fhould be enjoined 
by either of thofe Authorities. 

At F 154* in this Volume. 


Auguft i . This Month begins with another Re- Inter-regnum. 
port made to the Houfe from the Council of State, l6 5- 
That they had Intelligence from fome who were in < """" v "7"'^' 
Cuftody, and other concurrent Testimonies, of a 
Defign ready to break out, which would have been 
of imminent Danger to the Parliament, and all 
that adhere to them, if not timely prevented, many 
being engaged therein ; and the Difcovery made by 
fuchlas were in the Defign : That the Council, 
thereupon, had ordered all the Horfes to be feiz'd, 
in the City and Parts adjacent, to prevent Ufe to 
be made of them by thofe who were concerned in 
this Bufinefs j which, as they were informed, was 
near breaking out, but, as they hoped, might now be 
broken. The Houfe approved of all the Council 
had done in the Affair, but we hear no more of it. 

The next Day, Aug. 2, an Act parted the Houfe, And another for- 
inhibiting all Trade, Traffic or Intercourfe with [bidding all inter-' 
Scotland, and for enjoining the Departure of all^ with5 "<- 
Scotfmen out of the Commonwealth ; which was 
ordered to be forthwith printed and publifhed, and 
proclaimed by Beat of Drum and Sound of Trum- 

The Houfe now proceeded on Ways and Means Ways and Means 
for raifing Monies for the conftant Payment off "ifing Sup- 
their numerous Armies in Ireland and Scotland ; plies% 
in which, amongft others, deep Search was made 
after Delinquents Eftates, though they had raked 
into them, feemingly, as far as they could be- 
fore. A Committee was appointed to confider 
of the Names of more Delinquents for their Eftates 
to be fold ; and that the Eftates of fo many of 
them be put to Sale, as may be fufficient Security 
for the Loan of 200,000 /. and a Bill was ordered 
to be brought in for that Purpofe, and alfo for rai- 
fing Money on Deans and Chapters Lands. 

But as Supplies of this bort muft have an End, 
and the Extending of Commerce is the only ef- 
fectual Fund for enabling the Subject to pay 
Taxes, an Act was pafled, about this Time, for 



Parliamentary HISTORY 


) ' 

Advancemoit of 

the Advancing and Regulating the Trade of the 

Hitherto we have given an Abftract of the moft 
material Acts pafied by this Remnant of a Parlia- 
ment, nor does that now 'before us deferve lefs 
Notice : P\>r thefe Laws, though made by Ufur- 
pers of the Legifiative Authority, may probably 
furnifh many ufeful Hints for Reformation and 
Improvement under a lawful Government. And, 
in fact, feveral Statutes enacted fmce the Reftora- 
tion, have taken their Rife from fuch as were 
made during the Commonwealth and Protectorate. 
The Preamble to the laft-mention'd Act runs thus : 
An Aa appoint- ' The Parliament of England taking into their 
ing Commiflion-. < Care the Maintenance and Advance of theTraf- 
fi . c > Trade > and feveral Manufadures of this Na- 
tion; and being defirous to improve and multiply 
tne fame for 'the beft Advantage and Benefit 
' thereof; to the end that the poor People of this 
' Land may be fet on Work, and their Families 
' preferved from Beggary and Ruin ; that the Com- 
' monwealth might be enriched thereby, and no 

* Occafion left either for Idlenefs or Poverty : And 

* duly weighing that the Trade of this Nation, 
c both at home and abroad, being rightly driven 
' and regularly managed, doth exceedingly con- 

* duce to the Strength, Wealth, Honour, and Pro- 
' fperity thereof; and, on the contrary, that the 

* negligent, irregular, and defective Management 
' of Trade, muft neceflarily prove difadvantageous 
' to the feveral Trades in particular, and to the 

* Commonwealth in general : For the preventing 

* of which Mifchiefs and Inconveniences, and for 

* the better regulating of Trade for the future, 

Then the Act proceeds to appoint Commif- 
fioners to be a ftanding Council for the Regulation 
of Trade, according to certain Inftruclions, to this 

i. ' To take Notice of all the native Commo- 
' dities of England, or what Time or Induftry may 
.' hereafter make native} and advife how they may 

4 not 

Of E N G L A N D 315 

x not only be fully manufactured, but well and Injer-regnum. 
c truly wrought, to the Honour and Profit of the l6 5- 
' Commonwealth. * -v ^ ; 

2. ' To confider how the Trades and Manufac- Auguft ' 
' tures of this Nation may moft fitly and equally 

* be diftributed ; to the end one Part may not 

* abound with Trade, and another remain poor for 
6 want of it. 

3. ' How Trade may moft conveniently be dri- 
e ven from one Part of the Nation to another; to 
' which Purpofe they are to confider how Rivers 

* may be made more navigable, and Ports more 
' capable of Shipping. 

4. ' How the Commodities of England may be 
' vented, to the beft Advantage, into foreign 
' Gentries, and not undervalued by ill Manage- 

* ment ; how Obftructions of Trade into foreign 

* Parts may be removed ; and how new Ways and 
6 Places may be found out for better venting of na- 
' live Commodities. 

5. ' How free Ports for foreign Commodities 
' imported (without paying of Cuftom, if again 
' exported) may be appointed, and in what Man- 
' ner the fame is beft to be effected. 

6. * To contrive that a moft exact Account be 
4 kept of all Commodities imported and exported, 
c that a perfect Balance of Trade may be taken ; 
4 whereby the Commonwealth may not be impo- 
' verifhed by receiving of Commodities yearly from 

* foreign Parts, of a greater Value than what were 

* carried out. 

7. ' To confider the Value of the Engtijh Coin, 
c and the Par thereof, in relation to the intrinfic 

* Value which it bears in Weight and Finenefs with 
' the Coin of other Nations ; alfo of the State of 
' Exchange, and of the Gain or Lofs that comes to 

* the Commonwealth by the Exchange now ufed 
' by Merchants. 

8. * To inquire what Cuftoms, Impofts, and 

* Excife are fit to be laid upon all Commodities, 
' either native or imported ; and how they may be 

* beft regulated, and fo equally laid and managed 

' as 

3 1 6 7#<? Parliamentary HISTORY' 

Xnter-regmim. * as neither Trade may be hindered, nor the State 
1650. ' made incapable to defray public Charges. 

9. ' To confider whether it be necefiary to give 
a y to a more O p en Trade than that of Com- 

* panies, and in what Manner it is fitteft to be 
' done ; wherein to take Care that Government 

* and Order in Trade may be preferved, and Con- 
' fufion avoided. 

10. ' To inform themfelves of the particular 
' Ordinances, Grants, Patents, and Conftitutions 
' of the feveral Companies of Merchants and 

* Handicrafts-Men, that, if any of them tend to 

* the Hurt of the Public, they may be laid down. 

11. ' To confider the great Trade of Fifliing, 

* not only upon the Coafts <& England and Ireland^ 

* but likewife of Iceland^ Greenland, Newfound- 

* land, and New-England^ or elfewhere ; and to 

* encourage Fimermen, in order to the Increafe of 

* Shipping and Manners. 

12. To advife how the Englljh Plantations in 
' y/^zm^, or elfewhere, may be beft managed; and 
how the Commodities thereof may be ib multi- 

* plied that thofe Plantations alone may fupply the 
' Commonwealth of England with whatsoever it 

* neceflarily wants.' 

Thefe Commiflioners were impowered not only 
to receive Propofals from any Perfons of Experi- 
ence and Ability in Matter of Trade, but had alfo 
Authority to fend for the Officers of the Exche- 
quer, Mint, Cuftoms, and Excife for their Afiift- 
ance ; alfo to view all Books, Records, &c. for 
their further Information ; and the Refult of their 
Inquiries, with their Opinion thereupon, was re- 
quited to be laid before the Parliament or Coun- 
cil of State. A Salary of 200 /. per Annum was 
appointed for their Secretary, and 300 /. per Annum 
more for Clerks and other Officers, payable by the 
Treafurer of the Navy ; but as the Commiffioners 
themfelves had nothing more than their incident 
Charges allowed them by this Adr., we may fuppofe 
they were content with the Honour arifing from 
the Service of their Country. 


Of ENGLAND. 317 

Aug. 6. Sir Henry Vane^ jun. having reported, Inter-regnum. 
from the Council of State, feveral Letters received 
from the Army in Scotland^ they were read, and a ^f^^ 
Committee was ordered to examine which of them 
were fit to be publifhed. Among thefe, one from 
the Lord-General Cromwell h\mklf t will be a fuf- 
ficient Reprefentation of his Proceedings, hitherto, 
in that Kingdom. 

To the Right Honourable the LORD PRESIDENT 
of the COUNCIL of STATE. 

My Lord, Muffelburgh, July 30, 1650. 

' "\T7"E marched from Berwick upon Monday, Gen. CnrnmlT* 
' V V being the twenty-fecond Day of July, Account of the 
and lay at my Lord Mordington's Houfe on Man- Arm f s ? roc , eed : 
day Night, Tuefday and Wednefday ; on Thurfday" & m 
' we march'd to Copperfpeth j on Friday to Dun- 
' bar, where we got fome fmall Pittance from our 
' Ships, and from thence we march'd to Haddlng- 
' ton. On the Lord's Day, hearing that the Scots 
' Army meant to meet us at Gladfmoor, we labour- 
< ed to poflefs the Moor before them, and beat our 
' Drums very early in the Morning ; but when we 
' came there no confiderable Body of the Army 
4 appeared ; whereupon 1400 Horfe, under the 
' Command of Major-General Lambert and Colo- 
' nel Wballey, were fent as a Van-guard to Muf- 
' felburgb, to fee likewife if they could find out 

* and attempt arty Thing upon the Enemy, I 

* marching in the Heel of them with the Relidue 
' of the Army. Our Party encountered with fome 
of their Horfe, but they could not abide us. We 
' lay at Muffelburgb encamp'd clofe that Night, 
' the Enemy's Army lying between Edinburgh and 

* Leith, about four Miles from us, intrench'd by 
' a Line flanker'd from Edinburgh to Leith ; the 
' Guns alfo from Leith fcouring moft Parts of the 

* Line, fo that they lay very ftrong. 

' Upon Monday the 2Qth Inft. we were refolved 
' to draw up to them, to fee if they would fight 
' with us ; and when we came upon the Place we 
' refolved to get our Cannon as near them as we 

* could 

318 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum. ' could, hoping thereby to annoy them : We like- 

l6 5- 4 w ife perceiving they had fome Force upon a Hill 

**~^f^~ t ' tnat over-looks Edinburgh^ from whence we 

* might be annoyed, did refolve to fend up a Party 
' to pofiefs the faid Hill, which prevailed ; but 

* upon the whole we did find that their Army were 
' not ealily to be attempted ; whereupon we lay 
' ftill all the faid Day, which proved to be fo fore 

* a Day and Night of Rain, as I have feldom feen, 

* and greatly to our Difadvantage, the Enemy ha- 
' ving enough to cover them, and we' nothing at 
6 all confiderable. Our Soldiers did abide this 
' Difficulty with great Courage and Refolution, 
' hoping they fliould fpeedily come to fight. In 

* the Morning, the (jround being very wet, and our 
' Provifions fcarce, we refolved to draw back to 
' our Quarters at MuJJelburgh, there to refrefh and 
c revictual. The Enemy, when we drew off, fell 

* upon our Rear, and put them into fome little 
' Diforder ; but our Bodies of Horfe being in fome 
' Readinefs, came to grapple with them, where in- 

* deed there was a gallant and hot Difpute; the 
' Major- General and Col. Whalley being in the 
' Rear, and the Enemy drawing out great Bodies 
' to fecond their firft Effort, our Men charged 
' them up to the very Trenches, and beat them in. 
' The Major-General's Horfe was ftiot in the 
' Neck and Head; himfelf being run thro' the Arm 
' with a Lance, and into another Place of his 
' Body, was taken Prifoner by theEnemy,butrefcu- 
' ed immediately by Lieutenant Empfon of my Re- 
c gimem. Col. ty'balley, who was then neareft to 
'the Major General, did charge very refolutely, 
' repulfed the Enemy, a'nd kill'd divers of them 
' upon the Place, and took fome Prifoners without 
' any confiderable Lofs; which indeed did fo amaze 
' and quiet them, that we marched oft" to MuJJel- 
c burgh, but they dar'd not fend out a Man to 
' trouble us. 

' We hear their young King looked on upon all 
' this, but was very ill fatisfied to fee their Men 

* do no better. 


Of ENGLAND. 319 

We came to Mu/elburgh that Night, fo tired Inter-regnum. 
' and wearied for want of Sleep, and fo dirty by J 
4 reafon of the Wetnefs of the Weather, that we 
' expelled the Enemy would make an Infall upon 

* us ; which accordingly they did, between Three 
' and Four this Morning, with fifteen Companies of 

* their moft felecl: Troops, under the Command of 
6 Major-General Montgomery and Stracban, two 
c Champions of the Church, upon which Bufinefs 

* there was great Hope and Expectation laid. The 

' Enemy came on with a great deal of Refolution, ' 

* beat in our Guards, and put a Regiment of Horfe 

* in fome Diforder ; but our Men fpeedily taking 

* the Alarm, charged the Enemy, routed them, 

* took many Prifoners, killed a great many of them, 
'did Execution within a Quarter of a Mile of Edin- 
6 burgh ; and, as I am informed, Stracban was 

* killed there, befides divers other Officers of Qua- 

* lity. We took the Major of Stracban's Regi- 
e ment, Major Hamilton^ a Lieutenant-Colonel, 
' and divers other Officers and Perfons of Quality, 

* whom yet we know not. Indeed this is a fweet 
' Beginning of your Bufmefs, or rather the Lord's, 
' an<T I believe is not very fatisfaclory to the Ene- 
my, efpecially to the Kirk-Party ; we did not 
' lofe any in this Bufmefs, fo far as I hear, but a 
Cornet ; I do not hear of four Men more. The 

* Major-General will, I believe, within a few Days, 
4 be well enough to take the Field ; and I truft this 

* Work, which is the Lord's, will profper in tfte 

* Hands of his Servants. 

' I did not think it advifeable to attemp't upon 
' the Enemy, lying as he doth; but furely it would 
' fufficiently provoke him to fight if he had a Mind 
' to it. I do not think he is lefs than 6 or 7000 
4 Horfe, and 14 or 15,000 Foot. The Reafon I 

* hear that they give out to their People, why they 

* do not fight us, is, becaufe they expect many 
e Bodies of Men more out of the North of Scot- 
' land, which when they come, they give out they 
' will then engage ; but I believe they would ra- 
' ther tempt us to attack them in their Faftnefles, 

' within 

320 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * within which they are intrenched ; or elfe, ho- 

* ping we fhall familh for v/ant of Provifions, which 
' is very likely to be, if we be not timely and fully 
4 fupplied. I remain, 

My Lord, 

Your mo/i bumble Servant, 


* I underftand, fince the writing of this Letter, 

* that Major-General Montgomery is flain.' 

After reading the foregoing Letter, it was re- 
folved, That all private Buiinefs be forborn for 
one Month ; and no other Matter taken into De- 
bate but that of raifing Supplies, and other public 
Affairs of the Commonwealth. 

We have already given the Army's Declaration 
upon their March into Scotland, published by Or- 
der of Parliament. To this the General Aflembly 
of the Kirk of Scotland having printed an Anfwer, 
Cromwell wrote them a Letter upon that Occafion ; 
which, though not Parliamentary itfelf, yet as it 
proves the General to have been a Match for the 
Aflembly themfelves, i-n the Manner of handling of 
Scripture and applying it to his own Purpofes, a 
Copy thereof will not be deem'd an improper Di- 
greflion ; and the rather, as this Letter, tho' men- 
tion'd by Mr. Wlrithcke, is not printed any where 
that we know of. It runs thus h : 

70 /^GENERAL ASSEMBLY of the KIRK c/Scor- 
LAND ; or, in cafe of their not fitting, to the 

SIRS, Mufelburgh, Aug. 3, 1650. 

His Letter to the' XTQUR Anfwer to the Declaration of the 

' I Arm ? we have feen c j fome s dl y . Mini - 

' ' flers with us did, at Berwick, compofe this Re- 


h From the original Edition, printed for H. Alien, in Pope 'i- 

c Printed at Edinburgh, July 22, 1650, by Evan Tyler, and 
Jtyled A Short Reply to (be Arm^i Dedarativn) figned A, Ktrr' 

Of E N G L A N D. 321 

* ply, which I thought fit to fend you d . That Inter-regnunu 

* you or we, in thefe great Tranfaclions, anfwer 
' the Will and Mind of God, it is only from his 
' Grace and Mercy to us j and therefore, having 

* faid, as in our Papers, we commit the Iflue there- 

* of to him who difpofeth all Things ; afTuring you 

* that we have Light and Comfort increafing upon 

* us, Day by Day ; and are peri uaded that, before 
' it be long, the Lord will manifeil his good Plea- 

* fure, fo that all fhall fee him ; and his People 
c fhall fay, This is the Lord's Work^ and it is mar- 
6 velloits in our Eyes : This is the Day that the Lord 
' hath made, we will be glad and rejoice therein. 

' Only give me Leave to fay, in a Word, you 

* take upon you to judge us in the Things of our 
' God, though you know us not; though in the 
' Things we have faid unto you, in that which is 
4 intitled The Army's Declaration, we have fpoken 
4 our Hearts as in the Sight of the Lord who hath 
1 tried us : And by your hard and fubtle Words, 
' you have begotten Prejudice in thofe who do too 
much (in Matters of Conference, wherein every 
e Soul is to anfwer for itfelf ti God) depend upon 

< you ; fo that fome have already followed you to 
the breathing-out of their Souls ; others continue 
ftill in the Way wherein they are led by you (we 
fear) to their own Ruin : And no marvel if you 
deal thus with us, when indeed you can find 

< in your Hearts to conceal the Papers we have fent 
t you from your own People, who might fee and 
underftand the Bo*wels of our Affections to them, 
efpecially fuch among them as fear the Lord. 
< Send as many of your Papers asyoupleafe amongft 

< ours, they have a free PafTage ; I fear them not: 
What is of God in them, would it might be em- 
braced and received. 

VOL. XIX. X One 

<l This Piece is intitled A Vindication of the Army of England's 
March into Scotland, from the uncharitable Conjlrufiions, odious Im- 
putations, and fcandslous Afferjlons of the General AJJ'cmbly of tht 
Kirk of Scotland, in their Anf-wer. Publifhed by the fpecial Ap- 
pointment of the Council of State, and printed by JibnFitld, Au* 

322 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' One of them lately fent, directed To the Under ~ 
Officers and Soldiers in the Englifh Army*, hath, 

* begotten from them this inclofed Anfwer, which 
' they defired me to fend you ; not a crafty politic 
' one, but a plain, fimple, fpiritual one ; fuch as 

* it is God knoweth, and God alfo will, in due 
' Time, make manifeft : And do we multiply thefe 

* Things as Men, or do we them for the Lord 
Chrift and his People's Sake ? 

' Indeed we are not, through the Grace of God, 

* afraid of your Numbers, nor confident in our- 
4 felves. We could (I pray God you do not think 
' we boaft) meet your Army, or what you have to 
' bring againft us. We have given (humbly we 

* fpeak it before our God, in whom all our Hope 

* is) fomeProof that Thoughts of thatKind prevail 
' not upon us. The Lord hath not hid his Face 

* from us fince our Approach fo near unto you. 

* Your own Guilt is too much for you to bear ; 
' bring not therefore upon yourfelves the Blood of 

* innocent Men, deceived with Pretences of King 

* and Covenant, from whofe Eyes you hide a bet- 

* ter Knowledge. I am perfuaded that divers of 

* you who lead the People, have laboured to build 
' yourfelves in thefe Things, wherein you have 

* cenfured others, and eftabliftied yourfelves upon 
( the Word of God. Is it therefore infallibly agree- 

* able to the Word of God all that you fay ? 

' I befeech you, in the Bowels of Chrift, think 

* it poffible you may be miftaken. Precept may 

* be upon Precept, Line may be upon Line, and 

* yet the Word of the Lord maybe to fome a Word 
' of Judgment, that they may fall backward and 

* be broken, and be fnared and be taken. There 

* may be a Spiritual Fulnefs which the World may 

* call .Drunken nefs, as in the fecond Chapter of 
' the Atts. There may be as well a carnal Con- 

* fidence upon mifunderftood and mifapplied Pre- 
' cepts, which may be called Spiritual Drunken- 


This Piece, with the Army's Anfwer annex'd, (dated from the 
Leaguer at Mujj'ellurgb, Aug. i, 1650) was reprinted at Lokdsr. t 
Aug, 12, by Hujbandi and Field, and licenfed by Mr. Rujbivortk. 

Of E N G L A N D. 323 

* nefs. There may be a Covenant made with Death inter-regnum, 
c and Hell (I will not fay yours was fo f ) ; but judge 1650. 

' if fuch Things have a politic Aim, to avoid the < v -J 

6 overflowing Scourge, or to accomplifh worldly Auguft, 

c Interefts ; and if therein we have confederated 

' with wicked and carnal Men, and have Rcfpecl: 

' for them, or otherwife drawn them in to aflbciate 

' with us, whether this be a Covenant of God, and 

* fpiritual, bethink yourfelves ; we hope we do. 

* I pray you read the 28th of Ifaiab, from the 
e 5th to the 1 5th ; and do not fcorn to know that 

* it is the Spirit that quickens and giveth Life. 
' The Lord give you and us Underftanding to do 
' that which is well-pleafing in his Sight. Com- 

* mitting you to the Grace of God, I reft 

Your humble Servant, 

To return to the Proceedings at Weftminjler. 

Aug. 9. The Cuftom of v the Houfe was fre- 
quently, at this Time, to order the Door to be 
Ihut, and no Member to be fuffered to go out, 
without Leave, 'till Twelve o'Clock ; and this 
Day, after fuch an Order, the Houfe went upon 
a Bill which had been fome Time before them, 
intitled, An Aft again/I feveral athetftical, blafphe- 
mouS) and execrable Opinions^ derogatory to the Ho- 
nour of God? and deftruffive to human Society 9 now 
held and propagated in this.Nation. This Bill, be- 
ing read a third Time, feveral Claufes were offered 
to be added to it ; fome of which were taken, and 
others rejected; and it was ordered that the Bill, 
fo amended, fliould pafs. The Preamble to this 
At, with an Abftraft of the moft material Claufes, 
X 2 con- 

f In Carringtons Life of Oliver Cromwell, (printed for Natb* 
Brooke in Cornbill, 1659) he ftyles the Covenant, ' That burning 
Torch which the Mother of Paris did fee in her Frenzies, that fatal 
Fire which the Scots believe defcended from Heaven, and by which 
they, at their Pleafure, kindled tbofe Wars wherewith they infefted 


324 7fo Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jiter-regnum. containing the Religious Hiftory of thefe Times, 

1650. may not be unacceptable to the Reader. 
* -v* ' ' The Parliament holding it to be their Duty, 
"^ * ' by all good Ways and Means, to propagate the 
' Gofpel in this Commonwealth ; to advance Re- 
^effirf 1 ahe^" * ^g" lon m a ^ Sincerity, Godlinefs, and Honefty, 
cal and blafphe- ' have made feveral Ordinances and Laws for the 
mous Opinions Good and Furtherance of Reformation, in Doc- 
in Religion. < tf j ne an( j M anners . 3^ j n ort } e r to the fuppref- 
' ftngof Profanenefs, Wickednefs, profane Swear- 
ing,Drunkennefs,Superftition, and Formality, that 
God may be truly glorified, and'all might in\Vell- 
' doing be encouraged : But, notwithftanding this 
' their Care, finding, to their great Grief and Afto- 

* nifhment, that there are divers Men and Women 

* who have lately difcovered themfelves to be moft 
' monftrous in their Opinions, and loofe in all wick- 
' ed and abominable Practices hereafter mentioned, 

* not only to the notorious Corrupting andDiforder- 
' ing, but even to theDiflblution,of all human Soci- 
' ety ; who rejecting theUfe of Gofpel Ordinances, 

* do deny theNeceffity of civil and moral Righteouf- 
' nefs among Men : The Parliament therefore, ac- 

* cording to their Declaration publifti'd on the 28th 

* of September , 1649, to be moll ready to tejlify their 
' Difpleafure and Abhorrence of fuch Offenders^ by 

* ajlrifl and effectual proceeding again/1 them^ who 
' Jhould abufe and turn into Licentioufnefs the Li- 
' berty given in Matters of Conference, do there- 
' fore enact and ordain, That every Perfon (not 
' diftemper'd with Sicknefs, or diftracted in Brain) 
' who {hall prefume avowedly in Words to profefs, 
' or fhall by Writing proceed to affirm and main- 
' tain him or herfelf, or any other meer Creature, 

* to be very God ; or to be infinite or almighty j 
' or,. in Honour, Excellency, Majefty, and Power, 
' to be equal, and the fame with the true God ; or 
' that the true God, or the eternal Majefty, dwells 
' in the Creature and no where elfe : Or whofoever 
' fhall deny the Holinefs and Righteoufnefs of 
' God ; or {hall prefume to profefs, that Unrigh- 
' teoufnefs in Perlons, or the Acts of Uncleannefs, 

4 and 

Of E N G L A N D. 325 

' and the like Fiithinefs and Brutifhnefs, arc not Inter-regnuir.. 
' unholy and forbidden in the Word of God ; or l6 5- 
' that thefe Adts in any Perfon, or the Perfons for Vfc v~~-^ 
' committing them, are approved of by God j 
' or that fuch Ats, or fuch Perfons in ,thofe 
' Things, are like unto God : Or ihall prefume 
' to profefs, that thefe Acts of denying and blaf- 
' pheming God, or the Holinefs or Righteoufnefs 
' of God ; or the A6ts of curfmg God, or of 

* fwearing profanely or falfly by the Name of God ; 

* or the Acts of Lying, Stealing, Couzening, and 
' defrauding others ; or the Acts of Murder, Adul- 
' tery, Inceft, Fornication, Uncleannefs, Sodomy, 

* Drunkennefs, filthy and lafcivious Speaking, are 
' not Things in themfelves fhameful, wicked, 
' iinful, impious, abominable, and deteftable in 
' any Perfon, or to be practiced or done by any 
Perfon : Or fhall profefs, that the Acts of 

* Adultery, Drunkennefs, Swearing, and the like 

* open Wickednefs, are in their own Nature as 
' holy and righteous as the Duties of Prayer, 
' Preaching, or giving of Thanks to God : Or 
' Ihall avowedly profefs, that whatfoever is acted 

* by them, whether Whoredom, Adultery, Drun- 
c kenncfs, or the like open Wickednefs, may be 

* committed without Sin ; or that fuch Acts are 

* acted by the true God, or by the Majefty of God, 
' or the Eternity that is in them ; that Heaven 
' and all Happinefs confifts in the acting of thofe 

* Things which are Sin and Wickednefs j or that, 

* fuch Men or Women are moft perfect, or like to 
' God or Eternity, which do commit the greateft 

* Sins with the leaft Remorfe or Senfe ; or that 

* there is no fuch Thing really and truly as Un- 

* righteoufnefs, Unholinefs, or Sin, but as a Man 

* or Woman judgeth thereof; or that there is nei- 
' ther Heaven nor Hell, neither Salvation nor 

* Damnation, or that thefe are one and the fame 
' Thing ; and that there is not any Diftin&ion or 
' Difference truly between them :' 

. By this A& it was ordain'd, That any Perfon 

maintaining any of the Opinions above enumera- 

X 3 ted, 

326 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. ted, fhould, for the firft Offence, fuffer fix Months 

1650. Imprifonment, without Bail, and find Sureties for 

*~~Tf~^* their good Behaviour for one Year; for the fecond, 

be banifhed ; and for returning without Licenfe, 

fuffer Death. This Act was required to be read 

and given in Charge at Affixes and Seffions, and to 

be proclaim'd in every Market Town. 

The Bill for the Aug. 14. All this Time the Bill, long fmce 
betterReguhtion Bought in, for an equal Reprefentative, and regu- 
rame tS lati "g E 1 ^ ions for Members of Parliament, was 
canvafled, in a Grand Committee of the whole 
Houfe, every Wednefday\ but, as yet, nothing was 
done in it. This Delay plainly (hews, that the 
prefent Members had no Mind to part with their 
Power or Places, and venture a Diflblution of the 
Parliament. Nay, it feems about this Time, when 
the Army was fo far diftant from them, they had a 
Defign to drop the Bill ; for, at the End of the 
Debate this Day, a Motion being made, That the 
Houfe be refolved into a Grand Committee this 
Day Se'nnight, upon the Heads of the faid Bill,dsV. 
it paffed in the Negative, and this Day Fortnight 
was agreed to inftead of it. During all this De- 
bate the Doors were ordered to be kept fhut, as 
ufual; and we find that this Election-Bill, after be- 
ing put off from Time to Time, was at laft laid 

We hear no further, as yet, concerning the Trial 
of the fix Gentlemen defign'd as Victims to be of- 
fered to the Ghoft of Mr. Afcham, the Parliament's 
Jate Agent in Spain. But this Day, Aug. 20, ano- 
ther unhappy Gentleman, not in the above Lift,Col. 
Eufebius Andrews, was reported, by the Attorney- 
General, to be tried, convicted, and fentenced by 
the High Court of Juftice to fuffer the Pains of 
Death, as in cafe of Treafon. The Houfe thought 
fit to alter this Sentence, on the humble Petition of 
the Prifoner, from Hanging, Drawing, and Quar- 
tering, into Beheading; and accordingly he was 
beheaded on, TQWtr-Iiill two Days after, 


Of E N G L A N D. 327 

Aug. 22. This Day the Parliament received, Inter-regnunj, 
from the Lord-General Cromwell^ a Narrative of l6 S- 

the farther Proceedings of the Englijb Army in **"" "V - ' 
Scotland, with feveral Papers inclofed, which were 
ordered to be publifhed, as follows b : 

From the Camp in Muflelburgh Fields , Augitft 16, 


' /"*\N Tuefday^ Auguft 13, the Army advanced Gen. CromoelVt 
' \J from Mujjel-burgb to the Weft Side of Edm- f "f he p r Ac T nt 

i 17 j c p- i_ e i- /- r othisProceediaes 

* burgh, and fo in Sight of the City for two or three i n Scotland. 
' Miles together ; but had not fo much as a Salute 

' from the Caftle of Edinburgh^ or Dalkeith where 

* the Enemy had a Garrifon, nor Oppofition from 

* the Enemy, nor did any Party of them make any 
' Attempt upon the Rear, or otherwife: The Ene- 

* my alfo had another Garrifon at Red-Hall^ two 

* Miles from Edinburgh^ which they kept, who fired 

* at our Men ; yet, there not being above 20 Men 
' there, it was not held confiderable enough to take. 

* The great Bufinefs being to engage the Enemy 

* in the Field, a convenient ahd advantageous Place 
' was next to be confulted of; and the Army being 
' drawn up upon Pentland Hills, it was held fit to 

* encamp the Army there; which was accordingly 
' done, and their Tents pitched, many of them in 
6 View of Edinburgh City and Caftle, that Night* 
' from whence we received no Alarm. 

' This Day the Intelligence from Edinburgh was, 

* That the Scots Army was now put to a greater 

* Strait than ever, to fee us come behind them, 

* which hindered their Supplies from Fife; fo that 
e their Allowance is a Penny Loaf for two Men for 
' twenty-four Hours, which was held fo little, and 
' fo unlikely to hold out, that many of their Soldiers 

* ran away from them : Yet many of the Horfe 
' had new Lances made them, with two Iron Pegs 

* on each Side, befides the Pike at the End, that, 
' in cafe the one fhould break, they might do Ex- 

* ecution with the other. 


* b Printed by Edward Hufiandi and Join Field) Printers to the 
Parliament of England, dug, 23, 1650, 

328 Ybe Parliamentary HISTORY 

* The People on that Side Edinburgh were all fled 
4 with their Beams, Goods and Geer; and being 
4 perfuaded by their Grandees that the Array would 
deftroy all by Fire and Sword, they ran away as 
' far as ttecn's-Ftrry. Two Troops of Horfe, 
' and about 700 Highlanders, who were coming for 
' their Relief, were fent to by a Poft to go back to 
Stirling. When our Men fired the Furze-Bufhes, 
' they told the People they were firing of Houfes. 

* Our Ships, all this March, attended the Army 

* with Provifions ; but the PafTes were too danger- 
' ous for the Army to march near the Sea. 

* On Wednesday ^ Jug. 14, in the Morning be- 
' times, there came a Trumpeter from Lieutenant - 
' General David Le/Iey, with the Letter and De- 
' claration inclofed from him, which was read 
' to fo many of the Officers as could be got toge- 
c ther, and in the Prefence of the Enemy's Trum- 

* peter ; and, after fome Debate, the inclofed An- 

* i'wer was return'd thereunto. 

4 But that Things might appear to look more 
c towards an Accommodation, a great Com- 

* mander of the Enemy's, Colonel Gibby Carre, 
' fent for the Captain of the Guard that com- 
' manded the Party of Horfe that were neareft the 
' City; and, upon Security of a free Return, a Lieu- 

* tenant of Major-General Lambert'?, Regiment, 

* who was then on the Guard, went to him, with 
' whom he had much Difcourfe concerning the 

* Grounds of the prefent Engagement againft them; 

* by which he perceived that many of them were 

* deluded by the Malignants fpecious Pretences, 
' and that the more honeft and godly Party did be- 

* gin to think of taking another Courfe : He de- 

* clared, That they were not in a Capacity to 

* fight us, but to keep in their Trenches, and truft 
to the Protection of the Almighty. This Way 

* of Reconcilement being thought the beft IfTue of 
all the Hardfhips and Labours of this Army, to 

* gain a Conqueft without Blood, or taking away 

* the Lives of Men, fome more Freedom was 


Of E N G L A N D. 329 

' taken by the Officers to confer with thofe of the inter-regnum. 
' Enemy whom they found to be ingenuous and re- l6 5- 
' ligious; by which they perceived, that their King tta "V- * 
< having refufed to fign a Declaration of his re- Au e uft - 
' nouncing and declaring againft the Mifcarriage of 
' his Father, and his Repentance of all the Blood 
' that was fhed in his Father's Time, by his Fa- 
' ther's or his own Means, and to refolve to ad- 
' here to the Caufe of God, the Kirk, and Cove- 
' nant, they had Thoughts of relinquishing him, 

* and to at upon another Account. It is remark- 

* able that, upon the Day when our Army drew 
' off from Edinburgh, at their firft coming before 

* it, when their King would Have come forth to 
' have charg'd in Perfon, the Lord-General Leven 
' told him, That if he did it he would lay down 
' his Commifiion. 

Tkurfday, AuguJI 15. This Day, by reafon 
' of the Want of Provifions, our Army went back 
' to Mujjelburgb, where the Ships were ready with 

* Provifions of Bread and Cheefe, which were ta- 
' ken in. The laft Night the Enemy made no 
' Sally at all, nor in all this Day's March, nor 
c made any other Attempt; only at the paffing of 
' fome of our Men by Dalkeith they difcharg'd two 
Drakes. At our marching, back by Edinburgh 
' the Enemy received a great Alarm, and remov'd 
' their Guns from the further Side of Leith to this 
' Side ; Lieutenant-General Lejley alfo fent a Party, 
' with two great Guns, to fecure aPafs towards the 
' Queen's -Ferry. This Day (being the firft Day of 

* the Parliament's Sitting) the Prince fhould have 
' been crowned ; but, in regard of his refufmg to 
' fign the Declaration before-mentioned, it was 
' fufpended. 

On Friday , Augiift 16, the 45,000 /. being 
come for the Pay of the Army, both Horfe and 
' Foot mufter'd that Day; Provifions were then de- 
liver'd out for fix or ifeven Days, in order to a 

* further March." 



X of 

' fioner 

330 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

The Letter from Lieutenant-Genera] Le/Jey, re- 
ferrecl to in the foregoing. 

Auguft. p or fri s Excellency the Lord-General CROMWELL. 
My Lord, Bruchton, Aug. 13, 1650. 

Am commanded by the Committee of Eftates 
)f this Kingdom, and defired by the Commif- 
fioners of the General AfTembly, to fend unto 
' your Excellency this inclofed Declaration, as that 

* which containeth the State of the Quarrel i where- 

* in we are re/olved, by the Lord's Affiftance, to 
' fight your Army, when the Lord fhall be pleafed 

* to call us thereunto. And as you have profefled 

< you will not conceal any of our Papers, I do de- 

* fire that this Declaration may be made known to 

< all the Officers of your Army ; and fo I reft 

Your Excellency's mojl bumble Servant , 


the GENERAL ASSEMBLY of the Kirk of Scot- 
land, anent the ft at ing of the Quarrel ^ubereon 
the Army is to fight. 

Weft-Kirk^ Aug. 13, 1650. 

THE Commiflioners of the General Aflembly 
confidering that there may be juft Ground 
of Humbling, from the King's Majefty's refufing 
to fubfcribe and emit the Declaration offer'd unto 
him by the Committee of Eftates, and Commif- 
fioners of the General Afiembly, concerning his 
former Carriage, and Refolutions for the future, 
in reference to the Caufe of God, and the Ene- 
mies and Friends thereof, doth therefore declare, 
That this Kirk and Kingdom do not own nor 
efpoufe any malignant Party, or Quarrel or In- 
tereft, but that they fight meerly upon their for- 
mer Grounds and Principles, and in Defence of 
the Caufe of God and of the Kingdom, as they 
have done thefe twelve Years paft : And there - 


Of E N G L AN D. 331 

fore, as they do difclaim all the Sin and Guilt of Interregnum. 

* the King and of his Houfe, fo they will not own ^ ^ 
' him, nor his Intereft, otherwife than with a Sub- Au&uft. 

* ordination to God ; and fo far as he owns and 

* profecutes the Caufe of God, and difclaims his 

* and his Father's Oppofition to the Work of God, 
6 and to the Covenant, and like wife all the Enemies 

* thereof: And that they will,withconvenientSpeed, 

* take into Confideration the Papers lately fent un- 
' to them from Oliver Cromwell, and vindicate 
' themfelves from all the Falfhoods contain'd there- 

* in, efpecially in thofe Things wherein the Quar- 
' rel betwixt us and that Party is mif-ftated, as if 
' we owned the late King's Proceedings, and were 
' refolved to profecute and maintain his prefent 
4 Majefty's Intereft before, and without, Acknow- 
' ledgment of the Sins of his Houfe and former 
' Ways, and Satisfaction to God's People in both 
4 Kingdoms. 

A. KER. 

Auguft 13, 1650. 

f"|1 H E Committee of Eftates having feen and 
4 __ confidered A Declaration from the Com- 
4 mijjioners of the General AJ/embly, anent the Jl at ing 
c of the Quarrel^ "whereon the Army is to fight , do ap- 
' prove the fame, and heartily concur therein. 


The Lord-General CROMWELL'J ANSWER to the 
foregoing LETTER and DECLARATION. 

For the Right Hon. DAVID LESLEY, Lieutenant- 
General of the Scots Army. 

From the Camp at Pentland-Hills, Aug. 14, 1650. 


< T Received yours of the I3th Inftant, with the 
' J[ Paper you mentioned therein inclofed, which 

* I caufed to be read in the Prefence of fo many Of- 
4 ficers as could well be gotten together, to which 

* your 

332 *Ihe Parliamentary HISTORY 

er- regnum. ' your Trumpet can witnefs. We return you this 
1650. < Anfwer, by which I hope, in the Lord, it will 
~v ' ' appear that we continue the fame we have pro- 

Auguft. t feffcj our f e j ves to the none ft People in Scotland, 

* wifliing to them as to our own Souls ; it being no 
' Part of" our Buiinefs to hinder any of them from 

* worshipping God in that Way they are fatisfied 
' in their Conferences by the Word of God they 
' ought, though uifrerent irom us, but {hail there - 
' in be ready to perform what Obligation lies upon 

* us by the Covenant ; but that under the Pretence 
' of the Covenant mifbken, and wrefted from the 
molt native Intent and Equity thereof, a King 
' fhould be taken in by you, to be impofed upon 

* us, and this called the Caule of God and the 
' Kingdom; and this done upon the Satisfaction of 

* God's People in both Nations, as is alledged, to- 
4 gether with a Difowning of Malignants ; altho' 
' he who is the Head of them, in whom all their 

* Hope and Comfort lies, be received ; who at this 

< very Inftant hath a Popifh Party fighting for, and 

* under, him in Ireland; hath Prince Rupert (a 

< Man who hath had his Hand deep in the Blood of 
' many innocent Men of England) now in the Head 
' of our Ships ftolen from us upon a malignant 

* Account ; hath the French and Irifb Ships daily 
' making Depredations on our Coafts ; and ftrong 

* Combinations by the Malignants in England, to 
' raife Armies in our Bowels, by virtue of his Com- 
' millions, who hath of late iflued out very many to 

* that Purpofe : How the Intereft you pretend you 

* have received him upon, and the Malignant Inte- 

* reft in the Ends and Confequences centring in this 
c Man, can be fecured, we cannot difcern ; and how 
' we fhould believe that whilft known and notorious 
' Malignants are fighting and plotting againft us on 

* the one Hand, and you declaring for him on the 
4 * other, it fhould not be an efpoufing of a Malignant 

* Party-Quarrel or Intereft; but be a meer fighting 
' upon former Grounds and Principles, and in the 

* Defence of the Caufe of God and of the King- 
c domsj as hath been thefe twelve Years laft pa(t, 


Of ENGLAND. 333 

as you fay, for the Security and Satisfa&ion of Inter-regmim. 
God's People in both Nations; or the Oppofing of l6 5- 
e which fhould render us Enemies to the Godly with ** ^"- 

* you, we cannot well underftand, efpecially confi- 
dering that all thefe Malignants take their Confi- 
' dence and Encouragement from the late Tranfac- 
' tions of your Kirk and State with your King; for 
< as we have already faid, fo we tell you again, it is 

* but fatisfying Security to thofe that employ us, 

* and are concerned in that we feek, which we 
4 conceive will not be by a few formal and feigned 

* Submiflions from a Perfon who could not tell 
4 otherwife how to accomplifh his malignant Ends; 
4 and therefore counfelled to this Compliance by 
4 them who afftfted hisFather,and have hitherto ac- 

* tuated him in his moft evil and defperate Defigns, 
4 and are now again by them fet on foot ; againft 
4 which how you will be able, in the Way you are 
4 in, to fecure us or yourfelves, is (forafmuch as 

* concerns ourfelves) our Duty to look after. 

4 If the State of your Quarrel be thus, upon 
4 which, as you fay, you refolve to fight our Ar- 

* my, you will have Opportunity to do that ; elfe 
what means our Abode here ? And if our Hope 

* be not in the Lord, it will be ill with us. We 
4 commit both you and ourfelves to him who knows 
4 the Heart and tries the Reins.; with whom are all 
6 our Ways who is able to do for us and you 
4 above what we know ; which we defire may be 
4 in much Mercy to his poor People, and to the 

* Glory of his own great Name : And having per- 
4 form'd your Defire in making your Papers fo pub- 
' lie, as is before exprelTed, I defire you to do the 

* like, by letting the State, Kirk, and Army have 
the Knowledge hereof. To which End I have 
4 fent you inclofed two Copies, and reft 

Tour bumble Servant, 


Aug. 27. Another Letter from Ireland was re- 
ceived, dated from the Camp at Waterford, Au- 


334 ffl* e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum. guft 12, 1650; after the Reading of which, public 
1650. Thanks were ordered to be given to God, the 

v ~v^ * next Loid's Day, for thefe further Succefles gain'd 
in that Kingdom ; the Particulars whereof will 
fully appear by the following Declaration, which 
was ordered to be drawn up and publifhed on that 
Occafion ; and likewife to be read in all Congre- 
gations throughout the Nation, immediately after 
the Pfalm before Sermon, for the better ftirring up 
the Hearts of the People to praife God for this 

A Narrative of c TT^ VE R fmce that wonderful and unexpected. 

the taking of P v Victory which the Lord was pleafed, the laft 

Sr* r tffb ' Summer > to g iv e unto a fmall Party of the Parlia- 

Gen./rrfcTf/be-' ment's Forces then in Dublin^ againft that nu- 

puty-Lieutenant merous and potent Army under Ormcnd\ which 

of Ireland. ( was a f) oor o f pj ope to t h e Parliament and their 

c Army, then on their Way for Ireland, that the 

' Lord, who had made fo open a Way for them, 

' would vouchfafe his Prefence with them, to carry 

' on and perfect that W^ork which himfelf had fo 

' eminently begun in that admirable Providence, 

' wherein he had, as it were, by a Worm, threfh'd 

* the Mountains : The fame gracious Hand hath 
' gone along, from Time to Time, with his Ser- 
' vants there, vouchsafing them many Victories, 
' giving many ftrong Cities, Towns, Caftles, and 

* Garrifons into their Hands, raifmg up their Spi- 
' rits, overcoming great Difficulties, furnifhing 
' feafonable Supplies, and difmaying the Hearts of 

* the Enemies ; and that in fuch a Series of conti- 
' nued Succefles, as is juft Matter of high Admira- 
' tion, and perpetual Thankfulnefs in all that truly 
' fear the Lord, and love his Caufe and People. 

* And feeing every Addition of Mercy is a further 

* Obligation to Thankfulnefs and Duty ; and that 
c the Lord hath been pleafed, as a further Mani- 

* feftation of his Goodnefs, to give up into the 
4 Hands of the Parliament's Forces there, Cather- 
6 lagk, a Garrifon of much Strength and Importance ; 

a great and populous Town, and the 

Of ENGLAND. 335 

moft confiderable Harbour in all Ireland., upon Inter-regnum. 

4 Saturday the lOth of Auguft Inft. together with l6 5 - 

4 the ftrong Caftle of Duncannon^ fmce likewife * "~ v * 

4 furrendered upon Articles : The Parliament of Aus " ft * 

4 England have thought fit not to let fuch great 

4 Mercies pafs, without an efpecial Return of 

4 Thankfulnefs j but to publifh the Narrative there - 

4 of, as it comes to us in a Letter from the De- 

4 puty-Generalof/r^^ b ; the Effect whereof is as 

' followeth, viz. The Deputy having received, at 

4 the late Leaguer before Catherlagh, f everal Alarms 

4 of great Forces of the Enemy riling and appear- 

4 ing within the Counties of Cork , Kerry , Limerick, 

4 and Tipper ary, to the diftreffing and endangerino- o f 

< our Parties and Garrifons in thofe Parts ; wriere 

* the Enemy threatened to deftroy our Quarters, 
4 and probably defigned a Conjunction of their moft 
4 confiderable Forces, in order to the Relief of 
Water ford) and an Attempt upon the fmall Party 

< left to block it up; after he had difpofed divers 
' of his Forces to iecure Carrick, to repel and op- 
pofe the Enemy in Carbery, and the Wefrerrt 

< Parts, and to march to the Relief of our Forces 

< in Kerry and Limerick, leaving Sir Hardrefs 
' fPaller with the Body of the Army, to carry on 
4 theBufmefs about Catherlagh^ he did himfelf draw 
down with a fmall Party of Foot towards Water- 
ford, to beleaguer it more ftraitly. Coming be- 
fore Water ford with thofe Foot, and fome fmall 

4 Parties left there before, to block it up at a Dif- ' 

* tance, he applied himfelf to a clofer Siege of it; 
4 making two Quarters within fhot of their Walls' 
4 which, with our Foot at the Abbey on the other 
Side of the Water, kept them clofe within the 
4 Town on every Side ; and then trying them with 
4 a Summons, the Enemy within fo defpifed our 
4 fmall Numbers, as that they made an Offer as if 
4 they durft fet open one of their Gates, and let in 


b Commiffary-Gcneral Ireton, "to whom Cromwel! Jeft the Com- 
mand dining his Abfence, which Appointment was afterwards co> 
arm a by the Parliament. 

33 6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * a ll our Foot to make the beft of it : And to that 

* being anfwered it was but a vain Brag, and they 

*~^^h ' durft not make it good, they in Reply, for their 

' Honour's Sake, feemed to adhere to their former 

* Vanity, but with fuch Conditions and Cautions 
' as they might be fure would not be accepted : 
' But that the Power of God might appear in our 

* defpifed Weaknefs againft this Pride of Man,thefe 

* Sons of Honour, as they would be thought, did, 
4 even in both the fame Letters, unequally fubjoin 
' to thefe high Vapours an Offer of Treaty for 
' Surrender: During which Time News came from 

* Catherlagh) that it had pleafed God, beyond, or 
' much before, Expectation, upon our Men's bat- 
' tering, and then taking by Storm (without Lofs 
' on our Part) a fmall Tower on their Bridge over 
6 the Barrow^ to bring down the Enemy's Hearts 

* to a Treaty, for a Surrender of that ftrong and 
' important Place. Hereupon the Deputy concei- 
' ving Water ford to be attemptible by Force in one 
' or two Places, though otherwife exceedingly for- 

* tified ; while Preparations were made for that At- 
' tempt, the Lord wrought upon the Hearts of the 
* Enemy to defire a Treaty, without thofe Terms 

* of Honour, which formerly they infifted on ; by 
' which, after high Demands, rejected on our Part 
1 with Indignation, they were, on Tuefday the 6th 
e of this Inftant Augujl^ brought to furrender upon 
' Articles, which was perform'd on Saturday fol- 

* lowing ; at which Time there marched out about 

* 700 Men, well arm'd, the Townfmen more nu- 
' merous than before was believed, and the Town 
' better fortified in all Parts, and more difficult to 
4 be attempted than our Forces conceived, there 

* being many private Stores fufficient to have main- 

* tained them a long Time ; whereby \ve may fee 

* the Hand of God in overpowering the Hearts of 
' the Enemy, which was the only Caufe of their 

* prefent Surrender. By this okWaterford and Ca- 

* th&lagh) God was pleafed to extend his Hand to- 
' wards Duncannon ; the Enemy there (though a 

* Prieft was Governor) having on the fame Satur- 

Of ENGLAND. 337 

* day, with Col. Cook's Leave, fent one to Water- Inter-regnart. 
'ford, to fee whether it were furrendered, did on J 

e the nth of this Month defire a Treaty, which **~~A^'^* J ' 
* produced, through the fame Divine Mercy, a 

* Surrender of the fame Caftle of Duncannon^ upon 
' Articles, on Saturday the lyth of this Month; 
' fince which Time the ftrong Garrifon and Caftle 
' of Charlemount is likewife furrendered, whereby 
' the whole Province ofUlfter is now intirely in the 
' Power of the Parliament. 

4 For all which great Mercies the Parliament 
' doth order, &c. 

Aug. 28. It is obfervable that in Cromwelfs 
Narrative of the Proceedings of the Army in Scot- 
land, laft mentioned, he inform'd the Houfe that 
the Prince (meaning King Charles II.) was to have 
been crown'd in that Kingdom on the i5th of this 
Month ; but that the Ceremony was fufpended oh, 
account of his refufing to fign a Declaration which, 
the Scots Parliament required of him, whereby he 
was to profefs his Repentance for all the Blood 
{bed in his Father's Time and fince by his own 
Means ; and to refolve to adhere, for the future, 
to the Caufe of God, the Kirk, and the Covenant : 
However, the King was prevail'd upon to fign it on 
the 1 6th of this Month ; and a Copy thereof being King Charles II. 
lent up to the Parliament, it was read in the Houfe ha vng pubhfted 
this Day ; a Committee was alfo appointed to with- ^cotlanjl "" 
draw and confider of a Declaration to be printed and 
publifhed thereupon. This was prefently brought 
in and pafs'd, as preparatory to an Anfwer at large, 
which was ordered to be drawn up by the Council 
of State, and will fhortly follow in its due Order of 
Time. The previous Declaration runs thus : 

' the Kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland, High 
' printed at Edinburgh, 1650, do find therein a 
* Defign of Charles Stuart, the declared King of 
VOL. XIX Y ' Seat-' 

338 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* Scotland, by the Inftigation of the State and 
' Kirk of that Kingdom, under a Pretence of Hu- 

* miliation for his own and his Father's Oppofition 
< to the Work Q f R c f ormat ion and Solemn League 

* and Covenant, to feduce the People of this Na- 

* tion from their due Obedience to this prefent Go- 

* vernment ; and to invite them, by promoting his 

* pretended Intereft here, not only to embroil this 
' Nation in new Troubles, by a bloody and inte- 

* ftine War, (thereby, as much as in them lies, 
' taking away all Hopes of a fettled Peace in this 
'Commonwealth) but alfoto make themfelves in- 

* ftrumental to inthral themfelves again in Tyranny 
4 and Slavery, from which they have been, thro' 
' the Bleffing and glorious Appearances of God, 
4 fo happily redeem'd. And, however, the Parlia- 

* ment have Reafon to believe, that no pious or ju- 
' dicious Perfon can poflibly be deluded under fuch 

* grofs Deceits, to contribute fuch an Affiftance as 

* in that Declaration is call'd for, and which would 

* moft undoubtedly end, if the Lord prevent it not, 

* in the Deftrudion of the truly Godly in both Na- 

* tions, and the betraying of that Caufe that hath 

* been engaged in by them ; neverthelefs,they have 

* refolved, for the better Information and Saiisfac- 

* tion of the People of this Land, more largely and 

* particularly to unmafk and difcover the Hypocri- 
e fy and wicked Defign lodged under the fpecious 
( Pretences in that Declaration ; and, in the mean 

* Time, do enact and declare, That all Perfons 
' whatfoever, who (hall abet or countenance the 
' faid Declaration, by printing or publifliing the 

* fame, or by promoting or profecuting the Defign 
' or Ends therein contained, are hereby adjudged 

* to be guilty of High Treafon, and {hall be pro- 
6 ceeded againft as Traitors.' 

September. Nothing material occurs this Month, 
till the 6th, when the following Letter from the 
Lord- General to a Member of the Council of 

State, was read in the Houfe a . P T D 

o / A, 

a From the original Edition, printed for Robert Jl-bctfcn, i 
Smitbfeld, near Hofier-Iane, and licenfed by Henry Scobcll. 

Of ENGLAND. 339 

SIR, Muffelburgh, Aug. 31, 1650. Inter-regnwm* 

INCE my laft, we feeing the Enemy not 

v _ 

willing to engage, and yet very apt to take September, 
xceptions againft Speeches of that Kind, fpo- A Lctter fro 

* ken in our Army, which occafioned fome ofcen.Cronnvel/ 

* them to come to parley with our Officers, to ]et concernin g the 
< them know that they would fight us,' they fying^^^j 

* ftill in or near their Faftnefles, on the Weft Sidecomlnaad. 
' of Edinburgh ; we refolved, the Lord affifting, to 

* draw near to them once more, to try if we could 

* fight them ; and, indeed, one Hour's Advantage 
' gain'd might probably, we think, have given us 

* an Opportunity ; to which Purpofe, upon Tuef- 
f day the 2yth Inftant, we march'd Weftward of 
' Edinburgh towards Stirling ; which the Enemy 
' perceiving, march'd with as great Expedition as 
' was poffible to prevent us, and the Vanguards of 

* both the Armies came to fkirmifli upon a Place 
' where Bogs and Paries made the Accefs of each 
' Army to the other difficult : We, being ignorant 
' of the Place, drew up, hoping to have engaged, 
4 but found no way feazable, by reafon of the Bogs 
' and other Difficulties. 

* We drew up our Cannon, and did that Day 

* difcharge 2 or 300 great Shot upon them ; a con- 

* fiderable Number they likewife return'd to us, 
c and this was all that pafied from each to other, 
' wherein we had near 20 kill'd and wounded, but 
' not one Commiffion-Officer. The Enemy, as 
' we are informed, had about 80 kill'd, and fome 
' confiderable Officers. Seeing they would keep 
' their Ground, from which we could not remove 
' them, and our Bread being fpent, we were ne- 

* ceffitated to go for a new Supply, and fo march'd 
' off about Ten or Eleven o'Clock on Wednesday 
' Morning : The Enemy .perceiving it, and, as we 
' conceive, fearing we might interpofe between 

* them and Edinburgh, though it was not our In- 
' tention, albeit it feemed fo by our March, retreat- 
' ed back again with all Hafte, having a Bog and 
' Paffes between them and us j there being no con- 

Y 2 * fiderable 



340 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

fiderable AdUon, faving the fkirmifhing of the 
Van of our Horfe with theirs, near to Edinburgh^ 
without any confiderable Lofs to either Part, la- 
ving that we got two or three of their Horfes. 
* That Night we quartered within a Mile of 
Edinburgh^ and of the Enemy ; it was a moil 
tempeftuous Night and wet Morning. The Ene- 
my marched in the Night between Leith and 
Edinburgh^ to interpofe between us and our Vic- 
tual, they knowing that it was fpent, but the 
Lord in Mercy prevented it ; which we percei- 
ving in the Morning, got Time enough, through 
the Goodnefs of the Lord, to the Sea Side to re- 
viclual j the Enemy being drawn up upon the 
Hill near Arthur's Seat, looking upon us, but 
not attempting any Thing : And thus you have 
an Account of the prefent Occurrences. 

Tour moft humble Servant, 


Tho' the foregoing Letter left the two Armies 
looking, as it were, upon one another; yet they did 
not long remain in that una&ive Situation : For, 

On ^Saturday the jth of this Month, Advice 
came of a great Victory gain'd by the EngliJbArmy 
near Dunbar on the 3d, in which the Scots were en- 
tirely routed. When this important News arriv'd, 
theHoufewas adjourn'd, according to their late 
ufual Cuftom, from Friday to Tuefday : Hereupon 
the Council of State ordered a brief Narrative of 
this AcYion to be immediately printed, and read 
the next Sunday in all the Churches in and about 
London, that the People might return Thanks to 
God for his fignal Mercy to the Commonwealth. 
On the Qth a further Relation of this Affair was 
publifhed : But both thefe we purpofely omit, to 
make Way for a more full and ample Detail there- 
of, communicated to the Parliament on the 10th, in 
the following Letters : And firft that from Mr. 
Secretary to the Army. 

Of E N G L A N D, 341 

For the Hon. WILLIAM LENTHALL, Efq\ Speaker inter-regnum, 
of the Parliament of England. l6 5- 

SIR, Dunbar, Sep. 3, 1650. September. 

c T Intimated unto you before, that our drawing 
* 1 off from Mufetourgb might tempt the Eqc-JSvJjl^ 
e my to draw out, which accordingly they did ; tained by him 
c and the rather, for that they were informed, as ncar & 
' fome of their Prifoners confefs, we had fhipped 
' our Train of Artillery, which was a Miftake of 
' them, for it was the 600 ficli Soldiers of the 
c Flux that I had fliipp'd that Morning : So they 
' march'd after us, with Horfe, Foot, and Train, 
' within a Mile of Dunbar, where both Armies 
c ftood in Battalia all Night ; only in the Morn- 
' ing, about Two o'Clock, we gave them a hot 
4 Alarm, and fo got the Wind of them ; and this 
' Morning about Twilight the General advanced 
4 with the Army, and charged them both in the 
' Valley and on the Hill. The Battle was very 

* fierce for the Time, one Part of their Battalia 

* ftood very ftifly to it, but the reft was prefently 
' routed. 

* I never beheld a more terrible Charge of Foot 
' than was given by our Army, our Foot alone 
' making the Scots Foot give Ground for three 

* Quarters of a Mile together. We have all their 
' Guns, Train, Bag, and Basjsjage, and beaten 
f them clear out of the Field, Hills, and Valleys ; 
' and our Army is now aj: the leaft eight Miles in 

* Purfuit of their Horfe, their Foot being taken 
' wholly. It was a happy and feafonable Victory, 

* and God appeared in Man's greateft Weaknefs, 
' they came with Confidence that all was their own. 

* They had pofleft the Pafs at Copper/path to hin- 
' der our March to Berwick^ thinking we would. 

* have run away. 

' I mall not defcend to Particulars, till we have 
a particular Account of the Prifoners and Slain. 

* Indeed, when our Hearts began to fail, then did 

* the Lord begin to appear. Fourteen hundred 

Y 3 fick 

34 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. l fick Men have I in all fent to Berwick and New* 
l6 5-~ * cajlle^ and many Hundreds are wonderful fick 

^""^^ ' in the Army. Confidering thofe who have died 
' and otherwife left the Army, and the Scots dou- 
' bling the Number, the more the Lord was feen 
' in the Victory. They came full of Revenge in 
' their Hearts to cut us off without Mercy ; they 
' having in the Evening before taken 40 of Colo- 
' ncl Pride's Men, thac wenfrto poflefs a Houfe, 
' they cut them and mangled them in a moft bar- 

* barous Manner after they had given them Quar- 
' ter. You fhall hear fuddenly further from 

Tour moft humble Servant^ 


Next, aLetter from the Lord-General, with a Lift 
of the Names of the Scots Officers taken Prifoners. 

For the Hon. WILLIAM LENTHALL, Efq;Speaker 
of the Parliament of England. 

SIR, Dunbar, Sep. 4, 1650. 

' T Hope it is not ill taken that I make no more 
' JL frequent Addrefles to the Parliament: Things 

* that are of Trouble in point of Provifion for your 
' Army, and of ordinary Direction, I have, as 

* I could, often prefented to the Council of 
' State, together with fuch Occurrences as have 
' happened ; who, I am fure, as they have not been 
' wanting in their extraordinary Care and Piovi- 
' fion for us, fo neither in what they judg'd tit and 

* neceflary to reprefent the fame to you : And this 

* I thought to be a fufficient Difcharge of my Du- 

* ty on that Behalf. 

4 It hath now pleafed God to beftow a Mercy 

* upon you worthy your Knowledge, and of the 

* utmoft Praife and Thanks of all that fear and 

* love his Name ; yea, the Mercy is far above all 

* Praife; which, that you may the better perceive, 
' I (hall take the Boldnefs to tender unto you fome 
' Circumftances accompanying this great Bufinefs, 
which will manifeft the Greatnefs and Seafon- 
4 ablenefs of this Mercy. 


Of E N G L A N D. 343 

' We having tried what we could to engage the inter-regnum. 

* Enemy three or four Miles Weft of Edinburgh^ 1650. 

* that proving ineffectual, and our Visual failing, v v -* 
' we marched towards our Ships for a Recruit of Se P tember 
' our Want. The Enemy did not at all trouble us 

' in our Rear, but marched the direct Way to- 
' wards Edinburgh ; and, partly in the Night and 

* Morning, flips thro' his whole Army, and quar- 
' ters himfelf in a Pofture eafy to interpofe be- 

* tween us and our Victual ; but the Lord made 

* them to lofe the Opportunity, and, the Morning 
' proving exceeding wet and dark, we recovered, 

* by that Time it was light, into a Ground where 
c they could not hinder us from our Victual; which 
' was an high Act of the Lord's Providence to us. 
' We being come into the faid Ground, the Enemy 

* marched into the Ground we were laft upon, ha- 
' ving no Mind either to ftrive to interpofe between 

* us and our Victual, or to fight, being indeed 

* upon this Lock, hoping that the Sicknefs of your 

* Army would render their Work more eafy by the 

* gaining of Time : Whereupon we march'd to 
' JMLuJJelburgh to victual and fhip away our ficlc 
' Men, where we fent aboard near* 500 fick and 
' wounded Soldiers : And, upon ferious Confide- 

* ration, finding our Weaknefs to increafe, and 

* the Enemy lying upon his Advantages, at a Ge- 
' neral Council, it was thought fit to march to 
' Dunbar, and there to fortify the Town, which 
' we thought, if any Thing, would provoke them 
' to engage ; as alfo that the having of a Garri- 
' fon there, would furnifh us with Accommoda- 

* tion for our fick Men ; would be a good Maga- 
' zine, which we exceedingly wanted, being put 
' to depend upon the Uncertainty of Weather for 
' landing Provifions ; which many Times cannot 

* be done, though the Being of the whole Army 
' lay upon it, all the Coaft from Berwick to Leith 
' not having one good Harbour ; as alfo to lie 

* more conveniently to receive our Recruits of 
' Horfe and Foot from Berwick. 

* Having 

344 3e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jhter-regnum. * Having thefe Confederations, upon Saturday the 
1650. * 3oth of Augujl we marched from MuJJelburgb to 

V v J < Haddington ; where, by that Time we had got 

September. < the Van Brigade of our Horfe, and our Foot and 

< Train into their Quarters, the Enemy was march - 
' ed with that exceeding Expedition, that they fell 

* upon the Rear Forlorn of our Horfe, and put it 
' in feme Diforder; and, indeed, had like to have 
' engaged our Rear Brigade of Horfe with their 
' whole Army, had not the Lord, by his Provi- 

* dence, put a Cloud over the Moon, thereby gi- 
' ving us Opportunity to draw off thofe Horfe to 

* the reft of the Army j which accordingly was 

* done without any Lofs, fave three or four of our 
' aforementioned Forelorn, wherein the Enemy, as 
' we believe, received more Lofs. 

* The Army being put into a reafonable fecure 
' Pofture, towards Midnight the Enemy atttempted 
' our Quarters on the Weft End of Haddington ; 
' but,thro'theGoodnefsof God,werepulfed them. 

* The next Morning we drew into an open 

* Field on the South Side of Haddington^ we not 

* judging it fafe to draw to the Enemy upon his 

* own Ground, he being prepofiefied thereof; but 
' rather drew back to give him Way to come to 

* us, if he had fo thought fit : And having waited 
e about the Space of four or five Hours, to fee if 

* he would come to us ; and not finding any Incli- 

* nation in the Enemy fo to do, we refolved to go, 

* according to our firlr. Intendment, to Dunbar. 

' By that Time we had marched three or four 

* Miles, we faw fome Bodies of the Enemy's Horfe 
' draw out of their Quarters ; and by that Time our 

* Carriages were gotten near Dunbar, their whole 

* Army was upon their March after us : And in- 

* deed our drawing back in this Manner, with the 

* Addition of three new Regiments added to them, 

< did much heighten their Confidence, if not Pre- 

* fumption and Arrogancy. 

' The Enemy that Night we perceived gathered 

* towards the Hills, labouring to make a perfect 
Interpofition between us and Berwick ; and ha- 

* ving 

Of E N G L A N D. 345 

( ving in this Pofture a great Advantage, through Inter-regnum 
e his better Knowledge of the Country, which l6 5- 

-* he effected by fending a confiderable Party to the *T " / ~T^ 
r n r> r s-i i L -\ n \ September. 

' ftrait Pafs at Copperjpatk^ where ten Men to hin- 

' der are better than forty to make their Way. 
' And truly this was an Exigent to us, where- 

* by the Enemy reproached us with that Con- 
' dition the Parliament's Army was in when it 

* made its hard Conditions with the King in Corn- 

* wall. By fome Reports that have come to us, 

* they had difpofed of us and of their Bufinefs, 

* in fufficient Revenge and Wrath towards our Per- 

* fons, and had fwallowed up the poor Intereft of 
' England, believing that their Army and their 
' King would have marched to London without 
' any Interruption ; it being told us, we know not 
' how truly, by a Prifoner we took the Night be- 
' fore the Fight, that their King was very fudden- 
' ly to come amongft them, with thofe Engli{h they 
' allowed to be about him ; but in what they were 
4 thus lifted up the Lord was above them. 

' The Enemy lying in the Pofture before-men- 

* tioned, having thofe Advantages, we lay very near 
' him, being fenfible of our Difadvantages, having 

* fome Weaknefs of Flefh, but yet Confolation 

* and Support from the Lord himfelf, to our poor 

* weak Faith, wherein I believe not a few amongft 
' us fhar'd, that becaufe of their Numbers, becaufe 

* of their Advantages, becaufe of their Confidence, 
' becaufe of our Weaknefs, becaufe of our Strait, 
' we were in the Mount, and in the Mount the 

* Lord would be feen, and that he would find out 
a Way of Deliverance and Salvation for us ; and 
' indeed we had our Confolations and our Hopes. 

' Upon Monday Evening the Enemy, whofe 
c Numbers were very great, as we heard about 
6000 Horfe, and 16,000 Foot, at leaft; ours 

* drawn down, as to found Men, to about 7500 
' Foot, and 3500 Horfe. 

' The Enemy drew down to their Right Wing 
< about two Thirds of their Left Wing of Horfe, 
' fhoeging alfo their Foot and Train much to the 

< Right, 

346 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

er-regmim. * Right, caufnig their Right Wing of Horfe to edge 
1650. t down towards the Sea. 

v J * We could not well imagine but that the Ene- 
ytem er. < ^ intended to attempt upon us, or to place them- 

' felves in a more exact Condition of Interpofition. 

' Major-Oeneral Lambert and myfelf coming to the 

* Earl of Roxburgh^ Houfe, and observing this Po- 

* fture, I told him I thought it did give us an Op- 

* portunity and Advantage to attempt upon the 

* Enemy ; to which he immediately replied, That 

* he had thought to have faid the fame Thing to 

* me; fo that it pleafed the Lord to fet this Appre- 

* henfion upon both of our Hearts at the fame In- 

* ftant. We call'd for Col. Monck and fhew'd him 

* the Thing ; and coming to our Quarters at Night, 

* and demonftrating our Apprehenfions to fome of 
' the Colonels, they alfo chearfully concurred. 

' We therefore refolved to put our Bufmefs into 

* this Pofture ; that fix Regiments of Horfe and 

* three Regiments and an Half of Foot fhould 
' march in the Van : That the Major- General, 

* the Lieutenant-General of the Horfe, and the 

* Commiflary-General, and Colonel Monck^ to 
' command the Brigade of Foot, fhould lead on 
4 the Bufmefs : And that Colonel Prides Brigade, 

* Col. Overtoils Brigade, and the remaining two 

* Regiments of Horfe, fhould bring up the Cannon 
4 and Rear; the Time of falling on to be by Break 

* of Day ; but, thro' fome Delays, it proved not to 

* be fo till Six o'Clock in the Morning. 

* The Enemy's Word was The Covenant^ which 

* it had been for fome Days ; ours, The Lord of 
' Hofts. The Major-General, Lieutenant-Gene- 

* ral Fleetwood) Commiflary-General ll^haley^ and 

* Colonel Tivijleton, gave the Onfet, the Enemy 

* being in a very good Pofture to receive them, ha- 
' ving the Advantage of their Cannon and Foot 

* againft our Horfe. 

6 Before our Foot could come up the Enemy 
' made a gallant Refiftance, and there was a very 
' hot Difpute at Sword's Point between our Horfe 

* and theirs. Our firft Foot, after they had dif- 

* charged 

Of E N G L A N D. 347 

4 charged their Duty, being overpowered by the Inter-regnum. 
' Enemy, received fome Repulfe, which they foon l6 5 
' recovered : But my own Regiment, under the V~~ V 7T"' 
4 Command of Lieutenant-Colonel Goffe and my epte " 
4 Major White, did come feafonably in ; and, at 
4 the Pufh of Pike, did repel the ftouteft Regiment 
4 the Enemy had there, meerly with the Courage 
' the Lord was pleafed to give, which proved a 
4 great Amazement to the Refidue of their Foot. 
4 This being the firft Action between the Foot, 

* the Horfe, in the mean Time, did, with a 
4 great deal of Courage and Spirit, beat back all 
4 Oppofition, charging through the Bodies of the 
4 Enemy's Horfe and Foot ; who were, after the 

* firft Repulfe given, made, by the Lord of Hofts^ 

* as Stubble to their Swords. 

* Indeed, I believe I may fpeak it without Par- 
1 tiality, both your Chief Commanders and others 
4 in their feveral Places, and Soldiers alfo, a&ed 
4 with as much Courage as ever hath been feen in 

* any Action fince this War. 

4 I know they look not to be named, and there- 
4 fore I forbear Particulars ; the beft of the Ene- 
4 my's Horfe and Foot being broken through and 
4 through in lefs than an Hour's Difpute, and their 
4 whole Army being put into Confufion, it became 
4 a total Rout, our Men having the Chafe and 
4 Execution of them near eight Miles. 

4 We believe that upon the Place, and near 
4 about it, were 3000 flain ; Prifoners taken of their 

* Officers you have a Lift- inclofed ; of the private 
4 Soldiers taken, near 10,000 j the whole Baggage 
and Train taken, wherein was good Store of 
4 Match, Powder and Bullet, all their Artillery, 
4 great and fmall, and 30 Guns. 

We are confident they have left behind them 
4 not lefs than 15,000 Arms. IJiave already near 
4 200 Colours brought in to me, which I herewith 
4 fend you. * 

4 What 

a The Journals fay thcfe Colours belong' d to 17 Regiments of 
Foot, and 27 of Horfe. 

348 *Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

* What Officers of theirs, of Quality, are kiU'cfc, 
we cannot yet learn ; but yet iurcly divers arc, 

* and many Men of Quality are mortally wounded, 
September. < as ^< o j Lumfden^ the Lord Liberton^ and others. 

' And that which is no fmall Addition, I do not 
' believe we have loft 20 Men ; not one Commif- 
' fion Officer flain, as I hear of, fave one Cornet, 

* and Major R.ookjby, fince dead of his Wounds, 
' and not many mortally wounded. Col. IVbaley 
' only cut in the Wrift, and his Horfe killed under 

* him, having received two Shot; but he well, re- 
' covered another Horfe, and went on in the 

' Thus you have a Profpecl of one of the moft 
' fignal Mercies God hath done for England and his 
' People this War ; and now it may pleafe you to 
' give me Leave of a few Words : 

* It is eafy to fay the Lord hath done this ; it 
' would do you good to fee and hear our poor Foot 
' go up and down, making their Boaft of God : 
' But, Sir, it is in your Hands, and by thefe emi- 
' nent Mercies God puts it more into your Hands, 

* to give Glory to him to improve your Power, 
' and his Bleffings, to his Praife. We that ferve 

* you beg of you not to own us, but God alone ; 
' we pray you own his People more and more, for 

* they are the Chariots and Horfemen of Ifratl. 
' Difown yourfelves, but own your Authority, and 

* impiove it to curb the Proud and the Infolenr, 

* fuch as would difturb the Tranquility of Eng- 

* Iana\ though under what fpecious Pretences fo- 
' ever. 

' Relieve theOpprefied j hear the Groans of poor 
Prifoners in Fngland ; be pleated to reform the A- 

* bufes of all Profeffions; and if there be any one that 

* makes many poor to make a few rich, that fuits not 
a Commonwealth. If he that ftrengthens yous 

* Servants to fight, pleafe to give you Hearts to fet 

* upon thefe Things, in order to his Glory and the 

* Glory of your Commonwealth, befidcs the Be- 

* nefit England mall feel thereby, you (hall fhine 
' forth to other Nations, who (hall emulate the 

4 Glory 

Of ENGLAND. 349 

* Glory of fuch a Pattern, and, through the Power inter-regnum, 
' of God, turn into the like. 1650. 

c Thefe are our Defires ; and that you may have < v ' 
* Liberty and Opportunity to do thefe Things, and Septen 

* not be hindered, we have been and {hall be, by 
c God's Affiftance, willing to venture our Lives, 

* and not defire you fhould be precipitated by Im- 
' portunities, from your Care of Safety and Pre- 
' lervation ; but that the doing of thefe good Things 
' may 'have their Place amongft thofe which con- 

* cern Well-being;, and fo be wrought in their 

* Time and Order. 

* Since we came into Scotland it hath been our 
' Defire and Longing to have avoided Blood in this 

* Bufinefs, by reafon that God hath a People here 
' fearing his Name, though deceived ; and to that 
' End have we offered much Love unto fuch in the 
' Bowels of Chrift, and concerning the Truth of 

* our Hearts therein, have we appealed unto the 

* The Minifters of Scotland have hindered the 
' Paflage of thefe Things to the Hearts of thofe to 

* whom we intended them ; and now we hear that 
' not only the deceived People, but fome of the 
' Minifters are alfo fallen in this Battle. This is 

* the great Hand of the Lord, and worthy of the 

* Confideration of all thofe who take into their 
6 Hands the Inftruments of a foolifh Shepherd, to 

* wit, meddling with worldly Polices, and Mixtures 
' of earthly Power, to fet up that which they call 

* the Kingdom of Chrift ; which is neither it, nor, 
' if it were, would fuch Means be found effectual 

* to that End, and neglect or truft not to the Word 
of God. 

4 The Sword of the Spirit is alone powerful 

* and able for the fetting'up of that Kingdom, and, 

* when trufted to, will be found effectually able 

* to that End, and will alfo do it. 

* This is humbly offered for their Sakes ; who 

* having lately too much turned afide, that they 
' might return again to preach Jefus Chrift accord- 
' ing to the Simplicity of the Gofpel ; and then, 



350 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* no doubt, they wiJJ difcern and find your Protec- 

* tion and Encouragement. 

' Befeeching you to pardon this Length, I hurn- 
1 bJy take Leave, and reft, 


Tour mojl bumble Servant^ 


P. S. ' Some Thoufands wounded befides thofe 
above-mentioned; 27,000 routed; the Scots 
King and his Council withdrawn, but not known 
whither ; the Lord Chancellor's Purfe and Seals 
taken, with a Book in them, of the new Ac~ts 
fign'd by their declared King ; alfo divers Skeines 
and Knives, wherewith they intended to have 
murdered the Engiijh^ had they come into Eng- 

* Since the Fight, the City of Edinburgh taken : 
Lelth alfo taken.' 

Annex'd to this Letter was a Lift of the Names 
of the Scots Officers taken Prifoners in this Action : 
But it will be fufficient for our Purpofe to obferve 
that they confifted of one Lieutenant- General, 
three Colonels, eleven Lieutenant-Colonels, nine 
Majors of Horfe and Foot, forty-feven Captains 
of Horfe and Foot, feven Captain-Lieutenants of 
Horfe and Foot, one Adjutant-General, feventy 
Lieutenants of Foot, twelve Cornets, four Quar- 
ter-Mafters of Horfe, and feventy-eight Enfigns. 

Another Letter from the Lord General to the 
Lord Prefident of the Council of State, was alfo 

Lordy Dunlar^ Sept. 4, 1650. 

Have fent the Major-General with fix Regi- 
of Horfe, and one of Foot, towards 
purpofing, God willing, to follow 
' after To-morrow with what Conveniency I may. 
4 We are put to exceeding Trouble, though it be 


jVJLy J-iUTUy 

e T Have fen 

' ___ ments c 
' Edinburgh, 

Of E N G L A N D. 351 

c an Effect of abundant Mercy, with the Numer- Inter-regnum. 
' oufnefs of our Prifoners, having fo few Hands, 1650. 
' fo many of our Men ficlc, fo little Conveniency *- l v ~ ' 

* of difpofing of them; and not, by Attendance eptem r * 
' thereupon, to omit the Seafonablenefs of the 

' Profecution of this Mercy as Providence fhall 

' We have been conftrained, even out of Chrif- 

* tianity, Humanity, and the forementioned Necef- 
' fity, to difmifs between 4 and 5000 Prifoners, 

* almoft ftarved, fick, and wounded; the Remain- 
' der, which are the like or a greater Number, I 
' am fain to fend by a Convoy of four Troops of 

* Col. Hacker's to Berwick^ and fo on to New- 
6 caflle Southward. 

4 I think fit to acquaint your Lordmip with two 

* or three Obfervations : Some of the Honefteft in 

* the Army amongft the Scots did profefs, before the 

* Fight, that they did not believe their King in his 

* Declaration; -and it is moft evident he did fign it 
' with as much Reludlancy, and as much againit his 

* Heart, as could be ; and yet they venture their 
6 Lives for him upon this Account, and publifh this 
< to the World, to be believed as the Ad of a Perfort 
' converted, when in their Hearts they know he 
' abhorred the doing of it, and meant it not. 

' I hear when the Enemy marched up laft to us, 

* the Minifters prefled their Army to interpofe be- 
c tween us and home, the chief Officers defiring 

* rather that we might have Way made, though 

* it were by a Golden Bridge ; but the Clergy's 

* Counfel prevailed, to our great Comfort, thro* 

* the Goodnefs of God. 

* The Enemy took % a Gentleman of Major 
c Brown's Troop Prifoner that Night we came 
' toHaddington; and having Quarter through Lieu- 
' tenant General David Lejlies Means, who, find- 

* ing him a Man of Courage and Parts, laboured 
' with him to take up Anns ; but the Man expref- 

* fing Conftancy and Refolution to this Side, the 

* Lieutenant-General caufed him to be mounted, 


352 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

and with two Troopers to ride about to view 
their gallant Army, ufmg that as an Argument 
to perfuade him to their Side ; and when this was 
lber ' done, difmirTed him to us in a Bravery : And in- 
deed, the Day before we fought, they did ex- 
prefs fo much Infolency and Contempt of us, to 
fome Soldiers they took, as was beyond Appre- 

Your Lord/hip's moft humble Servant, 


After reading- all thefe Letters, the Houfe re- 
Sfpftet folv'd, that the Council of State fhould give Or- 
thereupon. ders for profecuting the War in Scotland in the moft 
effectual Manner, and prepare all Neceffaries of 
Men, Money, Proviiions, Medicines, Surgeons,3V. 
for that Purpoie : That the 8th of Oftober next be 
fet apart as a Day of publick Thankfgiving for 
this great Victory, which God had vouchfafed to 
the Parliament's Forces : That all the Colours, 
both of Horle and Foot, now brought up from the 
Scot's Army, together with thole taken at Prefton, 
when they invaded England in 1648, be invento- 
ried, with their refpecbive Motto's and Devices, by 
the Clerk of the Parliament, and hung up on each 
Side of Wejiminfter-Hall, as a Monument of this 
great Mercy, to Pofterity : That the Council of 
State do prepare a Letter to be fign'd by the Speaker, 
and lent to the Lord General, in the Name of the 
Parliament, taking Notice of his eminent Services, 
with the fpecial Acknowledgment and Thanks of 
the Houfe ; and that his Excellency be therein dc- 
fired to return their Thanks alfo to the Officers 
and Soldiers of the Army \ and that a Number of 
Gold and Silvqr Medals be distributed amongfl 
them. Belides all this the Houfe voted feveral 
Gratuities in Money to the Officers and other 
Meftengers that brought the News of this impor^ 
tant Victory : They alfo appointed a Committee 
to draw up a Narrative thereof, with an Act for 


< T 

' I 


Of E N G L A N D. 353 

appointing a Thankfgiving Day for the fame; Inter-regnuna. 
which was pafs'd in the following Terms : l6 5- 

F any Nation in the World hath at this Day Se P tember - 
upon them mighty and ftrong. Obligations- 

"^^ * , . / \ i- JT r n -"- n Act ror an- 

' unto the Lord, for his peculiar Manifeftationsp j nt i ng a * 

* of Mercy and Goodnefs unto them, wherein he Thankfgiving 

hath filled with Admiration and Aftonimment aBJT that oe 
' that have been Spectators and Obfervers of the 

* Out-goings of his Power, in Deliverances and 

* Prefervations, it is the Parliament and People of 

* England ; in the Midft of whom the Lord hath 

* walked moft eminently for thefe ten Years laft 

* paft, and conftantly exercifed them by various 
' and wonderful Providences ; being pleafed to 
' make ufe of a few weak unworthy Inftruments, 
' contemptible in the Eyes of Meri, to bring great 
' Things to pafs, and carry on his own Work, 
' that the Power might appear to be of God, and 
not of Man ; and this in the weakeft and loweft 

* Condition of his Servants, when we have been 
' reduced to the greateft Straits, and had, as it 

* were, the Sentence of Death in ourfelves ; and 
bur Enemies heightened and hardened, by their 
' Power and Multitudes, in their Confidences, 
' even to Pride and Arrogance, ready to fwallow 
' us up, and deftroy us : So that, upon moil of 
' the Victories vouchfafed unto us, there hath been 
' written in broad and .vifible Characters, This 
hath God wrought ; thus far hath God helped us. 

* And as it is the Duty of all Perfons in this 
< Common-wealth, efpecially thofe that fear the 
' Lord, to obferve thefe his marvellous and graci- 
' ous Difpenfations, and be taught by them not 
c only to fubmit unto, and jclofe with, the Actings 
' and Appearances of the Lord, who worketh all 
' Things according to the Council of his oivn Will ; 
' but to be enlarged inRejoycings and thankful Ac- 
' knowledgements, and to truft him in like Straits 
4 for Time to come ; fo the Memorial of fuch 
Mercies and glorious Deliverances of the Al- 

VOL. XIX. Z mighty 

354 ^ je Park dwtutary HISTORY 

ntcr-rf-nnm. * mighty dcfervc to be tranfmitted to Pofterity, 

* and fur ever recorded unto his Praifc. 

' -\~~~J * In the Number of thefc, and as that which 
4 may have the firft Place, the Parliament is moft 
4 exceedingly affected with the late wonderful and 

* gracious Dealing of the Lord, towards their Ar- 
' my under the Command of their prefent General, 

* General Cromivcll, in Scotland; and with the glo- 
' rious Victory which he hath there wrought for 

* them in an unexpected Seafon againft the Scots ; 

* for which ineftimable Blefling of God unto the 
4 Parliament and People of England^ enriched 
4 with fo many remarkable Circumftances, that all 

* along evidence his Divine Prefence, this Com- 

* mon-weakh can never be fufficiently thankful ; 

* efpecially if it beconfidered, that in this is given 
4 in a Seal and Confirmation from Heaven, of the 
4 Jufticc of our Caufe, and of the Sincerity of his 
4 Servants, that are his unworthy Inftruments in 
4 the carrying of it on, after that moft folemn Ap- 
4 peals were made on both Sides to God himfelf, 
4 the righteous Judge, in this neceffitated War be- 
4 tween England and Scotland ; and that all Means 
4 of Chriftian Love and Tendernefs towards thofe 
4 that bear the Name of Godly in the Scots Na- 
4 tion, have been ufed to inform and perfuade 
4 them, and prevent, if it had been the Will of 
4 God, a Dccifion by the Sword, and the fame re- 
4 jecled. And, indeed, fuch is the Riches and 
4 Fulnefs of this high and inexpreffible Mercy, 
4 that the Value and Confequence thereof, is not 
4 in a fliort Time to be apprehended ; but is of 

4 that Nature, as fucceedins; Generations will be ' 
4 tafting the Sweet and Good of it, as often as they 
c look back upon it, and penetrate into it : For in 

* the Bofom of it is comprehended the Safety of all 
4 that hath been fought for thefe many Years late 
4 paft ; and, together with this Victory, God 
4 hath renewed Being and Life itfelf to this Com- 
4 mon-weakh, and the Government thereof; 
' whofe total Ruin and Subverfion was not only 

4 con- 

Oy ENGLAND. 355 

* contrived and defigned, but almofl ripened unto rn ^r-regn 
' an Accomplifliment, by all the Enemies of it, un- 

4 der the faireft V r izards and Difguifes they could se-Tembe 
, ' cloath themfelves with ; that is to fay, of the 

* Caufe of God) the Covenant and Privileges of 
' Parliament, the more eafy to feciuce and deceive 

* a Party within this Nation, who lay waiting for 

* it, and to concentre in one all the Strength that 
' could be heap'd up together, of various deirruc- 

* tive Interefts unto the Power of Godlinefs, and 
1 true Liberty and Freedom of the People, the 
' Maintenance whereof is fo much in the Deiires 
' and Endeavours of this Common- wealth. 

' In this Combination the Popifli, PrelaticaJ, 
c Profane, and Malignant Parties ftood behind the 
e Curtain, and feemed for a Seafon to be quite laid 

* afidc, that the Caufe of God, the Covenant, and 

* Work of Reformation might bear the Name, and 
' the Promoters thereof the only Power and Sway, 

* through whofe feeming Credit and Authority our 
' Hands might be wealcned, our Caufe blemimed, 
' and general Infurrections from all Parts of Eng- 
1 land procured ; and fo obtain that through De- 
' ceit=>and Hypocrify joined with Power, which, 
4 by Force alone, they durft not attempt ; as ha- 
' ving found, by frequent and dear Experiences, the 

* mighty Hand of God drawn out againft them, as 

* often foever as they appeared in a Way of mere 
4 and open Force. And_ now when the Defign 
' was thus fubtilly and dangeroufly laid, and the E- 
c nemy in his own Thoughts was in fo fair a Way 
4 of accomplifhing thereof, that they doubted no- 

* thing lefs than of. having our Army at their Mer- 
' cy, and of marching up to London without Oppo- 

* fition, with their new King at the Head of theirs, 

* the following Narrative will declare how fuddenly 

* the Lord turned himfelf againft them, and arofe 

* like a Giant refrefoedwith JVine, beftowing upon 

* England the moft feafonable and wonderful Vic- 

* tory over his Enemies, that it hath ever known, 

* or been made Partaker of. 

Z 2 The 

356 The Parliamentary HISTORY 


* After the March of our Army into Scotland* 
' upon the Grounds of "Ju/lice and Necejjity, and in 
September. t ^ Pro/edition of thoje Ends heretofore declared by 

* us ; and that all Means had been ufcd by the Ge- 

* ncral and his Council of War for to prevent the 

* Effufwn of Blood, and bringing the Guilt of it 
4 upon their own Heads, which they might incur 
' upon their Objlinacy : 

* The Enemy mijlahing the Grounds of our March, 
' took Courage on a fudden, p erf ua ding themf elves 
' we now durji not engage with them, as verily ima~ 

* gining we had with our fick Men Jijipp'd away 
' our Ordnance already, which was indeed only fent 
' with a Party before towards Haddington ; and 

* having been informed that we intended, after we 
' were come to Dunbar, to fend away all our In- 

* fantry by Sea, and with our Horje to return back 

* into England ; between which and our Quarters 
' then they knew there were many Pajfts, where they 

* might have an Advantage eaftly to annoy us, &c. 

' Here begun the Pride of the Scots Army fo to 
' fweil, as they quite forgot an over-rulingProvidence, 
1 their Scouts upbraiding us, They now had us fafe 
' enough, and that though they had afforded us a 
c Summer's Quarters, they hop'd to have it quickly 

* repaid them, when they came to take up their 
' Winter Quarters ; intending, as they Jaid, to 

* convoy up our Rear for us to London : Tea, ft 
' far had their Pajjion blinded them, and their Pre- 

* fumption prevailed upon them, that, as we were 
' informed by feme of their own, they fat in Con- 

* fultation what Conditions it was Jit they jhould 
' offer us ; whether or no Quarter was to be allow' d 
' to any for their Lives; and to wham only, and up- 
' on what Terms: And indeed many vjere the D Jfi- 
cultics that it pleafed the Lord at that Time to fet 

* before our Army; the Ground the Enemy had gotten 
' being inaccejfible, and not pojfible for us to engage 
6 him upon without apparent Hazard, &c. 


Of ENGLAND. 357 

1 The ferious Consideration of all which, as it inter-regnn. 
c doth give the Parliament Caufe of great Thank- 
c fulnefs unto God for this his unfpeakable Good- 

* nefs ; fo they do moft earneftly defire that the 

* whole Nation, together with themfelves, may 
' be deeply fenfible of the fame; and therefore they 

* do ena& and ordain, &c. 

Sept. 1 1. The Doors of the Houfe being order- 
ed to be kept fhut 'till Twelve, inter alia, a Re- 
port was made from the Council of State, That, 
in purfuance of the late Order of Parliament for 
fending the two Children of the late King out of 
the Commonwealth, the Council had fent them to 
the Me of flight : That the Lady Elizabeth was 
at prefent indifpofed ; that (he had fome Inclination 
to go to her Sifter, the Princefs of Orange , which 
the Council think fit me mould ; and that, for her 
Maintenance, me be allowed looo/. a-year, paid 
half-yearly, fo long as me mall behave herfelf in- 
oftenfively to the Parliament and Commonwealth, 
and half a Year's Allowance before-hand ; and 
that, in the mean Time, 'till me could be fhipp'd 
away, her Maintenance and Tranfportation might 
be provided for by the Committee of the Revenue. 

But, whilft the Report was making concerning 

,. T-. [ r , r , n r The Princefs E* 

this 1 rovilion for the unhappy rrmceis, we are/:.^^ be - m 
told, by the Journals, That the Houfe was in-dead, the Parlia- 
formed the Lady Elizabeth was dead a . She died ment give Orders 
at CanJbrooke-CaJile, in the Me of Flight, within a tor 
\Veek after her and her Brother's Arrival in that 
Place, of whatDiftemper is eafy to judge. Her Fa- 
ther's unhappy Fate, and her own Imprifonment, 
which me might expect, to be perpetual, were 
Strokes too deep for her to bear. The Houfe, how- 
ever, on this Information, gave Orders to the Com- 
mittee of Revenue for her Interment in the faid 
Ifland, and for providing Mourning for her Brother 
Henry, his Servants now with him, and the Ser- 
vants of the faid Lady. 

Z 3 Ano- 

a She was born Decrmbtr 28, i6ji, 

358 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnnm. Another Part of the Report related to the young 

1650. prince Henry; that he fhcuilcl be ferit by Tome Shii> 

*-""~ v T"~"'' to his Brother in Scotland, and to have IOOO/. 

Septtw , a _y car ^ p a jj half-yearly, for his Maintenance, fo 

lone as he fhould behave himlelf inoffenfively to 

the Commonwealth. But this Advice was reject- 

ed by the Houfe ; and, after fome Debate, it was 

^Sm^rrefolved that 15007. a-year be allowed from the 

theMaintenanceCommonwealth of England unto Henry the third 

of her Brother, g on o f fac late King, for his Maintenance ; and 

Punce fr.ry. ^^ ^ e ^ ^^ to ^ c brought up and educated in 

the Univerfity of Heidelburgh. 

Sept. 12. ThisDay wem 
a Report from the Committee of theNavy, of an E- 
ftimateof putting out a WinterGuard of Ships: But 
having already triven fome Specimens of this Kind 
of Eftimates, we pafs over that now before us* 

Sept. 17. The King's Declaration from Scotland 
has been mentioned, and that an Anfwer to it was 
ordered to be drawn up, and brought into the 
Houfe for their Approbation. Accordingly the faid 
Anfwer was this Day prefented and read, firft at 
large and afterwards by Parts ; and each Part being 
put to the QueiHon, was afiented to, with fome 
Amendments; on which a Divifion of the Houfe 
happen'd, (if we may call that a Houfe which con- 
fifted only of 36 Members, 20 againft 1 6) and the 
Debate was put oft to next Day. 

Accordingly, Sept. 18, this Debate w 7 as refum'd ; 
and the Anfwer, after fome more Amendments at 
the Table, was pafled, and ordered to be printed 
and publifhed, together with the King's Declara- 
tion, Paragraph by Paragraph. 

Sept. 20. The Houfe being informed that Mr. 
Rujkworth, Secretary to the Lord- General in Scot- 
/^777^/,was at the Door, he was called in, and made a 
Relation of the State and Condition of the Parlia- 
ment's Army in that Kingdom. Cromwell had now 
followed his Blow at Dunbar fo well as not only to 


Of ENGLAND. 359 

take both Lcitb and Edinburgh^ but had Jikewifc fnter-regnum. 

laid Siege to the Cattle. The Secretary alfo deli- l6 5- 

vered to the Houfe Copies of four Letters found in c 

Lord London s Cabinet after the Battle j which 

were all read, and ordered to be printed and pub- 

lifned at the latter End of the Declaration and An- 

fwer above-mentioned. 

All thefe are in our Collection; and fince they 
contain a curious and fuccinct Hiitory of thefe 
Times, no where elfe to be met with that we know ' 
of, they deferve reprinting here, without any Apo- 
logy for the Length of them. The Introduction 
runs thus : 

4 TT is well known unto the World what Man- The King's Jate 
6 JL ner of Conteft the Parliament of England hath Dedaration 3 with 

* had, thefe Years laft paft, in their own Defence, the Parliament's 
4 to preferve themfelves from the almoft-eftablifh'd A " 

4 Tyranny which, through a long Tract of Time, 
6 had been obtruding itfelf, as well over the Con- 

* fciences as the Laws and Civil Liberties of the 
4 People in England^ Ireland^ and Scotland; de- 
4 figning and practiiing the Extremity of all Evils 

* upon thefe Nations, rather than to fuffer itfelf to 
4 be ftopp'd in its Courfe, or difappointed of its End : 
' Elfe what fignified the firft Troubles raifed in 
' Scotland by the late King, and, that failing, then 
4 the cherifhing, upholding, and continuing, to the 

* laft, the horrid and bloody Rebellion in Ireland^ 
4 by the fame Hand ; and, after all, the bringing 

* of an unnatural War into the Bowels of this Na- 

* tion, managed and improved to the utmoft by 

* him and the Popifh, Prelatkal, and Profane Party 

* adhering to him therein ? Which Evils have 
4 been writ out in fuch deep Characters of Blood, 
4 been attended with fuch Confumption of Trea- 
4 fure, and almoft Devaftation of feveral Countries 
4 in the three Nations, that they will not fuddenly 
4 be worn out of the People's Senfe, much lefs of 
4 their Memory. 

4 Yet, even during thefe Troubles, the Designers 
' were not afhamed to appear bare-faced, in their 

4 open 

360 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Interregnum. O p en and avowed Principles of Oppofition and 

1 Hatred againft the Caufe of God, the Work of 

r^ber"' ' Reformation, Privileges of Parliament, and 

c People's Liberties ; having, for that Purpofe, in- 

* corporated themfelves in Intereft with all the 
' known and implacable Enemies of the fame; as, 
' the Popifh Party abroad, and Prelatical and Ma- 
lignant Party at home. 

* But now when, by the unfpeakable Blefling of 

< God unto this Nation, Tyranny hath received 
' its mortal Wound, not only by being beaten out 
of the Field, in all that have fought for it, but by 

* the remarkable Jufticc that hath been done upon 
' the prime Inftrument, in the late King's Execu- 

* tion ; and, in confequence thereof, the Govern - 
f ment of this Nation reftor'd to a Commonwealth 
' and Free State, and the Supreme Authority efta- 
bliflied in this and fuccefljve Parliaments or Re- 

* pretentatives of the People, without King or 

< Houfe of Lords, as the beft Means and ftrongeft 
' Bulwark, under the Divine Protection, to preferve 

* the People's Liberties againft the like Attempts 
4 and Invafions for Time to come, and fo deprived 

* of all Hopes of its ever taking Root again in this 
' Commonwealth ; and being like alfo, if this 

* Commonwealth continue, to lofe Ground in Scot- 

* /tfWand other Nations, where the People are made 
' meer Slaves and Vaflals to theWill of their Prince, 

* and his lordly Inftruments in Church and State : 

* It hath feemed good to Charles Stuart^ the de- 

* clared King of Scotland, and to the prevailing 

* Party in State and Kirk there, to drefs up this old 

* and malignant Caufe in a more plaufible and rc- 

* ligious Garb than that with which it was put 

* forth before ; and to take it out of, or rather for 

* a Time fufpfend its Exercife in, the Hands of the 

* Popifh, Prelatical, and Malignant Party, who 
' begin alfo to fee they can keep it up no longer, 
' but it will certainly breathe out its laft Gafp, if 
it be not fhifted, and, by fome Change of Inftru- 

* ments, recover a Reputation amongft good Men ; 
\ and therefore a Room and Place is made, by 

' com- 

Of E N G L A N D. 361 

t common Confent amongft them, to receive and Inter-regnuny 
4 hide the Intereft of Tyranny, and of Oppofition l6 5- 

* to all Chriftian as well as Civil Liberty, within ^ ""uT^ 

* the Verges of the Solemn League and Covenant : 

* The figning of which Covenant, and the emitting 

* of a Declaration, by the eldeft Son of the late 

* King, expreffing, in Words, a fuperficial Re- 

* pentance for what there is no Probability for him 
' at the prefent to put in Practice ; and promifing, 
' in effect, for the future, to tyrannize and enflave 

* Men chiefly by the Advice of the Kirk, and as 
' lhall tend to uphold their Power and Clergy-In- 
c tereft, in the firft Place, before his own ; an Ho- 
' mage which the Pope indeed hath claimed from 
' earthly Princes, as that which is due to him, as 
' he pretends himfelf God's Vicar on Earth ! 

' This is now accounted full Satisfaction, as to 

* what is to be done on his Part ; and whereupon 
' they would make the World believe the State 
' of the Caufe is altered, even to that Degree, as 
1 that their new King is now no longer upon his 

* old Principles ; but is come over to thofe upon 
which they have fought againft his Father for 
' thefe twelve Years paft. The Deceit and Evil 

* of all which will appear when we fhall come to 
take in Pieces the faid Declaration, and thereby 
' unmalk, as we have promifed, the grofs Hypo- 

* crify of the Contrivers thereof, and the wicked 
' Defign that is couched and contained therein, 
' under Pretence of the Name and Caufe of God ; 

* the Work of Reformation ; the Power and Free- 

* dom of Parliaments in England, according to 

* their antient Form, except only a perpetual fub- 
' jeering and fubordinating of their Laws, Coun- 

* fels, and Advices to the Clergy, who have a Pro- 

* mife, That their Counfels (hall be heard before 
' any other whatfoever, and other plaufible Induce- 
ments to poflefs himfelf of the Crown of England; 
and having obtained that Power, with the De- 
ftruclion of all the faithful and truly godly Party, 
4 that have declared themfelves foj this preient Go- 

* vernment, he may then be more abfolute in Ty- 

' raniiy 

362 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* ranny than ever Prince in England was, and de- 
4 rive the fame in Succeflion to his Poilcrity, u'pon 
' the Score of Conqueft acquired to him by the 
' Help of the Scots ; whofe Good-will to England 
' (for the Caufe of God, as they would have us 

* believe) hath been and ftill is fuch, as to hold it 
4 fit to impofe upon us the Yoke of their Ufurpa- 
tions both in Church and State, and have not 

* fcrunled to attempt the attaining of the fame, ei- 
' ther by Subtilty or Force : By both which Means 

* they never thought themfelves in fo fair a Way 

* unto their End, as now they have cart themfelves 
' into by their late Agreement with their ncwKing; 
and this Declaration they have made him put 
' forth a , which we (hall anfwer in the diftint Pa- 

* ragraphs of it, in Order as they lie. 


His Majejty, taking into Consideration that mer- 
ciful Difpenfation of Divine Providence, by which he 
hath been recovered out of the Snare of evil Counfel j 
and having attained fo full Perfuafion and Confidence 
tf the Loyalty of his People in Scotland, with whom 
he hath too longjhod at a Dijfance ; and of the Righ- 
teoufnefs of their Caufe, as to join in one Covenant 
with them, and to cajl himfelf and his Interejls 
wholly upon God; and, in all Matters Civil, to fol- 
low the Advice of his Parliament, and fuch as /hall 
be intruded by them ; and, in all Matters Eccleftajlic, 
the Advice of the General AJfembly and their Commrf- 
ftcners ; and being fenfible of bis Duty to God, and 
defirous to approve himfelf to the Consciences of all 
bif good Subjects, and to Jlop the Mouths of his and 
their Enemies and Traducers, doth, in reference to 
his former Deportments, and as to his Refolutions 
for the future, declare as follows : 


* The Difpenfations of Divine Providence are 
' indeed merciful, by which Princes or Governors 

* are 

a This Copy of the King's Declaration has been collated by the 
original Edition, printed at Edinburgh, with which it agrees exact- 
ly. It was alfo reprinted at Aberdeen, and at the Hague by Samuel 
jlraxn. All which Editions are in ourColledicn. 

Of ENGLAND. 363 

c are at any Time really recovered out of the Snare Inter-regnum. 
' of evil Counfel ; yet when thi^ is done by the 
4 Violence of an abfolute Neceffity, it is feldom 
' real or lafting ; and then the Mercy in it is but 

* little to the People, who will tafte the bitter 
' Fruit of fuch Diffimulations when it is too late. 

' It feems that the King of Scotland can now pro- 

* fcfs to the World he hath been in the Snare of 
' evil Counfel, wbilft he entertained any Doubts or 

* Diffidence of the Loyalty of his People of Scotland ; 
' and flood at a Diftance from them and their Caufe ; 
' and was unconvinced of the Righteoujnefs of it- y 
' and did not join in one Covenant with them, nor 

* cajl himfelfand his Inter efts wholly upon God ; and, 
' in all Matters Civil, follow the Advice of his Par- 
' liament ; and, in all Matters Ecdefiajlic, the Ge- 
' neral AJJembly, or the CommiJJioners thereof. 

' We do not deny but his former Councils, as 
' well as himfelf, have fuffered a great Change, 
< through the merciful Difpenfation of Divine Pro- 
vidence to this Commonwealth profpering fo 
' wonderfully our Armies in Ireland, as to ex- 
c elude him and his Intereft in a great Meafure 
' from thence, and preferving this Nation in Peace 
c within itfelf, to prevent any Footing to be given 
' to him here ; whereby he was reduced to the 
' Courfe he hath now taken, to faf what the 
' Parliament and Kirk of Scotland fhall put into 
' his Mouth, and tell Kim is fit for him and his 
' Affairs to declare, or elfe to lofe all. And if 
6 Scotland do efleem it fo great a Mercy, to have 
him reduced to this pure Necefiity of cafting him- 

* felf into their Arms, we know to whom, un- 
4 der God, they owe the Obligation ; a Bleffing 
' which, we confefs, we do not envy them, an? 
which, were we fecured never to be Partaker bl 
1 with them, or by their Means, we fhould P( 

' hinder them from the free and full Enjoyment 
' having, by fad Experience, found what it is ' 
' have a King, though never fo well befet in A;' 
' pearance with good Men about him, or to tru- 

* to his Repentances and Promifes, Oaths ocDecL 

' rations. 

3 64 The Parliamentary Hi s T OR y 

er-repnum. ' rations, how fair foever in Shew, and how ftrong 
1650. * foever laid down in Words. 
~\ ' As to the Evil of the Counfel, out of which, its 

* faid, be is recovered by this Change ; we fay, That 
' if the future Refolutions, mention'd in this Decla- 
' ration, be the Evidences whereby we are to judge 
' of the Goodnefs of the new Counfel, we cannot 
'but take Notice, that they do only vary the Means, 

4 but not the End, which ftill is evil, to wit, The 
' enflaving the three Nations ; and do change the 

* Inftruments, but not theCaufes, as is before, and 

* {hall further be, made evident ; and therefore we 

* mult be excufed, if we judge that their young 
'"King is yet in as great a Snare of evil Counfel as 
' ever, and thereupon endeavour, what in us lies, 
' to keep this Nation from falling under the bad 

* Effeas thereof. 


Though his Majefly, as a dutiful Son, be obliged 
to honour the Memory of his Royal Fat 'her , and" 
have in EJlimation the Perjon of his Mother, yet 
doth he defire to be deeply bumbled and afflifted in 
Spirit before God, becaufe of his Father's hearkening 
to, and following, evil Counfels, and his Oppofition 
to the Work of Reformation, and to the Solemn 
League and Covenant, by which fo much of the 
Blood of the Lord's People hath been fied in thefe 
Kingdoms j and for the Idolatry of his Mother, 
the Toleration whereof in the King's Houfe, as it 
was Matter of great Stumbling to all the P rot eft ant 
Churches, fo could it not but be an high Provoca- 
tion againji him who is a jealous God, vifiting the 
Sins of the Fathers upon the Children : And albeit 
his Mfijcfty might extenuate his former Carriages 
and Aclions, in following of the Advice, and walk- 
ing in the IVay, of thofe who are oppofete to the 
Covenant and to the Work of God, and might ex~ 
cufe his delaying to give Satisfaction to the juft 
and necejfary Defires of the Kirk, and Kingdom of 
Scotland, from his Education, and Age, and evil 
Counsel, and Company j and from the Jlrange and' 

O/* ENGLAND 365 

infolent Proceedings of Sectaries againjl bis Royal Jnter-rejnunv 
Father, and in reference to Religion and the an- l6 5- 
tient Government of the Kingdom of England, to ^"^7^7* 
which he hath the undoubted Right of SucceJJion ; 
yet kno-wing that he hath to do with God, he doth 
ingenuott/fy acknowledge all his own Sins, and all the 
Sins of his Father's Houj'e ; craving Pardon, and 
hoping for Mercy and Reconciliation, through the 

And as he doth value the conflant AddreJJes that 
were made by his People to the Throne of Grace on his 
Behalf, when he flood in Oppofition to the Work 
of God, as a Jingular Teftimony of Long-fuffering y 
Patience, and Mercy upon the Lord's Part, and 
Loyalty upon theirs ; fo doth he hope, and Jhall 
take it as one of the grcatefi Tokens of their Love 
and Affeftion to him and to his Government, that 
they will continue in Prayer and Supplication to 
God for him, that the Lord, ^vho fpared and pre- 
ferved him to this Day, notwithstanding all his o%un 
Guiltinefs, may be at Peace with him, and give 
him to fear the Lord his God, and to ferve hint 
with a perfect Heart, and with a willing Mind} 
all the Days of his Life. 


* The firft Teftimony of the Good of the new 
' Councils, into whole Hands the Scots King hath 
' caft himfelf, is, the Repentance towards God, which- 

* they advife him to make, in reference to his own. 
' Sins, and the Sins of his Father's Houfe ; a Mat- 

* ter in itlelf truly praife-worthy, and the Confe- 
c quence whereof, in the Words wherein it is ex- 

* prefs'd, doth in no fmall Meafure reach to the 
' Acknowledgement of the juftHand of God upoa 

* his Father and Mother, in the baniftiing of the 

* one, and taking away the Life of the other by 

* the Hand of Juftice ; putting it into the Hearts 
' of thofe here, that remained faithful to their 

* Truft in Parliament, to caufe his Blood to be 
' poured forth, by whofe perfonal A clings, ( Autho- 

* rity, arid Commiffions, fo much of the Blood of 


3 6 6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

jntcr-regnum. the Lord's People hath been fhed in the three 
1650. t Nations, as this Declaration itfelf acknowledges; 

1 v~ ^ < and for which therefore we have Reafon to bids 

lber ' * God, and admire his Providence, that out of the 

* Mouth of the Son there hath, in the Sight of the 
' whole World, been brought forth fuch a Juftiti- 

* cation of the Sentence palled and executed upon 
the Father. 

' But as to the Manner of declaring this his Re- 

* pentance, that is to fay, with the Qualifications 

* therein allowed of; whereby, under the Pretence 
' of a dutiful Son, he may ftill retain in Memory 
' his Father's Actions of Tyranny for his Pattern ; 
' and, through the high Eftimation of his Mother, 
' have his Ears ftill open to her Counfels, as often 

* as flie can convey them to him : And as fenfible 
' as he muft be of his own and his Father's En- 

* mity and Oppofition againft the Lord's People 
' in the three Nations j yet he muft ftill be encou- 
' raged to perfift in the fame againft thofe that are 

* truly the Lord's People, under the Pretence of 
' Sectaries : Thefe are fuch Inconfiftences and 

* Haltings in fo ferious a Work, that as it is juftly 

* to be feared that God will not be well pleafed 
4 therewith, fo neither will it have its expected 
' Effect amongft Men ; who, with Eafe, may 
' fee through the Deceit and Lamenefs of it, and 

* will, with greater Abhorrency, be aware of them 

* and their Defigns that ftrive to cover themfelves 

* with Webs that will not prove Garments, but 
4 whofe Nakednefs doth ftill appear.' 


And his Majefly having, upon full Perfuafion of 
the Juftice and Equity of all the Heads and Arti- 
cles thereof, now fuiorn and fubfcribed the National 
Covenant of the Kingdom of Scotland, and the So- 
lemn League and Covenant of the three Kingdoms 
of Scotland, England, and Ireland, doth declare, 
That he hath not fworn and fubfcribed thefe Cove- 
nants, and entered into the Oath of God with his 
People, upon any fimjler Intention and crooked De- 

Of ENGLAND. 367 

fign, for attaining bis own Ends ; but, fo far as Inter-regnum. 
human Weakness will permit, In the Truth and Sin- 
cerity of his Heart ; find that he is firmly refolded, 
in the Lords Strength, to adhere thereunto, and to 
projectile, to the utmojl of his Power, all the Ends 
thereof \ in his Station and Calling, really, conftantly, 
and Jincerely all the Days of his Life. In order to 
which he doth, in the fir ft Place,profefs and declare, 
That he vjlll have no Enemies, but the Enemies of 
the Covenant ; and that he will have no Friends, 
but the Friends of the Covenant : And, therefore, 
as he doth now dete/i and abhor all Popery, Super- 
Jiition and Idolatry, together with Prelacy, and all 
Errors, Herefy, Schifm, and Profancnefs, and re- 
f dives not to tolerate, much lefs allovj, any of thefe in 
any Part of his Majejlys Dominions ; but to oppofe 
himfelf thereto, and to endeavour the Extirpation 
thereof to the utmsft of his Power ; fo doth he, as a 
Chrijiian, exhort, and, as a King, require, that all 
fuch of his Subjefls, who havejlood In Oppofition to 
the Solemn League and Covenant, and Work of Re- 
formation, upon a Pretence of Kingly Intereji, or 
any other Pretext whatsoever, to lay down their En- 
mity again/I the Caufe and People of God, and to 
ccafe to prefer the Inter ejl of Man to the Interejl of 
God ; which hath been one of thofe Things which 
bath occafionea- many Troubles and Calamities in thefe 
Kingdoms ; and, being Infijled on, will be fo far 
from ejlablljhlng of the King's Throne, that it will 
prove an Idol of Jealoufy, to provoke unto Wrath 
him who is King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. 

Firft, The King fl)all always ejleem them bejl Ser- 
vants, and moji loyal 'Subjects, who ferve him, and 
feck his Greatnefs, in a right Line of Subordination 
unto God ; Giving unto God the Things that are 
God's, and unto Goefar the Things that are Cee- 
far's : And refolveth not to love or countenance any 
who have fo little Confcience and Piety, as to fol- 
low his Intercjl^ with a Prejudice to the Gofpel and 
the Kingdom of fefus Chrift ; which he looks not 
upon as a Duty, but as Flattery, and driving of 


368 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Self-Dffigns, under Pretence of maintaining Royal 

1650. Authority and Greatnefs. 

* / J Secondly, His Majcjly being convinced in Con- 
Septem ... f c i e)i ^ e c j~ (fa exceeding great Sinfulnefs and Unlaiv- 
fulnefs of t!:at Treaty und Peace made with the bloody 
Irifli Rebels, who treachcrcu/ly jhed the Blood of jo 
many of bis faithful and loyal Sub/efts in Ireland, 
and of allowing unto them the Liberty of the Popijh 
Religion j for the which he doth from his Heart de- 
fire to be deeply humbled before the Lord ; and like- 
wife, considering hoiu many Breaches havt been made 
upon their Part^ doth declare the fame to be void, 
and that his Majejly is abjolijed therefrom ; being 
truiv forry that he Jhould have fought unto fo un- 
lawful Help for rejloring of him to his Throne j 
and refolding, for the Time to tcsme, rather to chufe 

Iti'ion than Sin. 

Thirdly, As his MajeJJy did, in the late Treaty 
with his People in this Kingdom^ agree to recall and 
annull ail Commijjions againft any of his Subjects 
who did adhere to the Covenant and Monarchical 
Government in any of his Kingdoms ; fo doth he now 
declare, That^ by commiffionating fome Perfons by 
Sea againft the People of England, he did not in- 
tend Damage or Injury to his opprefs'd and harm- 
lejs Subjects in that Kingdom^ who followed their 
Trade of Merchandize in their lawful Callings ; 
but only the eppofing and fuppreffing of thofe -who 
bad usurped the Government , and not only bar him 
from his jujl Right^ but alfo exercije an arbitrary 
Power over his People^ in thofe Things which con- 
cern their Perfons^ Ccnfciences^ and EJiates : And 
as Jtfue bis coming into Scotland he hath given no 
Comm'jjioHS agaiajl any of his Subjects in England 
or Ireland, fo he doth hereby ajjjure and declare^ 
that be will give none to their Prejudice or Da- 
mage ; and whatever Jhali be the Wrongs of thefe 
UjurperS) that he will be jo far from avenging theft 
upon any, who are free thereof^ by interrupting or 
Jiolpi/!* the Liberty of Trad* t>nd Merchandize, or 
tthenitife, that he will feek their Gocdj and to the 


Of E N G L A N D. 369 

tttmojl, employ his Royal Power, that they may be Inter-regnum. 
protected and defended againjl the unjuft Violence of l6 5- 
all Men whatfoever. * ~ v- ' 

A W albeit his Majejly defires to conjlntft well of s *P tember - 
the Intentions of thofe, in reference to his Majejly , 
who have been affive in Council or Arms againft 
the Covenant ; yet, being convinced that it doth con- 
duce for the Honour cf God, the Good of his Caufe, 
and his own Honour and Happinefs, and for the 
Peace and Safety of thcfe Kingdoms, that fuck be 
not employed in Places of Power and Trufl, he doth 
declare, that he will not employ, nor give Commif- 
fions to , any fuch, untill they have not only taken or 
renewed the Covenant, but alfo have given fuffi dent 
Evidences of their Integrity, Carriage, and Affec- 
tion to the IVork of Reformation, and /hall be de- 
flared capable of Trujl by the Parliament of either 
Kingdom refpeftively. And his Majefty, upon the 
fame Grounds, doth hereby recall all Commiflions 
given to any fuch Perfons ; conceiving all fuch Per- 
fons will fo much tender a good Under/landing be- 
twixt him and his Subjects, and the fettling and pre- 
ferving a firm Peace in thefe Kingdoms, that they 
will not grudge nor repine at his Majefty's Refo- 
lutions and Proceedings herein, much iefs, upon Dif- 
content, acl any Thing in a divided Way, unto the 
raifeng of new Troubles ; efpecially fence, upon their 
pious and good Deportment, there is a Regrefs left 
unto them in Manner above exprefs'd. 


c It is fomewhat early Days for him, who, by 
f reafon of his Education and Age, and the Coun- 
' fel and Company hitherto about him, could not 

* be much furthered into the Sight of the Juftice 
' and Equity of what is contained in the Covenants 

* mentioned ; prefently, that is to fay, in the Space 

* of almoft twenty-four Hours, to grow up into 
' the full Perfuafion of the Juftice and Equity of 

* all the Heads and Articles of thofe Covenants, 
' and to be able to declare, That he hath not fworn 

* nor fubfcribed them upon any fmijler Intention and 

VOL. XIX. A a crooked 

370 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-return. crooked Defign for attaining bis own Ends ; and 

1650. t ^^ y^ yfoV a Rffo/Ktion to pcrfsft therein really, 

*^~*~v~ mmj ' conftantly, and fincerely all the Days of his Life; 

September. t wnen as tne Commiflioners of the General Af- 

* fembty, in their Declaration, dated the i3th of 
' Augnjt, do fay, That there may be jujl Grounds 
' of Jlumbling from his refufir.g to emit this Dc- 
4 claration ; and do tell him in fo many Words, 
' That they will not oiun him nor his Inter eft, other - 
' wife than with a Subordination to Gad, and in fa 
' far as he owns and profecutes the Caufe of God^ and 

* difclaims his and his Father's Oppofition to the 
' IVork of God, and to the Covenant, and all the 
' Enemies thereof "j and notwithftanding all, he ftill 

* perfifts in his Refufal, withdrawing to Dumferm- 

* //', whither the Marquis of Argyle and Larl of 
' Lothian are fent after to prefs him to fubfcribe ; 

* and, in the mean Time, Overtures are made 
' under- hand to our Army, as if Things might yet 

* be made up in a fair Way, and their King and 
' they were not likely to agree : And, on the I5th 
' of Augujl^ a Remonftrance and Supplication of 
4 the Officers of the Scots Army, by v/ay of fe- 
' eondins; the forcfaW Declaration of the Commit- 
' tee of Eftates and Commiffioners of the General 

* Aflembly, was prefented to, and approv'd of by, 
' the Committee of Eftates ; and on the i6th of 
' the faid Auguft, the Declaration fo earneftly pref- 
' fed upon him, or rather forcibly extorted from 
4 him, is fubfcribed and emitted by hkn. 

' And now, in a Moment, what a blefled and 

* hopeful Change is wrought upon this young King ? 

* How hearty is he become to the Caufe of God, 
' and the Work of Reformation ? And how rea- 
' dily doth he fwallow down thefe bitter Pills which 

* are prepared for and urg'd upon him, as necef- 

* fary to effect that defperate Cure under which his 

* Affairs lie ? But who fees not the grofs Hypocri- 

* fy of this whole Tranfaction, and the fandy and 
*. rotten Foundation of all the Refolutions flowing 
'. hereupon ? As firft, He that, on the i5th of Au- 

* g u ft-> hugrg'd all his Maligriant and Popifh Party 

' in 


in hisBofom, and lodged them in the fecret Re- Intcr-rejnum. 
' fcrves of his Favour and Love as his bell Friends, ,__V_y 

* can now, on the i6th, the Day following, from September. 

* a Fulnefs of Perfuafion of the Juflice and Equity 
4 of all the Heads and Articles of the Covenant, 

* renounce and difcard them in the Sight of God 

* and the World, and vow never to have any more 

* to do with them, as old Sinners, unlefs they, by 
4 his Example^ turn to oe as good Converts as 
1 himfelf, and be able to perfonate and acl: the 
' fame Part ; and fo, by virtue of the very Cove- 

* nant itfelf, eat out and undermine thofe who con- 

* fcientioufly and honeftly intend the Ends of it. 
' The fad Experience whereof, was as well ieen in 

* the managing the whole Bufmefs of the Duke of 
' Hamilton's Invaiion, as in many of the then 
' Members in both Houfes ; who never (hewed 
' more Zeal for the Covenant, than when they 
' found that thereby they could fupprefs and beat 
' down the truly godly and honeft Party, as Secla- 

* ries and Enemies to Monarchical Government, 
' and buoy up the finking and loft Reputations of 

* the moft engaged Royalifts and rotten-hearted 
6 Apoftates, under Pretence that they were turn'd 
' Friends to the Work of Reformation, and for 
' upholding the Church Intereft. And if, in this 

* Senfe, the Scots King will have no Enemies, but 
c the Enemies of the Covenant ; nor no Friends, but 
' the Friends of the Covenant, he makes but little 

* Change ; for he hath the fame Friends and Ene- 
' mies that he had before, with this only Difference, 
c that by his and his Party's becoming, in Appear- 

* ance, Friends to the Covenant for a while, they 

* have the Opportunity at the laft to make Ufe of 
' this Engine, the better to undermine and oppofe 
' the true Ends of the Covenant, than by a flat Op- 
' pofition to it: And, to obtain a Crown, what 

* Diffimulation is not thought lawful by Politicians? 
' Though a larger Meafure than what is held 
' forth in this Declaration, cannot eafily be inftan- 
' ced ; and which therefore we doubt not but 
' God, who is the Searcher of the Hearts , and 'Trier 

A a 2 'of 

fix 'Parliamentary HISTORY 

of the Reins, will proceed further to difcover 
in the Face of the Sun, and more feverely 
judge in this new King of Scots and his Houfe, 

September. ( ' tha - . ]f he had deak p i ainly w j th Q od and Man> 

and held himfelf forth in his own Colours. The 
little Time which he hath been upon the Stage 

* havinc; iurficiently laid him open what he is, a 

* true Inheritor of his Father's Principles and 
Counfels, wherein he may be traced all along ; 

* and even in this laft Action, wherein he hath 

* trod in the Steps of his Father, as well'as other 

* his Predeceflors ; who, whenever they found 

* themfelves in Scotland befet with the Power 
' of the Kirk and State, did fubfcribe and emit 

* whatever was prefs'd upon them, though they re- 

* folved to break all that ever was fo done by them 
' upon the firft Occafion. 

* And as a fecond Deduction from his full Per- 

* fuaiion of the Juftice and Equity of all the Heads 

* and Articles of the Covenant, he declares his 
' Conviction in Conscience of the exceeding great 
' Sinfuhiefs find UnUnvfulnefs of that Treaty and 

* Peace made with the. bloody Irifh Rebels, and of al- 

* lowing to them the Liberty of the PopiJJ) Religion ; 
' and that he is refolvcd^ for the Time to ceme, ra~ 
' ther to choofe Ajjliftion than Sin. It feems very 

* much to be doubted, if the Irijh Bifhop of Clog- 

* her^ armed with a Com million from Ormond? 

* Charles Stuart's pretended Lieutenant of Ireland, 
' had, with his Army of Irijh Popifh Rebels, found- 
' ed upon a pure Popifh Account, fucceeded and 
' prevailed a^ain 1 !: cur Army in Ulfler, under Sir 
' Chnrles Coot^ whether then that which is now con- 
' feficd, and refolved agairlt as finful and unlawful, 

* would have been fo acknowledged, or thought 
4 Wifdom, perhaps, fo to have been by the Kirk 
c of Scotland itself ; confidcring that the faid Bi- 

* fhop offered very fair Quarter to all of the Scots 

* Nation thr.t were ior Monarchical Government; 
' and the Scots Clergy in thole Parts had about the 
' fame Time ftirr'd up the People in our Quarters 

* to Mutiny and Rebellion, infomuch that Sir 

* Charles 

Of ENGLAND. 373 

* Charles Coot was neceffitated to fecure their Per- 

* fons ; as if they had done it on purpofe to pre- 
' pare the Way to uflier in the Infall upon our 
4 Quarters, to deftroy our Forces by that Irijh Ar- 
4 my, who pitched their Oppofition chiefly againft 
4 fuch as they called Sectaries ; being indeed" fuch 

* as declared for the Parliament of the Common- 
4 wealth of England, But when Sin doth not pro- 

* fper, it is no Wonder if it be bewail'd ; and if it 

* lofe its Power, it is no Marvel if it lofe alfo its 
4 Credit, even with the beft Friends to it. It is 
4 fit Popery and the bloody Rebellion of Ireland 
4 (hould be renounced, and the Scots Kingabfolv'd 

* from any further Hand in it, confidering the 
4 many Breaches, or rather Failings, on their 

* Parts, now that, through the Bleffing of God 
4 upon the Sectarian Army in that Nation, as they 
6 call them, the Rebels have been difmabled to 

* keep themfelves in Power, and maintain his In- 
4 tereft there j which we have good Reafon to be- 1 
4 lieve is yet a, greater Affliction to him, in his fo- 

* ber Thoughts, than he finds it to be Sin ; for, as 

* we are credibly inform'd, Ormond and Incbiquin 
4 were very lately departing out of Ireland, and 

* giving up all there ; but, by very frefli Direc- 
4 tions and Commands from the Scots King out of 
4 Scotland, they are required to ftay and promote 
4 his Intereft there : In purfuance of which the faid 
4 Ormond is as bufy as ever giving out Commiffions 
4 among the Irijh, whether as Friends to the Co- 
4 venant or no, we {hall leave the World to 
4 judge. 

4 The third and laft ErFeS of the Scots King's 
4 full Perfuaiion of the Juftice and Equity of all the 
4 Heads and Articles of the Covenant, is his recall- 
4 ing all Commiffions formerly given for infefting the 
4 Seas with Piracies and Depredations ; and Refo- 
4 lutions, for the future* to employ none in fuch 
4 Power and Trujl untill they have renewed the Co- 
4 venant, and be declared capable of fuch Truft by 

* the Parliament^ as more at large is afore recited 

A a 3 'in 



374 Th* Parliamentary HISTORY 

lnter-r?sntirt. t m t 'ne Claufc Ulclf. It is to be obferved, (as 
' liule Juftice and Neceflity as the Scots pretend 
c there was of lending our Army into Scotland) that 
' here is now acknowledg'd by their King, for him- 

* felt and them alfo, that the Scots have treated and 

* concluded with their King, on the Behalf of the 

* People of England and Ireland^ as well as Scot- 
4 land, and have taken upon them (we prefume, 

* by virtue of the Covenant) to intereft themfelves, 
4 in the higheft Degree, in the Laws and Liberties 
4 of England; and have laid the Ground-work of 

* a new War, to be carried on principally by them- 
4 feivcs in this Nation ; declaring for fuch as adhere 
4 to the Covenant and Monarchical Government, 

* and againft fuch as (without Oppoiition to the 
4 Covenant) are for this Commonwealth as it is 
4 now eftablifh'd, without King or Houfe of Lords ; 

* and yet have the Confidence to appeal to God 
4 how innocent they are of giving us any Caufe to 
' fend an Army into Scotland, in our Defence, and 
4 to keep oft this deep- defined War from our own 

* Doors, as Ion?;, at leait, as God {hall enable us 
4 thereunto. Will not God judge fuch under-hand 

* Dealing as>th is ? We are allured he will, as he hath 

u,; already of late moft wonderfully and lea- 

* fonably to do : And he that thus brings it to Light 
' out of their own Mouths, gives us Hope that, in 

* his due Time, he will return it with Shame and 
4 Lois upon their own Heads, who have adventu- 
4 red on iuch bold Undertakings, to which they 

* were never called ; but are molt perfectly uncon- 

* cerned, any further than they are drawn and in- 

* ticed thereunto by inordinate lufting after the 
' Conqueft of this Nation, and eftablifhing them- 
4 felves in the Wealth and Power thereof. 

* But to make all and fmooth to thofe that 

* are apt to be deluded and milled, and to engage 

* them in a new War againft their native Country, 
4 their new -converted Kins; declares, That t 'by 
4 commi Donating Per Jons at Sea to commit Piracy 

* and Depredations, for the Interr;:ption of Trade , 

Of E N G L A N D. 375 

* he intends no Damage nsr Injury to his harmlefs Inter-regnum. 

* and oppreffed Subje&s ; but only to bis Enemies 1650. 

* (which now are none butthofe that arc Enemies *" v -^ 

* to the Covenant and Monarchical Government) ; Se P tember * 
' and that he refolves to employ none in fuch Trujl 

* untill they have renewed the Covenant, and been 
' declared capable of that Trujl by Parliament \ and 
' therefore doth, in Words, recall all Commif- 
' /ions given to any fuch Perfons : But when all this 
' is done, how are the former Evils committed at 
' Sea, to the Interruption and Deftru&ion of 
' Trade, remedied by this, or the Parties injured, 
' repaired ? When War was acted by the Duke of 

* Hamilton upon the Lives and Eftates of this Na- 
' tion, and none therein were employed but fuch 

* as took the Covenant, and were declared fit for 

* that Truft by the Parliament of Scotland, who 
' commanded that Invaiion, were the Evils of War 
' lefs upon the Englifo^ or the Crime lefs in thofe 
' that acted them I Do fuch Rcfolutions as thefe 
' vary the State of the War, and of the Caufe ; 
' or do they only change the Method and Circum- 
' fiances of moving and proceeding to the fame 

* End \ We hope it is too late now to miilead any 
< of the Well-afFected with Blinds of this Na- 
' ture, by which they have once been cozen'd be- 
4 fore, and whereby they may allure themfelves 

* they lhall be deceived a fecond Time, if the Ca- 
e valiers, and purely Rqyal Party, do but lay hold 
' of the Expedient offered to them; which is, 'by a 

* feigned pious and good Deportment, to make 

* themfelves capable of a Regrefs into their former 
4 Employments, upon the cheap Terms of fwal- 

* lowing down the Covenant, and the obtaining the 

* Approbation of as full and free a Parliament as 
' that which authorized the Invafion of this Nation 
' by the Duke of Hamilton. And ftill, who knows 
' not what fuch a Declaration as this fignifies to 
' thofe that have Commiffions to rob and fpoil, and 
' perhaps better underftand Charles Stuart's Inten- 
' tions that granted them, than thofe that put him 

* upon 

376 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. U p on holding forth this Diflimulation, as if they 
16501 were recalled ? 

Se P tember> SECTION IV. 

And as his Majefty bath given Satisfaction to the 
juft and necejjary De fires of the Kirk and Kingdom 
of Scotland, jo doth he hereby ajfure and declare^ 
That be is no lejs willing and defirous to give Satif- 
faftion to the jujl and necejfary De fires of his good 
Subjects in England and Ireland ; and, in Token 
thereof \ if the Houfes of the Parliament of England, 
fitting in Freedom, jhall think jit to prefent unto 
him the Propojitions of Peace, agreed upon by both 
Kingdoms^ he will not only accord to the fame, and 
fuch Alterations there anent, as the Houjes of Par- 
liament, in regard of the Conjlitution of Affairs, 
and the Good of his Majejly and his Kingdoms, Jhatl 
judge necejfary, but do what is further necejjary for 
profecuting the Ends of the Solemn League and Co- 
venant ; efpecially in thofe Things which concern the 
Reformation of the Church 0/England, in Doctrine, 
Worjhtp, Difcipline, and Government ; that not only 
the Directory of Worfhip, the ConfeJJion of Faith > 
and Catechifm, but alfo the Proportions and Direc- 
tory for Church-Government, accorded upon by the 
Synod of Divines at Weftminfter, may be fettled; 
and that the Church of England may enjoy the full 
Liberty and Freedom of all AJJemblie's, and Power of 
Kirk Cenfures, and of all the Ordinances of Jefus 
Chrijt, according to the Rule of his own Word: And 
that whatsoever is commanded by the God of Heaven, 
may be diligently done for the Houfe of the God of 

And whatever heretofore hath been the Suggejlicns 
of fame to him, to render his Majefty jealous of his 
Parliament, and of the Servants of God ; yet as he 
hath declared that in Scotland he will hearken to their 
Counfel, and follow their Advice in thofe Things that 
concern that Kingdom and Kirk, fo doth he alfo de- 
clare his firm Refohition to manage the Government 
f the Kingdom <?/ England by the Advice of his Par- 

Of E N G L A N D. 377 

liament, confijling of an Houfe of Lords and of an Inter-regnum. 
Houfe of Commons there ; and, in thofe Things that ,_^L 
concern Religion, to prefer the Counfels of the Mini- September. 
fters of the Gofpel to all other Counjels whatfoever. 

And that all the World may fee ho^v much he ten- 
ders the Safety of his People, and how precious their 
Blood is in his Sight, and how deflrous he is to reco- 
ver his Crown and Government in England by peace- 
able Means, as he doth efteem the Service of thofe 
who firft engaged in the Covenant, and have fence 
that Time faithfully folloived the Ends thereof, to 
be Duty to God and Loyalty to him ; fo he is willing^ 
in regard of others who have been involved in thefe 
late Commotions in England, againft Religion and 
Government, to pafs an Act of Oblivion, excepting 
only fame few in that Nation who have been chief 
Ob/lrufters of the Work of Reformation, and chief 
Authors of the Change of the Government, and of 
the Murder of his Royal Father. Provided, That 
thofe who are to have the Benefit of this Aft lay down 
Arms, and return to the Obedience of their lawful 

4 The Treaty that was touched upon in the for- 

* mer Paragraph, made between the Kingdom of 

* Scotland and their King, in reference to England 
< and Ireland, being here at large, and, in the Par- 
4 ticulars of it fet down, it will be needlefs to re- 
' peat them ; in the whole Frame of which, we 
' dare boldly affirm, There are thofe Grounds laid 
of inflaving this Nation to the Scots, and efpecial- 
ly to the Power of their Clergy, that no Parlia- 

* ment that hath ever yet fat in England, and have 
' had the leaft Drop of trueEngliJb Blood in them, 
' but would difdain and abhor to be thus impofed 

* upon by the Scots Nation. 

' And are thefe the Hopes that are given to this 
' Nation of having two Houfes of Parliament fit- 
' ting in Freedom, when what they muft defire, 

* and what they muft have, muft be prepared and 
agreed for them by a foreign Nation ? Will the 


378 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* Parliament be more the Parliament cf England, 
1 when two Houfes (hall be brought upon the Stage 

* -v^ ' again with a King at the Head of them, by the 

September. 4 p owcr o f a Scots Army enforcing this upon rhe 

' Nation, than when the Parliament is in adual 

' PoflelBon of fuch Power and Freedom as, through 

' the Blefling of God upon their Endeavours, they 

* are able, by Law, to exclude both King and 
' Houfe of Lords (the known Oppofers of ihe 
' People's Freedom) out of their National Coun- 

* cils j and, by the Force God hath enabled them 
' with, to prelerve the common Peace and Safety 

* of the whole, under the Government of a Com- 

* monwealth and free State ! It is too late now to 

* think that the People have no better Discernment 
' of their own true Intereft, than to be catched 
4 with any Satisfaction that can be offered and gj- 

* ven by a King, if he himfelf with his Power 
' muft come in at the End of it : Nor will the 

* great Promifes of what he will do in the Caufe 

* of God and Work of Reformation ( under that 
' Pretence to let in upon us the Return again of 
' Tyranny) much work upon the Pious and Judi- 

* cious among us, who want not the full and free 
' Enjoyments of their Confciences in this Kind, in 
' a voluntary Way under this Government, with- 

* out being beholden to the Conccffions of a King; 

* nay, we may truly fay, That fince the Change 
' of Government in this Nation, there have been 

* more Laws made, and Means ufed, for the pro- 
' pagating the Gofpel and Power of Godlinefs, and 
' encouraging the true Profeflors thereof, and more 
' done for the Extirpation of Protanenefs and open 

* Wickcdnefs, than hath been during the whole 

* Time of the Reigns of Kings over this Nation. 

* And as to the King of Scotland's declaring his 
' firm Refoiution to manage the Government o/"Eng- 
' land by the Advice of his Parliament-, confi/ling of 

* a Houfe cf Lcrds and of a Houfe of Commons ; and y 

* in thofe Things that concern Religion^ to prefer the 

* Counfel cf tbf Minljhrs ef the Gofpel before all 


Of E N G L A N D. 379 

* Counfeh ivbatfoever ; we truft it (hall never be in inter-rcgnum. 
' his, nor in the Kingdom of Scotland's, Power to l6 5- 
' impofe either hhnfelf or his Creatures, the Houfe ^* """ V 7""""" < ^ 
' of Lords, upon the Supreme Authority and Na- eptem er * 
' tional Council of the free-born People of Eng- 
' land; who, if they once become corrupted in that 
' which is the Fountain of their Liberties, their 

* own Reprefentatives in Parliament afiembled, 

* (which, with thus much Colt and Hazard, are 

* Jet up in Come Meafure already in their primitive 
' and original Purity, and are going on every Day 
' more and more to the compleating thereof) mult 

* expect nothing but the Flowings forth of Ty- 
6 ranny and Mifchief upon them, in and by their 

* very Laws ; and that which Ihould be the chief 

* and only Remedy againft all their Evils, would, 
4 by this Means, become the greateft Caufe and 
' Author of them: Nor would this at all be mended 
' or helped by the Claufe which is put in, That^ 
1 in tbofe Things which concern Religion^ he will 

* prefer tie Counfeh of the Mini ft 'ers of the Gofpel 

* before all Counfels whatfoever ; and fo, by unde- 

* niable Confequence, before the Parliament itfelf ; 

* for we have learned by Experience, that there is 
' hardly any Debate had in Parliament but the Sub- 

* j eft- Matter of it, in fome Senfe or other, may 

* be brought under the Concernment of Reli- 

* gion, and, by that Means, all the Laws muft 
' be or not be as the Clergy will approve or not ap- 
' prove of them : A Practice fo inconfiflent with 
' the fundamental Privileges and Freedom of Par- 
' liament, and the People's Good, that it hath al- 
' ways been exploded and refifted by all Aflertors 

* of Englijb Freedom ; and whenever any vifible 
' Attempts have been made to promote fuch a De- 
' fign, as too often have been fmce the Sitting of 
' this Parliament, the Parliament have highly re- 
' fented it, and frequently adjudged it High Trea- 

* fon ; looking at it as that which introduces a fo- 
' reign Jurifdiftion, and makes Way for the fetting 
' up again a Popifli Supremacy, changed in Name 

* only ! 

* Touching 

380 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * Touching the Aft of Oblivion offered ; it is, no 

1650. doubt, the Effect of a great Defire the King of 

* ~\^ - < Scots hath to receive that which he pretends unto 

September. < - n tne Government of England, an Acknowledg- 

4 ment of his Power to difpenfe fuch Favours : But, 

* * in the mean Time, we muft obferve who it is 

' that makes this Offer, a Traitor to the Parlia- 

' ment and People of England, and who, by his 

' paft Actings againft them, hath rendered himfelf 

' obnoxious to their fevereft Cenfures, from which 

* we hold him no way abfolved by AfTumption or 
' Declaration of a Scots Kingfhip. He, who by 

* Law and his Guilt, ftands incapable of the mean- 
c eft Privilege amongft us, Doth he think himfelf 

* qualified to exercife the Greateft ? Shall the Ma- 

* lefa&or be prefumed to have Power to give Par- 
' don to his Judge ? Or do the Scots or their King 

* imagine, under Pretence of an Act of Oblivion, 
' to feduce England to receive their Laws from 

* The Obftruclers of -real Reformation we are 

* as much againft as he or they can pretend to be, 
' as by our Als and Actions appear; amongft 
' which we reckon it not the leaft, that that grand 
' Enemy to Reformation, the Father of the now 
' Declarer, after his long and bloody Progrefs made 

* in Deftruclion and Devaftation of the innocent 

* People in the three Nations (the Guilt whereof 

* upon him being a Truth fo apparent, as both 

* himfelf and Son, and our now Enemies of Scot- 
' landt have been forced to acknowledge) hath 

* been, by our Authority, tried, adjudged, and ex- 

* ecuted for his notorious Treafons, Tyrannies, 

* and Murders ; whereof, whatever the Interpre- 
11 tation be given by the Son of that Murderer, or 
' other his Partizans, old or new Malignants, late 
' Apoflates, or deteftable Neutrals, who ftyle the 
< A& of Juftice, Muider, with like Truth and 

* Reafon, as thofe who call Good, Evil, and Evil, 

* Good ; Light, Darknefs, and Darknefs, Light ; 

* we, for our Parts, blefs God for that Opportu- 
nity put into our Hands of offering that Sacrifice 

4 to 

Of E N G L A N D. 381 

* to Divine Juftice, towards Vindication and clean- inter-regmim. 

* fing of our Land from that Blood wherewith, by 1650. 

' that Murderer and his Party, it was fo miferably c ' 

* defiled. September. 

'And as we have been obliged, in a faithful and 
' confcientious Difcharge of that Power and Trufl 
' committed to us by God and the People of this 
' Nation, to avenge that innocent Blood upon the 
' Head of that Tyrant, and fome others the chief 
c Authors and Actors under him in {hedding there- 
' of ; fo, for the feduced Multitude, and thofe 

* who, in Simplicity, have been mifguided by them 
' to acl: to their own and Country's Ruin, we have, 

* in the View of all, expreffed our Tendernefs and 
' Forbearance towards them : And being inverted 
with the Authority of the Nation, whofe Repre- 
e fentative we are in that Behalf, as to fuch mifled 
' Perfons, the Parliament of England thinks fit fur- 
' ther to declare, That as they have already long 
fmce had it in their Thoughts, and for that Pur- 
' pofe have under Confideration an Acl: of general 

* Pardon, (in the Prpgrefs whereof they have been 
' interrupted by the renew'd Endeavours of Charles 
Stuart, and his Adherents, to difturb the Peace 
' of this Commonwealth, and hinder its Settle- 

* ment) they will, with all convenient Speed, ap- 

* ply themfelves to the pailing of fuch an Act; and, 
' in the mean Time, do ejtpect from all Perfons 

* living under the Protection of this Common- 

* wealth, that they make not themfelves any way 
' Aiders or Abetters of the faid Charles Stuart, in 

* his Pretences to the Government of this Nation, 

* under what fair and fpecious Shews foever, upon 
' the Penalties in the Laws in that Behalf pro- 
' vided. 


The Committee of EJlates of the Kingdom, and 
General Ajfcmbly of the Kirk of Scotland, having 
declared fo fully in what concerns the Sectaries, and 
the prefent Defigns, Refolutions, and Actings of their 
Army againjl the Kingdom of Scotland ; and the 
fame Committee and JJfembly having fufficiently laid 


382 7 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum . open public Dangers and Duties, both upon the Right 
1650. Hand and upon the Left, it is not needful for his 
V ^'7**' Majejiy to add any Thing thereunto, except that in 
thoje Things he doth commend and approve them, and 
that he rejolves to live and die with them, and his 
loyal Subjeffs, in profecution of the Ends of the Co- 

* The Parliament of England, and alfo their 

* Army, having fo fully declared the Jullice, Ne- 
' ceflity, and Ends of undertaking the prefent Ex- 

* pedition into Scotland* ; and having alfo put it in 

* a Way how thofe Declarations from the Com- 
' mittee of Eftates and Commiffion of the Kirk, in 
' Anfwer thereunto, (hall have their Invalidity de- 
' teemed, as fome of them already in part have been, 

* it will be needlefs to fay any Thing further on 

* this Subject in this Place. 


And whereas that prevailing Party in England, 
after all their Jlrange Ufurpations and infolent Att- 
ings in that Land, do not only keep his Majefty from 
the Government of that Kingdom by Force of Arms, 
but alfo have now invaded the Kingdom a/~ Scotland, 
v who have deferved better Things at their Hands, and 

again/? whom they have no juji Quarrel ; his Ma- 
jefty doth therefore defire and expeft, that all his 
good Subjetts in England, who are, and refolve to 
be, faithful to God and to their King, according 
to the Covenant, will lay hold upon fuch an Op- 
portunity, and ufe their utmoft Endeavours to pro- 
mote the Covenant and all the Ends thereof; and to 
recover and re-ejlablifl) the antient Government of 
the Kingdom of England, (under which, for many 
Generations, it did flourijh in Peace and Plenty at 
home, and in Reputation abroad) the Privileges of 
Parliament, and native and juft Liberty of the 


a In this Volume, p. 276, 102835 298, 10309. 

Of E N G L A N D. 383 

His Majefty deftres to ajfure himfelf, that there Inter-regmim, 
doth remain in thefe fo much Confidence of their Duty 
to Religion, their King and Country, and fo many 
Sparkles of the anticnt Englifti Valour, which finned 
fo eminently In their Noble Anceftors, as ivill put 
them on to beftir themfelves for the breaking the Take 
of thofe Alens Opprejfions from off their Necks. 
Shall Men of Conjcience and Honour fet Religion 
Liberties, and Government at fo low a Rate, as not 
rather to undergo any Hazard before they be thus 
deprived of them ? IVill not all generous Men .count 
any Death more tolerable than to live in Servitude all 
their Days ? And will not Pofterity blame thofe who 
dare attempt nothing for themfelves, and for their 
Children, in fo good a Caufe, in fuch an Exigent ? 
Whereas, if they gather themfelves and take Courage, 
putting on a Resolution anfwerable to fo noble and 
juft an Enter-prize, they JJ)all honour God, and gain 
themfelves the Reputation of pious Men, worthy Pa- 
triots, and loyal Subjects, and be called the Repair- 
ers of the Breach by the prefent and fucceeding Ge- 
nerations ; and they may certainly promife to them- 
felves a BleJJing from God upon fo jujl and honour- 
able Undertaking for the Lord and for his Cauje, 
for their own Liberties, their native King and Coun- 
try, and the invaluable Good and Happincfs of their 

Whatever hath formerly been his Majefty s Gull" 
tinefs before God, and the bad Succefs that thofe have 
had who owned his Affairs, whilft he flood in 
Oppofttion to the Work of God; yet the State of the 
Queftion being now altered, and his Majefty having 
obtained Mercy to be on God's Side, and to prefer 
God's Intere/i before his own, he hopes that the Lord 
will be gracious, and countenance his own Caufe in 
the Hands of weak and finjul Injlruments^ againft 
all Enemies whatfoever. 

This is all that can be faid by his Majefty at pre- 
fent, to thofe in England and Ireland, at fuch & 
Diftance; and as they J})all acquit themfelves at this 
Time in the atfive Difcharge of their necejfary Du- 
ties, fo Jhall they be accepted before God y endeared 

384 ffje Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-rcgnum. fl^s Majejly^ and their Names bad in Remembrance 

165- throughout the World. 

^-*" 1 ~ v ~ J Given at our Court at Dumfermling, the i6th 
Dayofy%*//, 1650, and in the fecond Year 
of our Reign. 


' That which was firft in Defign and lurking at 
' the Bottom, is now laft brought forth into open 
4 View to be put in Practice : Untill the Scots King 

* had thus wafh'd himfelf clean with his verbal Re- 
' pentances; had pretended a full Perfuafion of the 

* Juftice and Equity of all the Articles and Heads 

* of the Covenant, and a cafting of himfelf wholly 

* upon the Advice of Parliaments and AfTemblies 
' of Divines, in all Civil and Ecclefiaftical Matters 
' in both Nations, he would have fpoiled his own 

* Affairs, and weakened the Hands of all that 

* fhould have joined with him to have engaged in a 

* new War againft England, who have fmarted and 
c fuffered too much already by the old ; but now, 
c after the Landfkip of fuch Wonders as thefe is 

* drawn forth into a Piece of Paper, and the State 
' of the Caufe and of the War would feem to be 

* changed, what doth all this tend to, and what is 

* the Ufe that is to be made of it ? Surely no other 

* than that which, if all thefe Things had been left 
' undone, was his and the Scott proper Intereft be- 

* fore upon their old Account; that is to fay, to 
' ftir up all Parties and Interefts, capable of his or 

* their Seducements, to take the firft Opportunity 

* to embroil this Nation afrefh in Blood, that they 
c might come in as Conquerors, and fo make it, as 

* much as in them lies, the faddeft Spectacle of 
' Ruin and Mifery that can be imagined; for what 

* can be like an Over-running of the Nation by a 
f Scots Army with their King at the Head of them, 
' be their Pretences what they will ? And there- 

* fore, fince it is fo apparent what is the End and 
Defign of this Declaration, it will become all 

* true Englishmen to be more awakened than ever, 

* to watch againft, and refift to the laft Man, fo 

* pernicious and deep-laid a Defign, whereby, at 

* one 

Of ENGLAND, 385 

' one Blow, to cut off and difappoint all th^pjath Inter-regnur 
c been fought for fo many Years together, and l6 5- 
' fubje6r. themfelves to the Power of a foreign Na- ^""temteT 
' tion, againft whom God hath been pleafed to give 
' fo wonderful a Teftimony by the iate fignal Vic- 

* tory near Dunbar, the third of September , 1650, 

* upon folemn Appeals made by both Parties to Al- 
' mighty God. And as it (hall be our Parts to 

* omit no good Means that God hath put into our 
' Hands, to prevent any InfurredYions or Diftur- 
' bances of the Public Peace and Safety, by what 
' Hand foever carried on ; fo we do hold it our 
' Duty further to declare, That whofoever fhall 

* be found, in purfuance of this Declaration of 

* Charles Stuart the Scots King, promoting the In- 
' tereft of the faid Charles Stuart, or any way en- 

* gaging in the Profecution of the wicked Defigns 
' therein contained, they fhall be proceeded againft 
' with much more Severity than Delinquents in 
' the former Wars, as to the Judgment of Parlia- 
' nient fhall be thought meet. 

Cler. Par/. 

P.S. e Since theDifpatch of the foregoingAnfwer 
there came to hand Copies of four Letters, written 
from the Earl of London, Chancellor of ~Scotland y 
to the King of Scots, which were taken in the 
faid Chancellor's Cabinet, among the Spoils of 
the Scots, at the late memorable Defeat of their 
Army in the Fields of Dunbar; by which feafon- 
able Providence a further Difcovery is made of 
what was fufficiently evident before to all difcern- 
ing Men, both of the Scots continued Defign 
to invade England, had we not thus prevented 
them, and of the diflembling Formality of their 
King's Repentance, fo much cried up by them^ 
upon his emitting, as they call it, this Declara- 
tion, and obtruded upon their credulous Multi- 

* tudes, and fwallowed by their Party here for Inte- 
' reft's Sake ; when hereby 'tis evident it was drawn 

VOL. XIX. B b by 

386 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' by them in Termini s, and extorted from him with 

1650. 'minatory Importunities; and well demonftrates 

*- ~*~ -* ' the little Senfe of Confcience or Honour in that 

* King, and the Defperatenefs of his Hopes that 
' purfues his End by fuch Means. 

* And it may further be obferved what Sincerity 
' can be expected from that Nation in any public 
' TranfacYions, when their great Minifter of State 
' dare make fo bold with his King's Anfwer, as to 
' alter it to what he thought would better ferve a 
' Turn j and offer that to their Parliament as their 
' King's, without ever confulting him in it, and 

* that in a Bufmefs of fo great Concernment. The 

* Difcovery of thefe Jugglings may be ufeful to 

* thofe who have been impofed upon by the Bold- 
' nefs of thefe Inftruments, who, without RefpecT: 
' or Reverence to Truth, are wont to be bold with 
' any Thing that may conduce to their End.' 

Thefe Letters run thus : 

Edinburgh, July 9, 1650. 
Moft Gracious Sovereign, 

Copies of four in- ALbeit there be no Man rejoices more for your 
tercepted Letters Jl Majejlfs fafe Arrival 'in this Kingdom, or 

from the Earl of . r j J J J > . , . . .- . 6 > - 

London to King more dejirous to wait upon your Majejly than myjetfj 
Cbarlet II. yet the Duty of my Place in attending .the Parliament 
fo long as it was fitting, (where I did endeavour ta 
be more ferviceable to your Majejly than I could be 
elfewhere) and the Dijhmper of my Health not per- 
mitting me to travel, I hope will plead Pardon at 
your Majejly s Hand, that I have not come to wait 
upon you ; but fo foon as I Jhall be any ways able to 
travel I Jhall attend your Majeftv, and Jhall not pre- 
fume to trouble your Majejly with any Particulars till 
then ; refolding to make it my chief Care and Study 
how to improve the happy Agreement (laid upon fa 
pious and well-grounded a Foundation of a Covenant 
with God and your People) to the bejl Advantage, as 
may conduce mojl to his Honour, and the Recovery of 
your Majejly s juft and undoubted Right of all your 


Of E N G L A N D. 387 

Kingdoms-, than which nothing Jhall be more faith- Inter-regnu'm. 

fully and really endeavoured by _*-\- -* 

Your Majefty's moft loyal Subject, September, 
and humble Servant, 

L O U D O N. 

Indorfedy A Copy of my Letter to 
the King's Majefty, July 9, 1650. 

Moft Gracious Sovereign, 

THE Marquis of Argyle and the Earl of Buc- 
cleugh have communicated to me your Majejly's 
Anfwer to that Paper, which was prefented by him 
and others to your Majejly, in Name of your Parlia- 
ment and their Committee, concerning the Removal 
ef fome of your Servants and others from your Court 
and Royal Perfon ; and conjidering that fome Parts 
of your Anfwer is fuch as would not be fatisfaiory^ 
/ have prefumed to alter it, and write it fo, as I am 
confident will give good SatisfacJion : For feeing your 
Majejly hath, by your Anfwer to the fame Dejires^ 
given full Contentment to the General AJfembly, I 
doubt not but your Majejly is willing to give the 
fame Content to your Parliament and Committee of 
EjJates : Therefore I trujl your Majejly will pardon 
my Boldnefs; for I know no better Service can be 
done to your Majejly, than that any Thing which 
proceeds from you may be acceptable to your People, 
and that your Majejly may be more and more endeared 
in their Affections j which is the Duty, and Jhall 
ever be the Dejire, of, &c. 

Indorfed, A Copy of my Letter to 
the King, July 22, 1650. 

Moft Gracious Sovereign, 

JHE Condition of your Majejlfs Army here* 
and what our Refolutions are at prefent,, will 
be fo exactly Jhewn to your Majejly by Sir James 
Lumfden, as I Jhall refer the Particulars to his 
Relation, rather than trouble your Majejly with d 
B b 2 long 

388 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. long Letter ; yet briefly I bold it Jit to Jhew your Ma- 
1 650. jefly, that Cromwefl hath gotten more than a Month's 

V""*" V T"'"'' Provijions for bis Army by Sea, and that he Jhjrtly 
expecJs Recruits : And Viftuah being fo fcarce, as 
it will be very difficult to entertain our Army in a 
Body till the Harveft, that Corn be cut and reaped, 
it if refohfd, for this and other Reafons, That this 
Army Jhall march out to the Fields nearer the Ene- 
my; and) if they force us out to fight , in God's 
Strength to give them Battle ; or, if they Jhall not 
purfue us, Jome Enterprize will be undertaken to 
make a Diverfion to give the Enemy Work in Eng- 
land, rather than consume us "with a lingering War, 
and make the Seat of it in Scotland. In order to 
which your A'lajejlys hajhning hither your Declara- 
tion is fo necej/ary, -as the Delay of it will retard 
and obftruft any Expedition into England ; and Tune 
is fo precious, as the Lofs of Opportunity can hardly 
ever be recovered. So praying God to blefs your 
Majefly, and fo dirett your Councils and the Ac- 
lions of your Armies, as may ferve mojl for his Ho- 
nour, and mc-y rejlore your Majefiy to your juft 

And, Sir, it is the Dejire and Judgment of 'many , 
that Sir James Lumfden Jhould be Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral of the Foot ; tut was not thought expedient to 
do it prefently, to Jhun Contejl and Emulation ; yet 
his Affefiion to the Caufe, and to your Majejiv's Ser- 
vice j is fuch, as he is willing to give his bejl Afftft- 
ance in ordering the Army, and to att his Part in 
a Day of Battle. And truly, Sir, he is a Perfon of 
fo much Valour and Experience in IVar, that your 
Majefiy JJiOuld give him all Encouragement, and lay 
your Commands upon him to return prefently to the 
Army, and not leave it. 

Indorfed, A Scroll of my Letter to 
the King, Aug. 10, 1650. 

S T R, 

HERE hath been fo much faid by thcfe who art 
here, and thofe were fent from the Committee of 
and f ram the Commiflioners of the General 


Of E N G L A N D. 389 

Affembly, to move your Majejly to emit that Dec/a- Inter-regnum. 

ration for Satisfaction of the Church and State, and ' l6 5 

of fuch in all your Kingdoms as defire Religion and 7 v 

your Majejly' s Throne to be ejtablifhtd^ according to 

the Covenant, as I can add little to perjuade your 

Majejly ; yet if your Majefty Jkall ponder ; in the 

Balance of righteous Judgment, the Confequences that 

will follow upon your Granting or Refufal, your 

Majejly will not deny it. If your Majejly grant 

and emit this Declaration, you fatisfy the Cbuftb t 

the State, the Army, and all your good Subjects : 

They all concur to afl for you, and' the Army - is 

ready, if they be not engaged in prefent Battle, 

to march into England, and leave Scotland, and all 

that is dear to them, to the utmojl Hazard, and fa- 

crifice their Lives for the carrying on the Work of 

Reformation, and rejloring your Majejly to your 

Rights and Crown of England : And then, if there 

be any in England who dare appear for Religion, for 

their own Liberties, or for your Majejly 's Inter e ft y 

they will find a fit Opportunity for it. 

Your Majefty is now obliged, by the Oath of Co- 
venant with God and your People, to promote the 
Ends of the Covenant in your Royal Station and 
Place, to the utmojl of your Power ; and your Ma- 
jejly by the Treaty of this Kingdom, and in good Rea- 
Jon y is bound to follow the Counfel and Advice of 
your Parliament and Church, and of thofe who are 
by them authorized; and fince this which is earnejlly 
defired by both, is necejjary for the Good of Religion 
and the Covenant, and engaging of the Church and 
Kingdom to hazard their Lives and EJlates for car- 
rying on your Majejly s Inter -eft, with the Interejl of 
Religion, your Majejly Jhotdd not deny, but cordially 
and fpeedily condescend to it. 

If your Majejly, after fo earnejl Intreaty and 
fuch Offers from the Church, the State, and the Ar- 
my, Jhall refufe to fatisfy their Defire, and clear your 
Refactions, your Majejly will grieve their Spirits, 
cool their Affections, and weaken their Hands. And 
fince your Majejly refufeth to do what is necejfary for 
the Good of Religion and God's Interejl^ they will 
B b look 

16 5- 

*The Parliamentary HISTORY 

look to the Safety and Good of Religion, and to their 
c \--n Safety , and emit a Declaration, bow willing 
f/Ji ' r ' e to hazard their Lives for your Majelly's 
Interejt* if js had been for Religion ; but that be- 
ing denied^ they will feparate the Prefervation of 
Religion from your Inter eft, and fo to the Safety of 
this Kingdom ; and if there be a Difference and Se- 
paration upon thefe Grounds, there will never, in 
human Appearance, be fuch a Conjunction ; and your 
Enemies, who will grant any Thing which may de- 
ftroy your MajeJIy, will win their Ends. 
, Indorfed, A Copy of my Letter to his Ma- 

jefty, upon fending the Declaration to 

him to be figned. 

On the 24th of this Month the Council of State 
received, from the Lord-General Cromwell, Copies 
of feveral Letters which pafs'd between him and 
the Governor of Edinburgh Caftle, foon after the 
Surrender of the City. Thefe being printed by 
Authority ,we fhall give from the original Editions . 
But, firft, Col. Wb&tttf* Letter by the General's 

For the Honourable the GOVERNOR of the Caftle 
of Edinburgh. 

S I R, 

Sept. 9, 1650. 

Letters which 
pafs'd between 
Gen.Crom<ive/l ' 

I Received Command from my Lord-General, 
to defire you to let theMinifters of Edin- 
burgh, now in the Caftle with you, know that 
and SA ver I' the Y have free Liberty granted them, if they 

nor of Edinburgh . J c . i r> v u r 

4 pleafe to take the Fains, to preach m their fe- 
c veral Churches; and that my Lord hath given 
' fpecial Command, both to Officers and Soldiers, 
' that they fhall not in the leaft be molefted. I am, 

Tour moft humble Servant, 

9 Printed for Ed-ward Hujbtndj t 


Of E N G L A N D. 391 

From tie GOVERNOR of Edinburgh Caftle to Inter-regnum, 

S I R t Sept. 9, 1650. 

* T Have communicated the Defire of your Let- 
c JL ter to fuch of the Minifters of Edinburgh as 
' are with me; who havedefired me to return this 
' for Anfwer, That though they are ready to be 
' fpent in their Matter's Service, and to refufe no 
' Suffering, fo they may fulfil their Miniftry with 
' Joy ; yet perceiving the Perfecution to be perfo- 
' nal, by the Practice of your Party upon the Mi- 

* nifters of Chrift in England and Ireland, and in 
' the Kingdom of Scotland fmce your unjuft Inva- 

* fion thereof; and rinding nothing exprefs'd in 
' yours, whereupon to build any Security for their 
' Perfons while they are there, and for their Re- 
' turn hither, they are refolved to referve them- 

* felves for better Times, and to wait upon him 

* who hath hidden his Face for a while from the 
4 Sons of Jacob. This is all I have to fay, but that 
' I am, 


Your moft humble Servant^ 

For the Honourable theGovEHKORoftk Cajlle 
of Edinburgh. 

SIR, Sept. 9, 1650. 

' rT""^H E Kindnefs offered to the Minifters with 
' you was done with Ingenuity, thinking 

' it might have met with the like ; but I am fatif- 
' fied to tell thofe with you, that if their Matter's 
' Service, as they call it, were chiefly in their Eye, 
' Imagination of Suffering would not have caufed 

* fuch a Return ; much lefs the Practice by out 
' Party, as they are pleafed to fay, upon the Mi- 
' nifters of Chrift in England, have been an Argu- 
< ment of perfonal Perfecutiori : The Minifters of 



392 tte Parliamentary HISTORY 

* Enghmd are fupported, and have Liberty to 
4 preach the Golpel, though not to rail ; nor, un- 

* dor Pretence thereof, to over top the Civil Powt. , 
' or debafe it as they pleafe : No man hath 
' been troubled in England or Ireland for preach- 

* ing the Gofpel ; nor has any Mimfter been ino- 
lefted in Scotldrtf, fince the Coming of the Army 
k hither. 

* The fncaking Truth becomes the Minifters 
*ofChrift: Wiu'ri Minifters pretend to a glori- 
' ous Reformation, and lay the Foundation there- 

* of in getting to themfelves worldly Power, and 

* can make worldly Mixtures to accomplifh the 

* fame, fuch as their late Agreement with their 

* King, and Hopes, by him, to carry on their 
fc Delfgn, they may know, that the Sion promifed 
' and hoped for, will not be built with lucli un- 

* tempered Mortar. 

' As for the unjuft Invafion they mention ; 

* Time was when an Army of Scotland came into 

* England, not called by the Supreme Authority : 

* We have faid in our Papers, with what Hearts, 

* and upon what Account, we came ; and the Lord 
' hath heard us, though you would not, upon as 

* folemn an Appeal as any Experience can parallel. 

* And although they feem to comfort themfelves 
' with being the Sons of Jacob, from zubom, they 

* fay, God bath hid bis Face for a Time ; yet it's 

* no Wonder, when the Lord hath lifted up his 

* Hand fo eminently againft a Family, as he hath 

* done fo often againft this, and Men will not fee 

* his Hand, if the Lord hide his Face from fuch j 
' putting them to Shame both for it, and their Ha- 
' tred at his People, as it is this Day. When 
' they purely truft to the Sword of the Spirit, 
1 which is the Word of God, which is powerful to 

* bring down jlrong Holds, and every Imagination 

* that exalts itfelf^ which alone is able to fquare 
'and fit the Stones for the New Jerujalem^ then, 
' and. not before, and by that Means, and no 
' other, Jhail Jerufalem, which is to be the Praife 

* of the whole Earth,, the City of the Lord, be built* 


Of ENGLAND. 393 

c the Sion of the Holy One of Ifrael. I have no- Jnter-regnum; 
' thing to fay to you, but that I am, ^J_ ' 

SIR, September/ 

Tour humble Servant, 

A Letter from the GOVERNOR 0/"Edinburgh Caftle^ 
for the Right Honourable the Lord CROMWELL, 
Commander in Chief of the Englifh Army. 

My Lord., Sept. 9, 1650. 

' '\7'Ours I have communicated to thofe with mC 

* j[ whom it concerned, who defire me to re- 
4 turn this Anfwer, That their Ingenuity in pro- 
4 fecuting the Ends of the Covenant, according to 

* their Vocation and Place, and adhering to their 

* firft Principles, is well known ; and one of their 

* greateft Regrets is, that they have not met with, 
4 the like. When Minifters of the Gofpel have 

* been imprifoned, deprived of their Benefices, fe- 
' queftrate, forced to flee from their Dwellings, 
4 and bitterly threatned for their faithful declaring 
' the Will of God againft the godlefs and wicked 
' Proceedings of Men, it cannot be accounted 
4 an imaginary Fear of Suffering in fuch as are re- 
4 folvecl to follow the like Freedom and Faithful- 
' nefs, in difcharging of their Matter's Meflage : 

* That it favours not of Ingenuity to promifeLiber- 

* ty of preaching the Gofpel, and to limit the 

* Preachers thereof, that they muft not fpeak a- . 
4 gainft the Sins and Enormities of Civil Powers ; 

* fince their Commiflion carrieth them to fpeak 
4 the Word of the Lord unto, and to reprove the 

* Sins of, Perfons of all Ranks, from the Higheft 

* to the Loweft: That to impofe the Name of 

* Railing upon fuch faithful Freedom, was the old 

* Practice of Malignants againft the Minifters of 
c the Gofpel, who laid open to People the Wick- 
' ednefs of their Ways, that they mould not be 
' enfhared thereby : That their Conferences bear 

* them 

394 ^^ Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. < them Record, and all their Hearers do know, 
1650. i t h at t h e y meddle not with Civil Affairs, further 

V^*v~* than to hold forth the Rule of the Word, by 
' which the Straightnefs and Crookednefs of Men's 
' Actions are made evident : But they are forry 
c that they have juft Caufe to regret, that Men of 
' meer Civil Place and Employment fhould ufurp 
' the Calling and Employment of the Miniftry, 
' to the Scandal of the Reformed Kirks, and parti- 
' cularly in Scotland^ contrary to the Government 

* and Difcipline therein eftablifhed ; to the Main- 
' tenance whereof you are bound by the Solemn 

* League and Covenant. 

* Thus far they have thought fit toVindicate their 
' Return to the Offer in Colonel JfTjalley's late 
c Letter: The other Part of yours, which concerns 
' the Public as well as them, they conceive all 

* that hath been anfwered fufficiently in the public 
' Papers of the State and Kirk ; only to that of 
' the Succefs upon your folemn Appeal, they fay 
' again what was faid to it before, That they have 

* not /o learned Chrift, as to hang the Equity of 

* their Caufe upon Events ; but defire to have 

* their Hearts eftablifhed in the Love of the Truth 
' in all the Tribulations that befall them. I only 

* add, that I am, 

My Lord, 

Your moft humble Servant^ 

For the GOVERNOR ^Edinburgh Co/lie. 

S /, Sept. 12, 1650. 

Ecaufe I am at fome reafonable good Leifure, 
_ I cannot let fuch a grofs Miftake and incon- 
Sequential Reafonings pafs without fome Notice 

* taken of them. And firft, their Ingenuity in 
' Relation to the Covenant, for which they com- 
' mend themfelves, doth no more jnftify their 
' Want of Ingenuity in Anfwer to Colonel Wbal- 

< ley's 

Of E N G L A N D. 395 

4 ley's Chriftian Offer, (concerning which my Let- Inter-regnum, 
4 ter charged them with Guiltinefs, and Deficiency) l6s f 

* than their bearing Witnefs to themfelves of their sTTembor 
' adhering to their firft Principles and Ingenuity, in 

' profecuting the Ends of the Covenant, juftifies 

* them fo to have done, meerly becaufe they fay 
' fo. They muft give more Leave henceforward, 

* for Chrift will have it fo, will they nill they ; 

* and they muft have Patience to have the Truth of 
' their Doctrines and Sayings tried by the fure 
' Touchftone of the Word of God ; and if there 
' be a Liberty and Duty of Trial, there is a Li- 
' berty of Judgment alfo, for them that may and 

* ought to try ; which, if fo, they muft give others 
' Leave to fay and think, that they can appeal to 
' equal Judges, who have been the trueft Fulfillers 

* of the moft real and equitable Ends of theCove- 

* nant : But if thefe Gentlemen, who do aflume 
' to themfelves to be the infallible Expofitors of 
' the Covenant, as they do too much to their Audi- 

* tories, of the Scriptures, counting a different Senfe 
' and Judgment from theirs, Breach of Covenant 
' and Herefy, no Marvel they judge of others fo 

* authoritatively and feverely ; but we have not fa 

* learned Chrift. 

* We look at Minifters as Helpers of, not Lords 
4 over, the Faith of God's People. I appeal to 

* their Confciences, whether any trying their Doc- 

* trines and diflenting, fhall not incur the Cenfure 

* of Sectary ; and what is this but to deny Chri- 

* ftians their Liberty, and affume the infallible 

* Chair ? What doth he, whom we would not be 

* likened unto, do more than this ? 

* In the fecond Place it is affirmed, That the 

* Mir.ijlers of the Gofpel have been imprifoned, de- 

* prived of their Benefices, fequejlred, forced to fly 
' from their Dwellings , and bitterly threatened for 
' their faithful declaring the Will of God, &c. 
' And That they have been limited that they might 
' not fpeak againft the Sins and Enormities of the 

* Civil Powers : That to impcfe the Name of Rail- 

* ing upon fuch faithful Freedom* was the old 


396 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jntcr-regnum. ' Practice of the Malignant* again/I the Prcadcrs 

* of the Gojpel y &c. 

' If the Civil Authority, or that Part of it which 
< continued faithful to their Truft, and true to the 
' Ends of the Covenant, did, in Anfwer to their 

* Conlciences turn out a Tyrant, in a Way which 
' the Chriflians in After-times will mention with 

* Honour, and all the Tyrants in the World lcok 

* at with Fear, and many Thoufant's of Saints in 
' England rejoice to think of it ; and have receiv- 
' ed, from the Hand o* God, a Liberty from the 

* Fear of like Ufurpations ; and have caft off him, 

* who trod in his Father's Steps, doing Mifchief as 

* far as he was able, whom you have received like 
' Fire into your Bofoms, of which God will, I truft, 
' in Time make you fenfible ; if Minifters railing 
1 at the Civil Power, calling them Murderers and 
' the like, for doing this, have been dealt with as 

* you mention ; will this be found a perfonal Per- 
' fecution ? Or is Sin fo, becaufe they fay fo ? 

* They that acted this great Bufmefs, having given 
' a Reafon of their Faith in this AcYion j and fome 
' here are ready further to do it againft all Gain- 
fayers. But it will be found that thefe Repro- 

* vers do not only make themfelves the Judges and 

* Determiners of Sin, that fo they may reprove ; 
' but they alfo took Liberty to ftir up the People 

* to Blood and Arms, and would have brought a 

* War upon England^ as hath been upon Scotland^ 

* had not God prevented it : And if fuch Severity 
' as hath been exprefied toward them, be worthy 
' the Name of perfonal Perfecution, let all uninte- 

* refted Men judge, whether the calling of this 
Practice Railing, be to be parallel'd with the Ma- 
' lignants Imputation upon the Minifters, for 

* fpeaking againft the Popifh Innovations in the 
' Prelates Time, and the tyrannical and wicked 
' Practices then on Foot, let your own Confcien- 
' ces remind you. The Roman Emperors^ in 
' Chrift and his Apoftles Times, were Ufurpers 

* and Intruders upon the Jewijh State, yet what 

* Footftep have ye either of our blefled Saviour's 

Of ENGLAND. 397 

e fo much as Willingnefs to the dividing of an Inter-regnunu 
' Inheritance, or their meddling in that Kind : This l6 5- 

* was not pradlifed by the Church fince our Savi- *- s-~~* 
f our's Time till Antichrift, afiuming the infallible SepteB1 

4 Chair, and all that he called the Church to be 
4 under him, praclifed this authoritatively over 
4 Civil Governors. 

4 The Way to fulfil your Miniftry with Joy, is 
4 to preach the Gofpel ; which I wifh fome who 
4 take Pleafure in Reproofs at Adventure, do not 
4 forget too much to do. ' 

4 Thirdly, you fay, You have jujl Caufe to re~ 
4 grety that Men of Civil Employments jhould ufurp 

* the Calling and Employment of the Miniftry ^ to the 
4 Scandal of the Reformed Kirks, &c. 

4 Are you troubled that Chrift is preached ? Is 

* Preaching fo inclufive in your Function ? Doth 
4 it fcandalize the .Reformed Kitks, and Scotland 

* in particular? Is it againft the Covenant? Away 
4 with the Covenant, if this be fo ; I thought the 
4 Covenant and thele could have been willing that 
4 any mould fpeak good of the Name of Chrift j if 
4 not, it is no Covenant of God's approving, nor 
4 the Kirks you mention, in fo much, the Spoufe of 

* Chrift. Where do you find in the Scripture a 
4 Ground to warrant fuch an Aflertion, thatPreach- 
4 ing is included in your Function ? Though an 

* Approbation from Men hath Order in it, and 
4 may do well, yet he that hath not a better War- 
4 rant than that, hath none at all. I hope he that 
4 afcended up on high, may give his Gifts to whom 
4 he pleafes ; and if thofe Gifts be the Seal of Mif- 
4 fion, be not envious tho'EIdad and Medad prophe- 
4 fy : You know who bids us covet earnestly the beft 
4 Gifts, but chiefly that we may prophefy ; which 
4 the Apoftle explains there to be a Speaking to 
4 Inftructkm, and Edification, and Comfort, which 
4 the Inftrucled, Edified, and Comforted can beft 
4 tell the Energy and Effecl of; if fuch Evidence 
4 be, I fay again, take heed you envy not for 
4 your own Sakes, left you be guilty of a greater 
4 Fault than Mofes reproved in jojhua, for envy- 


The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. e ing for his Sake. Indeed you err through th<< 
1650. < Mlftake of the Sciptures ; Approbation is an Act 
*-*"* V*-*-' of Conveniency in refpecl: of Order, not of Ne- 
Sptember. 4 ce ff lt y to gi ve Faculty to preach the Gofpel. 

' Your pretended Fear, left Error mould ftep in, 
' is like the Man that would keep all the Wine 

* out of the Country, left Men fhould be drunk. 

* It will be found an unjuft and unwife Jealoufy to 
' deny a Man the Liberty he hath by Nature, upon 
c a Suppofition he may abufe it ; when he doth 

* abufe it, judge. If a Man fpeak foolifhly, ye 

* fuffer him gladly becaufe ye are wife; if erro- 
neoufly, the Truth more appears by your Con- 

* vi&ion ; ftop fuch a Man's Mouth with found 
' Words that cannot be gainfaid ; if blafphemoufly, 

* or to the Difturbance of the public Peace, let 
' the Civil Magiftrate punifh him ; if truly, rejoice 
c in the Truth ; and if you will call our Speakings 

* together fmce we came into Scotland, to provoke 

* one another to Love and to good Works, to Faith 

* in our Lord Jefus Chrift, and Repentance from 
' dead Works, to Charity and Love towards you, 
6 to pray and mourn for you, and for the bitter Re- 

* turns to, and Incredulity of, our Profeffions of 
' Love to you ; of the Truth of which we have 

* made our folemn and humble Appeals to the 

* Lord our God, which he hath heard and borne 

* Witnefs to; if thefe Things be fcandalous to the 
' Kirk and againft the Covenant, becaufe done by 
' Men of Civil Callings, we rejoice in them, not- 
c withftanding what you fay. 

c For a Conclufion, in Anfwer to the Witnefs 
' of God upon our folemn Appeal, you fay, Ten 
' have not fo learned Chrift to bang the Equity of 
' your Caufe upon Events. We could wifh Blind- 

* nefs hath not been upon your Eyes to all thofe 
' marvellous Difpenfations which God hathwrough^ 
6 lately in England. But did not you foiemnly ap- 

* peal and pray ? Did not We do fo too ? And ought 
' not you and we to think with Fear and Trem- 
' bling of the Hand of the great God in this migh- 

* ty and ftrange Appearance of his, but can flightly 


Of E N G L A N D. 399 

* call it an Event? Were not both yours and our inter-regnum. 
' Expectations renewed from Time to Time, whilft j6 5 

' we waited on God to fee which way he would ' ** * 

* manifeft himfelf upon our Appeals I And (hall Se P tember - 
' we, after all thefe our Prayers, Faftings, Tears, 

* Expectations, and folemn Appeals, call thefe 
' bare Events f The Lord pity you, furely we fear, 

* becaufe it hath been a merciful and gracious De- 

* liverance to us. 

* I befeech you, in the Bowels of Chrift, fearch 
' after the Mind of the Lord in it towards you, and 
' we fhall help you by our Prayers, that you may 

* find it out; for yet (if we know our Hearts at 
' all) our Bowels do in Chrift Jefus yearn after the 

* Godly in Scotland: We know there are ftum- 

* bling Blocks which hinder you ; the perfonal 

* Prejudices you have taken up againft us and our 

* Ways, wherein we cannot but think fome Occa- 
' fion has been given, and for which we mourn ; 

* the Apprehenfion you have, that we have hin- 

* dered the glorious Reformation you think you 
' were upon : I am perfuaded thefe and fuch like 

* bind you up from an Underftanding and yielding 
to the Mind of God, in this great Day of his 

* Power and Vifitation j and, if I be rightly in- 

* formed, the late Blow you received is attributed 

* to profane Councils and Conduit, and Mixtures " *. 
' in your Army, and fuch like ; the natural Man 

* will not find out the Caufe ; look up to the Lord, 
' that he may tell it you j which that he would do, 
' fhall be the fervent Prayers of 

Tour loving Friend and Servant, 


For the GOVERNOR of Edinburgh Cajlle. 

< fTlHefe Queries are fent, not to reproach you ; 

< but, in the Love of Chrift, laying them 
before you, we being perfuaded in the Lord, 

< that there is a Truth in them, which we ear- 
neftly defirc may not be laid afide unfought after 
by any Prejudice, either againft the Things them- 

* felves, 

400 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Zhter-regnunu * felves, or the Unworthinefs or Weaknefs of tho 

1650. * Perfon that offers them. If you turn at the 

^- ~ v ~J Lord's Reproofs, he will pour out his Spirit upon 

September. < you? and you fl^ji underftand his Words, and 

* they will guide you to a blefTed Reformation in- 

' deed, even to one according to the Word, and 

' fuch as the People of God wait for ; wherein 

' you will find us and all Saints ready to rejoice, 

c and ferve you to the utmoft in our Places and 

6 Callings/ 

Q, U IE R I E S. 

I. Whether the Lord's Controverfy be not both a- 
gainjl the Minijlers in Scotland and England, for 
wrejiing, Draining, and improving the Covenant a- 
gainft the Godly and Saints in England, of the fame 
faith with them in every Fundamental, even to a 
fatter Perfecution ; and fo making that which , in the 
main Intention, was fpiritual, to ferve Politics and 
carnal Ends, even in that Part ejpecially which was 
fpiritual, and did look to the Glory of God, and the 

Comfort of his People ? 

II. whether the Lord's Controverfy may not be for 
your, and the Minijlers in England'* Sullinefs at, and 
darkening, and not beholding the Glory of God's 
wonderful Difpenfations in this Series of his Provi- 
dences in England, Ireland, and Scotland, both now 
and formerly, through Envy at Inftruments, and be- 
cauje the Things did not work forth your Platform, 
and the great God did not come down to your Minds 

III. Whether your carrying on a Reformation, fo 
much by you fpoken of, have not probably beenfubjeff 



to fame Mi/lakes in your own Judgements about fa 
Parts of the fame^ laying fo much Strefs thereupon, 
as hath been a Temptation to you, even to break the 
Law of Love towards your Brethren, and thofeChrift 
hath regenerated, even to the reviling and perfecu- 
ting of them, and to Jlir up wicked Men to do the 
fame, for your Form's Sake, or but fame Parts of it ? 
IV. Whether, if your Reformation be fo perfecJ 
and fo fpiritual, and indeed the Kingdom of the Lord 

Of E N G L A N D. 401 

jefus, it will need fucb carnal Policies, fuch flefily Inter-rcgnarhv 
"Mixtures, fucb unjlncere Aftings, as to pretend to 1650. 
cry down all Malignant s, and yet receive and fet up Z^^^T** 
the Head of them ; and Jo att for the Kingdom of > 
Cbrijl in his Name, and upon Advantage thereof; 
and to publijh fo falfe a Paper, fo full of fpecious 
Pretences to Piety , as the Fruit and Effett of his 
Repentance, to deceive the Minds of ail the Godly 
in England, Ireland, and Scotland ; you in your own 
Confciences knowing with what Regret he did it , and 
with what Importunities and Threats he was brought 
to dq it ; and how much to this very Day he is again/I 
it; and whether this be not a high Provocation of the 
Lord, in fo grofly dij/embling with him and his 
People ? 

For the Right Honourable the Commander in Chief 

of the Engliih Army. 
My Lord, , Sept. 12. 1650; 

XOur Papers I have communicated to thofe 
with me whom they concerned, who have 
:d me to return this Anfwer : The Contents 
of thefe Papers do concern the public Differences 
betwixt you and thofe of the three Kingdoms^ 
who have faithfully adhered to the Solemn 
League and Covenant, and are awed by the Oath 
of God from Acceffionto the Guiltinefs of clear 
and evident Breaches of the Covenant, and have 
been fo often and fully anfwered in the public 
Papers of this Kirk and Kingdom ; in the Refo- 
lutions of the Aflembly of Divines in England $ 
and in the publifhed Writings of the foundeft Di- 
vines there, yea, and of all the Reformed Kirks,-, 
that they conceive it needlefs (though a Matter 
of no great Difficulty) to give a particular An- 
fwer ; efpecially fmce the late General Affembty 
have authorized their Commiffioners to take into 
Confideration Matters of public Concernment to 
this Kirk, unto whom, if you pleafe, you may 
hereafter direct Papers of that Kind : In the 
mean Time they reft fully perfuaded in their 
Minds, that the Event of a Battle, though order- 
VOL. XIX, C c ' edf 


402 77v Parliamentary HISTORY 

ed indeed by ajuft and wife Providence, is no in- 
fallible Proof of the Equity or Iniquity of a 
Cr.ufe, feeing there is one Event to the Righte- 
ous and to the Wicked, to him that fweareth and 
to him that teareth an Oath, as it is clear in the 
Cafe of Ifrael againft Benjamin about the Men 
of Gibeab. I am, 

My Lord, 

Tour moji bumble Servant, 

Thus much for this Religious Difputation be- 
tween the Englijk and Scots Commanders. Leaving 
it to the Reader's Determination whether Crom- 
well alone was not an Overmatch therein for the 
Governor and his Ecclefiaftical Council, we fhall 
return to the Proceedings of Parliament at fflejl- 
A/rn- <. c The Houfe having made an Order to eo upon 

AnAfleumentof .... => _ t- 

120,000 /. per nothing but Money-Matters for a Week, on the 
AfeH/j voted for 25th of this Month the Council of State delivered 

jStSSSL * n a ^ aper from the Treafurers at War * Dignifying, 
'that, in purfuance of the Parliament's Orders, they 
had confidered of the fending Men and, Provisions 
for carrying on the Public Service in Scotland, which 
would ipeedily be ready, unlefs Money were want- 
ing for the Payment of them. Hereupon it was 
relblved that 400,000 /. be charg'd upon the whole 
Nation, to be proportionably laid upon the feveral 
Counties ; and that the Repayment thereof be fe- 
cured by Monies to be raifed by the Sale of Fee- 
Farm Rents. - But this Propofal was afterwards 
dropp'd ; and, inflead thereof, a Bill was order'd in 
for levying 1 20,000 /. per Menfem^ for four Months, 
according to the fame Proportions as the former 
Aflcflment of 90,000 /. This new AflefTment to 
commence on the 25th of December enfuing. 

^ngthefc The Aas P afl " ed this Month, worth our Notice, 
cife to be farm'd. were only twoj the firft of which related to the 


Of E N G L A N D. 403 

Excife, whereby newCommiffioners were appoint- Inter-regnum, 
ed, with Power to Jett out to farm the Duties pay-- l6 S- 
able on Commodities fubje6t to that Kind of Im- v -.--*-* 
poft, and to be allowed Three-pence in the Pound ober ' 

for their Salary. The other was intitled, dndtt for 
Relief of religious and peaceable People from the Ri- 
gour of former Afls of Parliament in Alatters of 
Religion. The Preamble to this remarkable At 
runs thus : 

' The Parliament of England, taking into Con- Another for al- 
c fideration feveral Ads, made in the Times of k ; w l ng - Lll)ert y 

.- rr . / i XT n ' Coftfcience m 

* former Kings and Queens of this Nation, againft juftteis oi Ue- 

* Recufants not coming to Church, enjoining theligion. 
' Ufe of the Common Prayer, the keeping and ob- 

' ferving of Holidays, and fome other Particulars 

* touching Matters of Religion; and finding that, 

* by the faid A6r.s, divers religious and peaceable 
' People, well affe&ed to the Profperity of the 

* Commonwealth, have riot only been molefted 

* and imprifoned, but alfo brought into Danger of 

* abjuring their Country ; or, in cafe of Return, to 

* fuffer Death as Felons, to the great Difquiet and 
' utter Ruin of fuch good and godly People, and 

* to the Detriment of the Commonwealth, 6fr.' 

Then this A6t proceeds to repeal all fuchClaufes 
in the Statutes of the ift, 23d, and 35th of Queen 
Elizabeth, which impofed Penalties upoa Perfons 
not coming to Church, provided they fhould refort 
to fome public Place where the Worftiip of God was 
exercifed, or be prefent elfewhere at the Practice 
of Religious Duties ; as Prayer, Preaching, read- 
ing or expounding the Scriptures, or conferring 
upon the fame, every Sunday, and on Days of pub- 
lic Thankfgiving and Humiliation appointed by 

Ofloler. The raifirig of Money ftill engrofTed 
the Attention of the Houfe, and many more Or- 
ders were made for the Compofition and Sale of 
Delinquents Eftates, which feems to be their prin- 
cipal, and an iruexhauftible, Fund to draw from, 
C c 2 tho' 

404 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum. tho' many other Ways and Means were ufed for 
I6 5v thatPurpofe. 

October. About this Time the Ifland of Barbados had 
and revo ^ te ^ fr m t' 10 Parliament, and was followed by 
otkr Plantation s others of the Leeward Iflands, which occafioned an 
in the fi-'cji l a - Act to be parTed on the 3d of this Month, for pro- 
mmerce and Trade to the Barbadnef* 

Antigua, Virginia, and Bermudas, or the Summer 
Iflands. It was alfo ordered that the Council of 
State be authorized to give Orders to the Generals 
at Sea, for detaining all fuch Ships as they (hall find 
trading to thofe Parts, untill they fhall have given 
an Account thereof to the Parliament or Council. 
And a ftrong Fleet, with a Number of Tranfports, 
\vas ordered to be difpatched away with all poflible 
Speed, for reducing the Ifland of Barbadoes, and 
all other Engttjb Plantations that fhould perfift in 
Oppofition to the Government of this Common- 

Off. 4. Mr. Bond reported a Letter from the 
Lord -General Cromwell, addrefled to the Council 
of State, the following Extract whereof was read 
in the Houfe. 

Edinburgh, Sept. 25, 1650. 

Gen. Crowwe//'s e /'""VN Saturday the I4th Inftant, we marched 
Account of his < II fi x Miles towards Stirling; and, by reafon 

Progrels m Scot' , ^\_ T> , r r , -r,,- * 1 r j 

j fa j t ' ot the Badnefs of the Ways, were forced to lend 

' back two Peices of our greateft Artillery. The 
' Day following we marched to Linlithgow, not 

* being able to go further by reafon of much Rain 

* that fell that Day: On the i6th we marched to 
1 Falkirk, and the next Day following within Can- 

* non Shot of Stirling; where, upon Wednesday the 
' 1 8th, our Army was drawn forth, and all Things 
c in a Readinefs to ftorm the Town : But finding 
' the Work very difficult, they having in the Town 

* 2000 Horfe and more Foot, and the Place ftand- 
' ing upon a River not navigable for Shipping to 

* relieve the fame, we could not, with Safety, 
' make it a Garrifon, if God fhould have given it 

' into 

Of ENGLAND. 405 

* into our Hands. Upon this, and other Confide- Jnter-regnum. 
' rations, it was not thought a fit Time to ftorm; l6 5- 

' but fuch was the unanimous Resolution and Cou- V """T V '""' 1 ""^ 
' e rage both of ouc Officers and Soldiers, that greater 
' could not be (as to outward Appearance) in Men. 
' QnTburfdaytfte iQth, we returned from thence 

* to Linlitbgow, and at Night we were informed, 

* that at Stirling they fliot off their great Guns for 
' Joy their King was come thither. 

* On Friday the 2orh, three Irlfb Soldiers came 
4 from them to us, to whom we gave Entertain- 
4 ment in the Army : Thefe fay, Great Fears pof- 

* fefs'd the Soldiers when they expected us to ftorm j 
4 that they knew not whether old Leven be their 
' General or not, the Report being various ; but 
4 that Sir John Brown, a Colonel of their Army, 
4 was laid afide ; that they are endeavouring to 

* raife all the Forces they can, in the North ; that 

* many of the Soldiers, fince our Victory, are of- 

* fended at their Minifters ; that Colonel Gilbert 
4 Carr and Colonel Stracban are gone with fhat- 

* tered Forces to Glafgow, to levy Soldiers there. 

* As yet we hear not of any of the old Cavaliers be- 
4 ing entertained as Officers among them, which 
4 occafions Differences betwixt their Minifters and 
4 the Officers of the Army. 

4 The fame Day we came to Edinburgh, where 
e we abide without Difturbance, faving that about 

* Ten at Night, and before Day in the Morning, 

* they fometimes fire three or four great Guns at 

* us ; and if any of our Men come within Mufket- 

* Shot, they fire at them from the Caftle j but, 

* bleft be God, they have done us no Harm, ex- 

* cept one Soldier fhot, but not to the Danger of 
4 his Life, that I can be informed of. 

* There are fome few of the Inhabitants of E- 

* dinburgh returned home, who perceiving our Ci- 
' vility, and paying for what we receive of them, 
4 they repent their Departure, open their Shops, 
' and bring Provifions to the Market. 

* It is reported they have in the Caftle Provifions 

* for fifteen Months, fome fay for a longer Time. 

C c 3 Ge- 

406 The Parliamentary HISTORY * Generally the People acknowledge that our Car- 
1650. ' riage to them is better than that of their own Ar- 
V -v J ' my; and had they, who are gone awayN known 
Gftoocr. t f muc h > they would have ftay'd at home ; they 
' fay one chief Reaton wherefore Ib many are gone, 
' was, they fea-r'd we would have impofed upcu 
' them fomc Oath wherewith they could not have " 
' difpenfcd. 

* I am in great Hopes, through God's Mercy, we 
4 fhall be able, this Winter, to give the People 
4 fuch an Understanding of thejuftnefsof ourCaufe, 

* and ourDefires for the juft Liberties of the People, 

* that the better Sort or" them will be fatibned 

* therewith; although, I muftconfefs, hitherto they 
' continue obftinate. I thought I fhould have found 

< in Scotland a confcientious People, and a barren 

< Country; about Edinburgh, it is as fertile for Corn 

* as any Part of England, but the People geherally 

* given to the moft impudent Lying, and frequent 

* Swearing, as is incredible to be believed. I am 

Tour mojl humble Servant, 


The fame Day Sir William Armyn reported, 
from the Council of State, the following Inftruo 
lions for Edmund Ludlow, Miles Corbett, John 
Jones, and John Weaver, Efqrs. Commiffioners 
from the Parliament of the Commonwealth of 
England, for fettling the Affairs of Ireland, to be 
by them put in Execution, with the Advice and 
Approbation of General Cromwell, Lord- Lieute- 
nant thereof, and Henry' Irf ton, Efqj his Deputy, 
or either of them. 

Jnfrruainns/or ^' ' r T"^HE faid Commiffioners are to improve 
Coitimiffioners * JL tn e Intereft of the Commonwealth of 
appointed bvPar- < England, in the Dominion "of Ireland, for the Ad- 
STA^n** ' vancem ent of Religion and Propagation of the 
Inland, ' Gofpel in that Country, and for Supprefiion of 

' Idolatry, Popery, Superftition, and Profanencfs 

* in. that Land. 

II. < They 

Of ENGLAND. 407 

II. ' They are to give all due Encouragement inter-regnum. 
6 to, and appoint competent Maintenance for, all l6 5- 

1 fuch Perfons of pious Life and Conversation, as v ~ v i* 
' they {hall find qualified with Gifts for the preach- qa br - 

* ing of the Gofpel, and inftructing the People 
',there in all Godlinefs and Honefty, by way of 

* Stipend out of the public Revenue. 

III. ' To caufe to be put in effectual Execution 
4 all Laws now in Force made againft Papifts and 
Popifli Recufants. 

IV. To confider of all due Ways arid Means 
6 for the Advancement of Learning, and training 
' up of Youth in Piety and Literature ; and to pro- 

* mote the fame by fettling of a Maintenance upon 

* fit Perfons to be employed therein, fo far as they 

* mall find the prefent State and Condition of the 
' Affairs of Ireland to admit. 

V. ' To caufe the A6ts, Ordinances, and Or- 
' ders of Parliament, now in Force in this Com- 
' monwealth, againft Delinquents, malignant Plu- 
' ralifts and fcandalous Minifters, to be put in 
' Execution in Ireland. 

VI. ' To inform themfelves whatCourfe is held 
' (for prefent) in the Adminiftration of Juftice in 
' Ireland; to confider what is further to be done, 
' for the Settling and Eftablifhment thereof in the 
' feveral Provinces there, that the People may en- 
' joy their Properties, Planters may be encouraged, 

* and the Inhabitants govern'd according to the 

* Laws and Conftitutions of England, fo far as the 
' prefent Conftitution of the Country will admit 5 
' and to certify their Opinions herein to the Parlia- 
' ment with all convenient Speed ; and in the mean 
4 Time to take Care that Juftice be adminifter'd. 

VII. ' To take Care that no Popim Malignant, 

* or other delinquent Perfons, be intrufted with, or 
' employed in, the Adminiftration of the Laws, or 

* Execution of Juftice ; nor be permitted, directly 
' or indirectly, by themfelves or others, to practice 

* as Counfellors at Law, Attornies, or Solicitors ; 

* nor to keep Schools for the training up of Youth, 



408 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

or to be continued or employed in the Execu- 
tion of any Place or Office of Trull. 

VIII. * To inform themfelves of the State of the 
anticnt Revenue, and all Jthe Profits of forfeited 
Lands ; and to caufe all Forfeitures and Efchcats 
to be improved for the beft Advantage of the 
Commonwealth of England ; and to caufe all 
Acts, Ordinances and Orders of Parliament, now 
in Force in this Commonwealth, for fequeftrirfg 
of Delinquents and Papifh Eftates, and of the 
Eftates of Archbiihops, Bifhops, Deans and 
Chapters, &c. to be put in Execution in Ireland. 

IX. * In order to the improving and fettling of 
a competent Revenue there, for the Ends and 
Ufes aforefaid, the Commifiioners are impovver'd 
to lett all fuch Lands, Houfes, and other Here- 
ditaments whatfoever in Ireland, as are in the 
Difpofal of the Parliament of England-, as alfo 
the Rents and Profits of all EccleiiarKcal Bene- 
fices of luch Minifters as {hall be ejected ; and 
o) all fuch other Ecclefiaftical Benefices as ilialj 
become vacant, and not otherwife diipofed of by 
A& or Order of Parliament, for fuch Time or 
Term of Years, not exceeding feven, and at fuch 
Rents, or other Conditions, as they (hall conceive 
to be n-.oft for the Public Advantage. 

X. * To fettle the Excife and Cufloms in all 
' Places in Ireland, according to the Rates now 

* fettled in this Commonwealth of England; and 

* to advance the faid Rates, or fet new Rates upon 
f fuch Commodities in Ireland, as they (hall con- 

* ceivemay bear Advancement or Impofition-, with- 

* out Prejudice to Trade. 

XI. l To inform themfelves in what Manner 
f the Treafury of that Dominion hath been mana- 

* ged as to its Receipts and Iffues, and of the Per- 

* fons intruded concerning $he fame ; to comider 

* how, for the future, there may be eftablifhed one 
f grand Treafurer in Ireland ; what Perfons are 
f fitting to be employed to fupply the Place of 

.f Treafurer of all fuch Monies as are or fhall be 

* f.eceivedi and alfo of fit Perfons to fupply all 

f other 

Of E N G L A N D. 409 

e other Offices incident to the faid Treafury, and Inter-regnum, 

* what Salaries are fit to be fettled upon them re- 

* fpedtively ; and to certify the fame to the Parlia- '^Q^^""' 
' ment; and, in the mean Time, to take Care that 

* the fame may be managed for the beft Advantage 

* of the State. 

XII. ' To take Care that the public Stores in 

* Ireland be not embezled, or unnecefl'arily wafted ; 
4 and that due Accounts be kept thereof, and, from, 
4 Time to Time, returned to the grand Treafury, 
4 there to remain and be placed to the refperlve 
4 proper Accounts. 

XIII. * To fit and vote at Councils of War, as 
4 often as they mail conceive it fit, in order to the 

* equal Diftribution and Regulation of Quarters 

* for the {landing Forces in Ireland^ and for the 
4 better Settlement of Affairs there, relating to the 
' faid Forces, for public Advantage. 

XIV. * Toconfiderof all due Ways and Means 
' for the leflening of the Public Charge of the 
4 Commonwealth and reducing of the fame, as 

* well by difbanding of fuch Forces in Ireland^ as 

* they mail find to be fupernumerary, or demo- 

* liming of Caftles and Garrifons as by modera- 

* rating and regulating the prefent Eftablifhment 
4 of the Pay of the faid Forces, and likewife by ta- 

* king away all other fuperfluous Charge of what 

* Kind foever wherewith the public Revenue is 
4 charged, and to put the fame in Execution, fo far 
4 as they (hall find it may ftand with public Safety 

* and Advantage. 

XV. * To appoint Officers, and fuch other Per- 
4 fons as they mall conceive neceflaryfor putting 

* in Execution thefe Inftru6tions, and to allow 
4 them fitting Salaries for the fame ; and, from, 

* Time to Time, to difplace fuch of the faid Per- 
4 fons, or any others employed in the Civil Affairs 
4 in Ireland^ as they Ihall findufelefs, ornotfaith- 
4 ful in the Difcharge of their Truft. 

XVI. 4 That all Warrants relating to the Pay- 
' ment %i the Army, either in Money or Provi- 

* iions, 



410 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

fions, or for any other incident Charges concern- 
ing the War ; and lilcewife all Warrants for tne 
ifluing Ammunition out of the public Stores, do 
iflue by Warrant from the Lieutenant of Ireland 
or the Deputy, for the Time being, upon the 
Place as formerly : And that all other Warrants 
for ifTuing of Money, relating to Affairs com- 
mitted by thefe Inftruclions to the faid Commif- 
fioners Care and Management, do iflue from 
them, or the Major Part of them. 

XVII. * That the faid Commiflioners have 
Power to put in Execution in Ireland all the Au- 
thorities committed to the Committee of Parlia- 
ment for Indemnity, by any Ordinance or Aft 
of Parliament. 

XVIII. c To certify their Proceedings, and what 
Obftru&ions they meet with in the Execution of 
the PremitTes, to the Parliament or Council of 
State, to the end that fitting Means may be ufed 
for removing of Impediments and Supply of 
Power, as there fhall be Occafion. 3 

Mr. Ludlow writes, ' That he induftrioufly 
declined accepting the Office of Lieutenant- Gene- 
ral of the Horfe in Ireland, and of one of the Com- 
miflioners for the Adminiftration of Civil Affairs 
in that Nation, for many Reafons ; but that upon 
Cromwell's urging, * That Men's private Affairs 
' muft give Place to thole of the Public ; and that 

* having ferioufly confidered the Matter he could 
' not find a Perfon fo fit for thofe Employments as 

* Air. Ludlow himfelf ; and that he mi-jht rely up- 
' on God, who had called him to that Work, to 
' carry him through it,' he was prevailed upon to 
acquiefce ;' and accordingly foun s.frr r embark'd 
for Ireland. Thefe Commiflioners were allowed, 
by Parliament, a Salary of iooo/. per Annum each, 
during their Refidence in that Kingdom. 

Ott. 10. This Day Alderman Thomas Andrews^ 
Lord Mayor Elect of London^ was prcfcnted to the 


9 Memoirs, Vol. I. p. 321, 

Of E N G L A N D. 4 ir 

Houfe for their Confirmation of the City's Choice ; inter-r> 
which being granted, the Speaker addfefs'd him- l6 
felf to his Lordftiip in a congratulatory Speech on 

the Occafion. But this Compliment being the 

fame, in Termini s^ as that to his immediate Pie- 
deceflbr p , we pals it over. 

On the 1 6th of this Month the Council of State 
received the following Letter from Mr. George 
Downing ; which, though it does not appear to have 
been read in the Houfe, yet as it gives a very in- 
terefting Account of the State of the Royal Affairs 
jn Scotland at this Time, it deferves a Place in thefe 
Inquiries. a 

Edinburgh^ Qftober 9, 1650. 
c T_T ERE is old Snarling betwixt the Kirk and Mr. 

* I L tne ' r K' n S> fo that never Men had more Relation of th 
4 Gaufe to make it one Ground of Humiliation, M 

' well of their Fears, that their King's Repentance land. 
' was not found, and from the Heart : For the main 

* Conteft is now whether the Ecclefiaflic or Civil 

* Parties {hall fit in the Saddle. The Lords (moftof 

* them) fide with the King, as if they meant to bid 
' farewell to the Stool of Repentance for ever, and 

* were glad to make ufe of this Opportunity, in 
' hope to caft off the Yoke of the Clergy : On the 
6 other Side, divers Commanders (fuch as Stracban 

* and Carr) keep clofe to the Kirk Intereft, but 
' Recruits come in very flowly upon that Score j 
' which (hews (now the Kirk-men are down the 
' Wind) that their Power of the Keys fignifies ve- 
4 ry little, without the Power of the Sword, in 

* Scotland. 

* Neverthelefs they proceed ftill, with more than 

* ordinary Confidence ; and nothing lefs will con- 

* tent them than a total Purgation of the Royal 
' Houmold, efpecially of fuch as are Englijh^ this 

* being, in their Efteem, an Addition of Malig- 

* nancy. The obferving whereof may ferve fuffi- 
' ciently to check the Folly of fuch of our own 

* with 

* p At p. 200, in this Volume. 

Printed by William Du Card, Printer to the Council gf State, 

412 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

with you, that (to ferve their own Ends) have 

* endeavoured to introduce thefe inveterate Ene- 
"* ' mies into Power within the Englifti Nation. 

The firft of the Cavaliers that hath fwallowed 

* the bitter Pill of Banifhment, is the Earl ofCleve- 

* landy which he hath chofen to do, and accord - 
' i n ty provides for a Departure rather than fwallow 
' the Covenant. He alledges, in his own Defence, 

* that he had a Promife from the Scots Commiffion- 
' ers, that the Covenant fhould not be impofed 
' upon him : But, no doubt then, it was upon a 

* tacit Suppofltion that his Lordlhip would be in- 
' clinable to ferve the Kirk's Defigns ; wherein he 
' having deceived their Expectations, they now 
' prefs the Covenant upon him, on Purpofe to be 

* rid of him ; and go he muft, though like * Royal 

* Pilgrim in Scots Equipage, having been enforced 

* to fell all, and part with his Linen and his very 

* Shirto, to raife a Sum to waft him over the Ditch 

* to a wandering Fortune, ffientworth is jogging 
' likewife in the fame Pofture, but Sir Edward 
' Walker is gone already into Hal/and^ the only 
c Refuge at prefent of the Runnagate-Courtiers ; 

* though they hated and maligned that Country 
c more than any other in the World, in the Days 

* of their Profperity. 

' The reft of them are all enjoined to be pack- 

* ing, and none will be allow'd a Refidence here 

* with their King, fave only the Duke of Euck- 

* ingham and the Lord Newburgh, (known here- 

* tofore by the Name of Sir James Levingfton^ in 
' England} and thefe have little elfe to depend up- 

* on fave the Crumbs which fall from his Majefty's 
< Allowance. The other muft (hift beyond Sea, 

* and a good Shift too they reckon it, if they can 
' but procure Letters of Recommendation from the 
' young Man's own Hand ; for Gold and Silver he 

* hath none, not fo much as to fpare a Penny for 
' their Journey : And not without much Difficulty 
c can he beftow a poor begging Epiftie in their Be- . 
' half; for his Condition is fuch, that, the Kirk 

* watching him as ftriclly as a Cat doth a Moufe, 

Of E N G L AN D. 413 

* he dares not give any Englishman a Letter to his 

* Friends in Holland^ or any other Parts, but with 
4 great Privacy. I am 

Tour mojl humble Servan*, 


Sir Edward Walker, one of the Gentlemen men- 
tion'd in the foregoing Letter, confirms the Ac- 
count therein given or the Treatment the King 
met with from the Scots at this Time, and more 
particularly from their Clergy, which, as he was 
an Eye Witnefs of it, we mall give in his own 
Words : p ' He is outwardly ferv'd and waited on 
with all fitting Ceremonies due to a King, but in 
his Liberty not much above aPrifoner; Centinels 
being every Night fet about his Lodging, few da- 
ring to fpeak freely or privately to him, and Spies 
fet on his Words and Actions. His Bedchamber 
is not free to himfelf ; the Minifters almoft daily 
thrufting in upon him to catechize and inftrucl: him, 
and, I believe, to exact Repetitions from him. In 
a Word, he knows nothing of their Counfels, ei- 
ther ^lilitary or Civil, but what they pleafe to 
communicate to him.' 

Thus much by Way of Digrefiion. 

Off. 17. The Parliament having appointed a An Account or- 
Day of Thankfgiving throughout the whole Na- dered to beta- 
tion, for the Victory over the Scots Army Hfi^Stf^ 1 * 
bar, which many Prelbyterian Minifters, both m bferve the 
Town and Country, neglected to obferve, it was Thankfgiving 
ordered, That the Lord Mayor of London, and^J/,/^ 


the feveral Militias of that City, 
Southwark^ and the Hamlets of the Tower , do give 
an Account to the Houfe of all fuch Minifters, 


P A Jbort Journal of feveral Afiions performed in the Kingdom 
of Scotland, after bis Majefty s jirft Arrival there out of Holland, 
June 24, 1650, O. S. until the End c/Oftober following, by Sir 
Edward Walker, Knight, Garter Principal King of Arms, 1069 
{being banijb'd thence) return d about that lime into Holland. 

This makes up the third of his Hiftorical Difcourfes, printed in 

414 be Parliamentary HISTORY 

later-regnum. within their refpective JurifdicYions, who had been 
1<5 5- guilty of this Defiance of their Authority : And it 

< ^r v p* -; was referred to the Council of State to report to 
the Houfe the Names of fuch Minifters, as they 
fhall find moft refractory or dangerous in difturb- 
ins; the Peace of the Nation, or depraving the pre- 
fent Government, with their Opinion what was 
fit to be done therein, that the Parliament might 
take it into their further Confideration, and give 
Order accordingly. 

The BUI touch. Off. 2%. The Parliament revived the Bill, fo 
ing future Elec-long dropt, concerning the future Election of Mem- 
tions reviv'd. . and thjs Da ordere j 

that the next H^ednefday, and each Wednefday in 
every Week, the Houfe fhould be refolved into a 
Grand Committee upon it. It was alfo refolved 
that the faid Committee fhould ftate the Propor- 
tions of Elections for the feveral Counties ; and 
confider how, and in what Manner, the fame 
might be made practicable for filling the Houfe 
with Members according to thofe feveral Propor- 

Off. 29. The Houfe received Advice from 
General Cromwell, That he had fent a Letter to 
the Committee of Eftates, then fitting at St. Jobn- 
Jloun, inviting them to give Satisfaction to the 
Commonwealth of England; and that as the 
Trumpeter, who was fent on this Errand, pafs'd 
through Stirling, the People ftopp'd him, crying 
Peace, Peace ; and that the Governor promifed to 
forward the Letter by a Meflenger of his own, 
which was done : But that, after long Debate, the 
Committee gave no prefent Anfwer ; which Crcm- 
ivell imputed to the Lord's having delivered them 
up to Blindnefs and Senfelefsnefs j and that the 
Kirkmen being as high and arbitrary as ever, was, 
in his Opinion, a Teftimony that the Lord would 
break their Pride, and confound all their Devices 
againit his chofen People. 


Of E N G L A N D. 415 

The General's Letter was in hac Verba : Inter- rcgnum. 


Linlitbgoiv, OSl. 9, 1650. < -v -i -J 
Right Honourable, oa ber - 

* ra^HE Grounds and Ends of the Army's en- Gen Crgmme ^ 9 
c tering Scotland, have been heretofore often Letter tcT'the 

* and clearly made known unto you, and how Committee of 

' much we have dehred the fame might be accom- f fta , tes in . s . at " 

,.,., TI t i- i land, requiring 

* phmed without Blood ; but, according to what t h em to quit all 
c Returns we have received, it is evident your Conneftions 

' Hearts had not that Love to us, as we can truly Wlth *** Kin 

* fay we had towards you ; and we are perfuaded 
' thofe Difficulties in which you have involved 
' youifelves, by efpoufing your King's Intereft, and 
' taking into your Bofom that Perfon, in whom, 

* notwithftanding what hath or may be faid to the 
' contrary, that which is really Malignancy, and 

* all Malignants, do center ; againft whofe Family 

* the Lord hath fo eminently witnefled for Blood- 
c guiltinefs, not to be done away with fuch hypo- 

* critical and formal Shews of Repentance as are 
' expreffed in his late Declaration; and your ftrange 
' Prejudices againft us, as Men of heretical Opi- 
' nions, (which, through the great Goodnefs of 
c God to us, have been unjuftly charged upon 
' us) have occafioned your rejecting thefe Over- 
' tures which, with a Chriflian Affection, were of- 
' fered to you before any Blood was fpilt, or your 

* People had fuffered Damage by us. The daily 
' Sente we have of the Calamity of War lying upon 
e the poor People of this Nation, and thefadCon- 
' fequences of Blood and Famine, likely to come 

* upon them ; the Advantage given to the malig- 

* nant, profane, and popifh, Party by this War; 
' and that Reality of Affect-ion v/hich we have fo 
' often profeffed to you, and concerning the Truth 

* of which we have fo folemnly appealed, doth a- 
' gain conftrain us to fend unto you, to let you 
' know, that if the contendins: for that Perfon be 
' not by you preferred to the Peace and Welfare of 
1 your Country, the Blood of your People, the Love 

* of Men of the fame Faith with you, and, in this 

* above 

41 6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

jnter-regnum. c above all, the Honour of that God we ferve, then 
' give the State ofg-/rf^thatSatisfa6tion andSecu- 

* rity for their peaceable, quiet Living by you, that 
' may in Jufticebe demanded, from a Nation, gi- 
' ving fo juft Ground to afk the fame from thole 
' who have, as you, taken their Enemy into their 
' Bofom, whilft he was in Hoftility againft them. 
' And it will be made good to you, that you may 
' have a lafting and durable Peace with them, and 
' the Wifh of a Blefling upon you in all religious 
' and civil Things. If this be refufed by you, we 

* are perfuaded that God, who hath once borne his 
. ' Xeftimony, will do it again on the Behalf of us 

' his poor Servants ; who do appeal to him whe- 
6 ther thei'r Defires flow from Sincerity of Heart 
4 or not. I reft 

Your Lordjhips humble Servant, 


The A&s pafled this Month, befides that For 

prohibiting Trade to Barbadoes, &c. already men- 

. ~ ,f . e tioned, were, For further in forcing and explaining 

Ats paffed for r\ i- i A r-, f of e i -T* 

felling of Bi{ho$sj orfTier Urainances and Atts for bale of the Manors 

Lands j ofReftories imprepriate, and Glebe Lands of Bijhops, 

Deans and Chapters. The Occafion of paffing this 

was for better Maintenance of the Army and Navy. 

Regulating the -^ n -A& For appointing -where and how Corn and 

Sale of Mealj Meal Jhall be fold. Hereby it was enaded, That 

no Perfon {hould buy Wheat or other Grain to fell 

in Meal without Licenfe, on Pain of forfeiting 

treble the Value ; nor any Meal be fold, but in 

the fame Quality and Condition as it came really 

from the Mill, without any Mixture whatfoever ; 

and that in open Market.' An Act For appointing 

And appointing Convoys for Security of Trade. In order to fup- 

TaIe yS ^ port tfle ^ x P ence of which, the ufual Allowance 

or Defalcation of Fifteen per Cent, out of the 

Cuftoms was appointed folely to be applied ; and 

if any Captain, or other Officer, of a Ship of 

War fhould afk or take any Reward or Gratuity 

from any Merchant for Convoy, he fhould forfeit 


Of E N G L A N D. 417 

treble Value ; one Moiety to the Ufe of the Com- 
mon wealth, and the other to the Informer, to be ^so- 
determined by the Court of Admiralty. L tT"" v T'" J 

J November. 

November. The Houfe had ordered an A<51 to Alfo againft ob 
be brought in, for taking away the fuperftitious fervin 8 Saint * 
Obfervation of All-Saints-Day, and other Days in Days ia Term ' 
Term not juridical, and making them Court- Days; 
at the fame Time they ordered the 5th of Novem- 
ber to be no Court-Day. Accordingly the Parli- 
ament met on that Day, and, having adjourned to 
the next, they went to Margaret's Church, Weft- 
min/ier; where a Sermon was preached by Mr./ 
Philip Nye, who nfe the Thanks of the Houfe 
ordered him for his great Pains taken therein. 

Nov. 6. An Aft palled, prohibiting all Perfons And for prevent- 
to affift the Scots with Vidtuals, Arms, or Am-ing Supplies be. 
munition againft the Commonwealth of England^Jf^ 
during the Enmity between the two Nations. 

Nov. 8. The following Letter from Sir Arthur 
flafelrigge, to the Council of State, was this Day 
communicated to the Houfe, read, and ordered to 
be printed u . 

Gentlemen, Newcaftle, Off. 31, 1650. 

T Received your Letter, dated the 26th of Oc- ^/*" 

* jL tober. In that you defire me that 2300 of-^ "|ff e f 

* the Scots Prifoners, now at Durham or elfewhere, Scot 

able and fit for Foot Service, be feleded and taken at the 

marched thence to Cbefter and Liverpool, to be jj 1 " e ' 

c fliipp'd for the South and Weft of Ireland-, and 

' that I (hould take fpecial Care not to fend any 

< Highlanders : I am neceflitated, upon the Re- 

' ceipt of this, to give you a full Account concern- 

e ing the Prifoners. 

* After the Battle at Dunbar, in Scotland, my 
Lord-General wrote to me, that there were 

* about 9000 Prifoners, and that of them he had 

VOL. XIX. D d fct 

V From the original Edition, printed by W. Du-Gard, 

4 1 8 Vbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-rcgnum. 4 let at Liberty all thofe that were wounded, and, 

1650. * as he thought, difabled for future Service ; and 

*- ~ ' * their Number was, as Mr. Detuning wrote, 5100. 

' < The reft the General lent to Newcaftle, condudl- 

* ed to Berwick by Major Hopfon, and from Ber- 

* wick to Newcaftle by fome Foot out of that Gar- 

* riion, and a Troop of Horic. 

4 When they came to Morpeth, the Prifoners 
4 being put into a large wall'd Garden, they eat up 
4 raw Cabbages, Leaves and Roots, fo many, as 
' the very Seed and Labour, at \d. a Day, was 
4 valued at o,/. which Cabbage (they having faded, 
4 as they themfelves faid, near eight Days) poifon'd 

* their Bodies ; for as they were coming from thence . 
4 to Newcnjlle, fome died by the Way-Side; when 
' they came to Newcaftle ^ I put them into the great- 
4 eft Church in the Town; and the next Morning, 
4 when I fent them to Durham, about 140 were 

* lick, and not able to march ; three died that 
6 Night, and fome fell down in their March from 
' Newcofile to Durham, and died. I having fent 

* my Lieutenant-Colonel and my Major with a 

* flrong Guard both of Horfe and Foot, they being 
< there told into the great Cathedral Church, were 
' counted to no more than 3000 ; although Col. 

* FenwUk wrote to me, that there were about 
' 3500 : But I believe they were not told at Ber- 
4 wick, and as to moft of thofe that were loft, 
4 it was in Scotland ; for I heard that the Officers 
4 who march'd with them to Berwick, were necef- 
4 fitated to kill about 30, fearing the Lofs of them 
4 all, for they fell down in great Numbers, and 
4 faid they were not able to march, and they 
4 brought them far in the Night, fo that doubtlefs 

* many ran away. 

4 When I fent them firft to Durham, I wrote to 
4 the Mayor, and defired him to take Care that 
4 they wanted for nothing that was fit for Prifonersj 
4 and what he fhould diiburfe for them I would re- 
4 pay it. I alfo fent them a daily Supply of Bread 
4 from Newcajlle, and an Allowance equal to what 
' had been given to former Prifoners ; but their 

* Bodies 

Of ENGLAND. 419 

' Bodies being infected, the Flux increafed among Inter-regnum. 

* them. I fent many Officers to look to them, and l6 5- 
' ordered thofe who were lick to be removed out ^ v ~. 

* of the Cathedral Church into the Bifhop's Caftle, 
' which belongs to Mrs. Blackijlon. Cooks were 

* provided, and they had Pottage made with Oat- 
' meal, Beef and Cabbage, a full Quart at a Meal 

* for every Prifoner : They had alfo Coals daily 
' brought them, as many as made about 100 Fires 
' both Night and Day, and Straw to lie upon. I 
' appointed the Marfhal to fee all thefe Things or- 
' derly done, and he was allowed eight Men to 

* help him to divide the Coals, Meat, Bread, and 

* Pottage equally : They were fo unruly, fluttilh, 

* and nafty, that it is not to be believed; they a6l- 
'" ed rather like Beads than Men; fo that the Mar- 

* fhal was allowed 40 Men of the luftieft Prifoners 

* to cleanfe and fweep them every Day, who had 
' fome fmall Thing given them extraordinary. 
' The above Provifions were for thofe that were in 
' Health ; as to thoie that were fick, and in the 
' Caftle, they had very good Mutton Broth, and 
' fometimes Veal Broth, and Beef and Mutton 

* boiled together ; and old Women appointed to 
' look to them in the feveral Rooms : There was 
' alfo a Phyfician to let them Blood, and drefs fuch 
' as were wounded, and give the Sick Phyfic; and 
' I dare confidently fay, there was never the like 
' Care taken for any fuch Number of Prifoners in 
' England. 

* Notwithftanding all this many of them died, 

* and few of any other Difeafe than the Flux; fome 
' were kill'd by themfelves, for they were exceed- 

* ing cruel one towards another. If any Man was 

* perceived to have any Money, it was two to one 
' but he was kill'd before Morning, and robb'd ; 
' and if any had good Cloaths, he that wanted, if 
' he was able, would ftrangle the other and put on 
6 his Cloaths. 

' The Difeafe of the Flux ftill increafmg among 
4 them, I was then forced, for their Prefervafion, 

* if poflible it might be, to fend to all the next 

D d 2 * Towns 



420 ^Thc Parliamentary HISTORY 

Towns in Durham, within four or five Miles, to 
command them to bring in their Milk, for that 
was conceived to be the beft Remedy for (topping 
of their Flux ; and I promifed them what Rates 
they ufually fold it for at the Markets, which was 
accordingly perform'd by about 60 Towns and 
Places. Twenty of the next Towns to Durham 
continue to fend daily in their Milk, which is 
boiled, fome withWater, rbme with Bean Flower, 
the Phylkians holding it exceeding good for the 
Recovery of their Health. 

4 Gentlemen, you cannot but think ftrange of 
this long Preamble; and wonder what the Mat- 
ter will be. In fhort it is this ; out of the 3000 
Prifoners that my Officers told into the Cathedral 
Church at Durham, 300 of them, and 50 from 
Newcaftle of the 140 left behind, were delivered 
to Major Clarke, by Order of the Council ; there 
are about 500 Sick in the Caftle, and about 600 
yet in Health in the Cathedral, the moft of which 
are, in all Probability, Highlanders, they being 
hardier than the relt ; and we have no other 
Means to diftinguifh them. About 1600 are 
dead and buried, and about 60 Officers are at the 
Marmal's in Newcaflle. 

' My Lord-General having releafed the reft of 
the Officers, and the Council having given me 
Power to take what Men I thought fit, I have 
granted to feveral well-affe&ed Perfons that have 
Salt- Works at Shields, and want Servants, 40; 
they have engaged to keep them at Work at their 
Salt- Pans, and I have taken out about 12 more, 
Weavers, to begin a Trade of Linen Cloth, like 
the Scots Cloth, and about 40 Labourers. 

* I cannot give you, on a fuddcn, a more exal 
Account of the Prifoners, neither can any Ac- 
count hold true long, becaufe they ftill die daily, 
and doubtlefs fo they will, fo long as any remain 
in Prifon. And for thofe that are well, if Ma- 
jor Clarke could have believed that they had been 
able to have marched on Foot, he would have 
marched them by Land j but we perceive that di- 

Of E N G L A N D. 421 

vers that are feemingly healthy, and have not at Inter-regnum. 
all been fick, (uddenly die ; and we cannot c;ive ^J_ ". 
any Reafon for it, only we apprehend they are all September, 
infected ; and that the Strength of fomc holds it 
out till it reaches their very Hearts. 
* Now you fully underftand the Condition and 
Number of the Prifoners. What you pleafe to 
direct I (hall obferve, and intend not to proceed 
further upon this Letter, untill I have your An- 
fwer upon what I have now written. I am, 

Tour mojl affeftionate Servant, 


We find no Refolution of the Houfe in confe- 
quence of this Letter : Probably it was referr'd back 
to the Council of State to do as they faw proper. 

A Motion had been made in the Houfe for con- 
verting the Law into Engli/h ; and accordingly this 
Day, Nov. 8, the Lord-Commiilioner Whitlocke 
brought in a Bill For turning the Books of Law t 
andallProcefs and Proceedings therein^ into Englifh; 
which was read a fiift and fecond Time, and com- 

The Houfe now was very bufy in nominating 
Sheriffs for the feveral Counties for the Year enfu- 
ing : This Act of Sovereignty, as well as the reft, 
having been long ufurped by them. 

Nov. 22. The laft-mentioned Bill was read a 
third Time ; and, in the Courfe of the Debate 
thereupon, fome Members having fpoke in Dero- 
gation of the Engllfl) Laws, Mr. WJ)ftloefa deli- 
vered his Opinion to the following Effect a : The 
Importance of this Speech is a fufficient Apology 
for the Length of it. 

Mr. Speaker, 

< rT^HE Queftion upon which your prefent De- Mr. WbhhcM* 
J_ bate arifeth, is of no fmall Moment, nor s P sech u P n 
is it eanly or fpeedily to be determined ; for it com- [jjj^ p^cecd- 
D d 3 prehends ings at Law inta 

Memorials, p. 460, 

422 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

prthends no lefs than a total Alteration of the 
Frame and Courfe of Proceedings of our Laws, 
which have been eftablifhed and continued for fo 

November. _ . 

many Years. 

I fhould not have troubled you with any of my 
weak Ditcourfe, but that I apprehend fome Mif- 
takes and Difhonour to the Law of England, if 
pafied by without any Anfwer, may be of ill Con- 
fequence ; and having attended to hear them an- 
fwered by others, who are not pleafed to do it, I 
held myfelf the more engaged, in the Duty of my 
Profeffion, to offer to your Judgment, to which I 
fhall always fubmit, what I have met with ; and 
do fuppofe not to be impertinent, for the rectifying 
of forae Miftakes which are amongft us. 

4 A worthy Gentleman was pleafed to affirm 
with much Confidence, as he brought it in upon 
this Debate, That the Laws of England were intro- 
duced by William the Conqueror, as (among other 
Arguments he afierted) might appear by their being 
written in the French Tongue. 

' In his firft Aflertion, That our Laws were in- 
troduced by William the Conqueror ; out of France, 
J fhall acknowledge that he hath feveral, both fo- 
reign and domeftic, Authors whom he may follow 
therein. The foreign Authors are Jovius, Mmi- 
liui, Bodine, Hot toman., Dyncthus, yo later an, Be- 
rault , Berkley Cboppinus Ufpargenjis y Mallnes^ 
and Polydort) who affirm this erroneous Piece of 
Do&riiie ; but the lefs to be regarded from them, 
becaufe they were Strangers to our Laws, and took 
upon Truft what ihey publiftied in this Point. 

' Of our own Countrymen they have Paris, 
ury^ Matthew Jr"eftminJIer t Etx^ Coftns^ 
Heyu>ard, Mills, Fulbeck, Coivell, Ridley, 
Speed, Martin, and fome others. 

* All of them affirm, That the Laws of England 
were introduced by William the Conqueror : But 
their Errors are refuted by Sir Roger Owen, in his 
Manufcript; who faith, That Roger JVendover and 
Muttbeu, Paris were the firft Monks that hatched 
thefe addle Eggs. 

Of E N G L A N D. 423 

* I mall endeavour to (hew you, that the Origi- Inter-regnum.- 
nal of our Laws is not from the French ; that they 
were not introduced by William the Conqueror out 
of Normandy; and I fhall humbly offer to you my 
Anfwer to fome of their Arguments who are of a 
contrary Opinion. 

4 Potydore, HijL Ang. Lib.\K. afErmeth, That 
William the Conqueror firft appointed Sheriffs and 
Juftices of the Peace ; creeled Tenures ; brought 
in Trials by twelve Alen j and feveral other Par- 
ticulars of our Laws. 

' For Sheriffs; their Name, Scire Reeve, {hews 
them to be of the Saxon Inftitution. And our Hif- 
tories mention the Divifion of Shires by King Al- 
fred; but, in Truth, it was much more antient. 
And it is apparent by our Books and Records, fome. 
whereof are in the Hujlings of London, and in the 
Tower, that the fame Things were in Ufe here 
long before the Time of King William I. 

' Sir Roger Owen (hews at large, That Livery 
of Seifin, Licences, or Fines for Alienation, Daugh- 
ters to inherit, Trials by Juries, Abjurations, Out- 
lawries, Coroners, difpofmg of Lands by Wil^ 
Efcheats, Goals, Writs, Wrecks,Warranties, Ca- 
talta Felonum, and many other Parts of our Law, 
and the Forms of our Parliaments themlelves,- were 
here in being before the Time of Duke William. 
Agreeing hereunto are many of our Hiftorians and 
learned Antiquaries. 

4 But it is objected, That in the Grand Cuftomary 
^/"Normandy, the Laws are alir.ojl all the fame with 
ours of England, and the Form of their Parliaments 
the fame with ours : That the Writer of the Preface 
to that Book faith, It contains only the Laws and 
Qujloms which were made by the Princes of Nor- 
mandy, by the Counfel of their Prelates, Earls, 
Barons, and other wife Men ; which /hews the 
Forms of their Parliaments to be the fame with 
ours, and the Laws in that Book to be the proper 
Laws of Normandy, and ours to be the fame i 
therefore they argue, That our Laws were intro- 
duced from thence by. William the Conqueror. 

' Thii 

424 *T^ Parliamentary HISTORY 

* This will be fully anfwered, if that Grand 
Cujlomary of Normandy was compofed in our King 
Edward the FirfVs Time, as good Authors hold it 
November. was . tnen _ j t canno t be that our Laws or Parlia- 
ments could be derived from thence. Thefe learned 
Men fay, That this Cujlomary was a meer Tranfla- 
tion of our Law-Book Glanvitl; as the Book of 
Regia Majejlas, of the Laws of Scotland, is; and 
the like of the Laws of Burgundy. They further 
add, /That the firft eftablifhing of the Gujiomary of 
Normandy was in Henry the Firit's Time; and af- 
terwards again, about the Beginning of Edward 
the Second's Time. 

' ff the Laws in the Cuftomary were introduced 
there fro;n England, it will then be granted, That 
the Laws of England were not introduced here by 
William the Conqueror : But I think it very clear 
that their Laws were brought to them out of Eng- 
land ; and then you will agree to the Conclufion. 

4 Our King Henry the Firft conquer'd Normandy 
from his Brother Robert, and was a learned King, 
as his Name, Beauderk, teftifiesj whom Juo calls 
An efpecial EjlafyliJJier ofju/lice. Sequerius relates, 
That this King eftabliflied the Englijh Laws in 
Normandy. Herewith do agree Gulieltnus Brit 9 
ArmoricuS) Rutelarius^ and other French Writers-; 
who mention alfo, That the Laws in the Cufto- 
mary of Normandy are the fame with the Laws col- 
lected by our Englijh King Edward the Confeflbr, 
who was before the Conqueror. An additional 
Teftimojiy hereof is out of William de Alenfon 
Revile; who, in his Comment upon the Cujtomary^ 
faith, That all the Laws of Normandy came from 
the Engtifi) Laws and Nation. 

* In the Cuflomary there is a Chapter of Nampes, 
or Diftrefles, and decreed that one (hould not bring 
his Action upon any Seizure, but from the Time 
of the Ccronation of King Richard; and this muft 
be our King Richard I. becaufe no King of France 
was in that Time of that Name ; and the Words, 
Nampes and IVitbcrnams were Saxon Words, taken 
Out of the Englijb Laws, fignifying a Pawn or Z>/- 

Of E N G L A N D. 425 

ftrefs > and in the fame Senfe are ufed in the Citf- 

' That which puts it further out of Scruple, is, ^~ 
That there are yet extant the Manufcripts them- 
felves of the Saxon Laws, made in the Parliamen- 
tary Counfels held by them here, which are in the 
Language and Character of thofe Times^ and con- 
tain in them many of thofe Things which are in the 
Norman Cuftomary. 

' It is no improbable Opinion, that there was a 
former Eftablifliment of our Laws in Normandy, 
before the Time of Henry the Firft, and that it 
was by Edward the Confeflbr ; who, as all Wri- 
ters of our Hiflory agree, was a great Collector 
and Compiler of our Engli/J) Laws. He lived a 
long Time with his Kinfman Duke William, in 
Normandy^-who was willing to pleafe the Confeflbr, 
in hopes to be appointed by him to be his Stic- 
ceflbr ; wherein the Duke's Expectation did not 
fail him. 

* The Confeflbr having no Children, and find- 
ing Normandy without a fettled Government, and 
wanting Laws, advifed his Kinfman Duke Wil- 
liam to receive from him the Laws of England^ 
which he had collected, and to eftablifh them in 
Normandy; which Duke William and his Lords 
readily accepted for the Good of their People, and 
thereby obliged the Confeflbr. 

' Another Proof hereof is, That fuch Laws as 
the Normans had before the Time of Duke Wil- 
Ham, were different from thofe in the Cujlomary^ 
and from the EngUjh Laws ; as their Law, That 
the Hufband fhould be hang'd if the Wife was a 
Thief, and he did not difcover it ; the meaner 
People were as Slaves, and the like; and the Trial 
of Theft by Ordeal, which then was not in Eng- 

' Wigornienfis reports, That the Normans who 
Came in with Queen Emma, the Wife of Ethelred, 
were fo hated of the Englljb for their Injuftice and 
falfe Judgment, that, in the Time of King Canu- 
tus t they were for this Caufe banifhed 3 and it is 


426 The Parliamentary His TOR Y 

Intcr-rcgnum. tne ' eis probable that they, being fo unjuft them- 


feJves, fuould introduce fo juft Laws as ours are. 

* Between the Conqueft of Normandy by Rcl/o, 
and the Invafion of England by Duke William^ 
there were not above 150 Years; that of Nor- was about Ann. 912; that of England, Ann. 
1060. It is not then ror.fonant to Reafon, that 
thole Normans, Pagans, a rougn martial People, 
defcended from fo many barbarousNations, fhould, 
in the Time of 150 Years, eftablim fuch excellent 
Laws among themfelves, and fo different from the 
l<6-icb Laws, among whom they were, and all 
Paris in the World except England; and fuch Laws 
which were not only fit for their Dukedom and 
fmall Territory, but fit alfo for this Kingdom, 
which, in thole Days, was the fecond in Europe 
for Antiquity and Worth, by Confeflion of moil 
foreign Hiftorians. 

4 If we will give Credit to their own Authors, 
this Point will be fufficiently evinced by them: 
Thefe Words are in the Proe'me of the Cujfamary, 
which is intitled Dejcriptio Normannias, hucufque 
Normannicae Confuetudinis Latorem five Datorem^ 
Sanftum Edvardum Angliae Regem, (s'c. 

* The fame is witnefled by Chronica Chronico- 
rum, That St. Edward^ King of England, gave the 
Laws to the Normans, when he was long har- 
boured there ; and that he made both the Laws of 
England and Normandy, appears fufficiently by the 
Conformity of them ; for which he cites feveral 
Particulars, as of Appeals, and the Cuftom of 
England, ad probandum allquid per Credent iam duo- 
decim Hominum vicinorum ; which, he faith, re- 
mained in Normandy to that Day. . 

4 Polydore, forgetting himfelf what he wrote in 
another Place, faith of King Henry the Seventh, 
That when a Doubt was made upon the Propofal 
of Marriage of his Daughter to Scotland, that 
thereby England might in Time be fubjeft unto 
Scotland, the King anfwered, No ; and that Eng- 
land, as the greater, will draw it to Scotland, be- 
ing the lefs, and incorporate it to the Laws of Eng- 

Of E N G L A N D. 427 

land; as, faith the Hiftorian, it; did Normandy, Inter-regnunu 
though the Owner thereof was Conqueror in Eng- l6 5- 
land. ^T^T* 

* And Sir Roger Owen, in his .MSS. affirms, November 'J 
That there is not any of our Hiftorians, that lived 

in the Space of 200 Years immediately after the 
Conqueft, which doth delcribe our Laws to be ta- 
ken away, and the Norman Cuflom introduced, by 
the Conqueror. Some of them, and not impro- 
bably, mention the Alteration of fome Part of 
them ; and the bringing in fome Norman Cuitoms 
effectual for the keeping of the Peace. 

' There is yet behind the great Argument moft 
infifted on, and often urged by the Gentlemen of 
another Opinion, which is the Title of William^ 
who is called the Conqueror^ from whence they 
conclude, That, by his Conquejts, he changed the 
Laws and Government of this Nation ; and that his 
Succeffors reckon the Beginning of their Reigns from 
his Conqueft. 

' To this is anfwered, That a pojje ad ejfe non 
valet Argumentum : The conquering of the Land 
is one Thing, the introducing of new Laws is an- 
other Thing ; but there is direct Proof to the con- 
trary of this Argument. 

* Duke William never furnamed himfelf the 
Conqueror, nor was fo called in his Life-time, us 
may appear by all the Letters Patents, and Deeds 
that he made j wherein he is called Gulielmus Rex 9 
Dux, &c. never Conquejlor\ and our antient Hif- 
torians give him the fame Titles, and not that of 
Conqueror. In the Title of Newbrigenfis's Book, 
he is furnamed William the Baftard. Malm/bury 
calls him William the Firft. Hoveden, William the 
Elder. Adam de Myrimuth faith, That I Ed. TIL 
this Word, Conquejt, was found out to denote and 
diftinguifli the certain Edward, becaufe two of the 
fame Name were Predecefibrs to this King, r and to 
the Conqueror, who claimed the Crown as Heir 
to Edward the Confeflbr ; but, faith he, we call 
him the Conqueror, for that he overcame Harold. 


inter - re g nil ro i 


428 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* Duke JVilliam himfelf claimed to be King of 
England^ as Succeflbr and adopted Heir of the Con- 
feflbr by his Will, and Haro/a"s renouncing of his 
Title by Oath. 

The Regifter of St. Man's, Matthew Paris, 
and others, atteft, That the Barons of England did 
Homage to him as Succeflbr; and he relied on them 
in his foreign Wars ; and the Check given to him 
by the Kentijh Men, and the Forces gathered by 
the Abbot of St. Alban's, brought him to engage 
to confirm the Laws of the Confeflbr ; and, as his 
Succeflbr by legal Right, they admitted him to be 
their King. Polateran writes, That he was made 
Heir to the Confeflbr, who was Uncle to him. 
Another affirms, That Edward, by his Will, left 
England to him. Paulus Etniliits and Fulgafius 
are to the fame Purpofe. Pope Alexander the Se- 
cond fent him a Banner, as Witnefs that, with a 
fafe Confcience, he might expel Harold the Ty- 
rant, becaufe the Crown was due to him by the 
Confeflbr's Will and by Harold's Oath. Agree- 
able hereunto are Gemeticenfis, Walfingham, Malmf- 
bury, Huntington, Ingulphus, Paris, Pike, IVen- 
dover, Caxton, Gifborn, and others. 

4 The antient Deeds of the Abbey of Weftmin- 
fter, which were fometimes in my Cuftody, do 
prove this. King William, in his Charter to them, 
lets forth his own Title to the Crown thus, Eene- 
ficio ConceJJionis Cognati mei, & gloriaji Regis, Ed- 
vardi. In his fecond Charter, dated Anno 15. of 
his Reign, he faith, In Honour of King Edward, 
ivbo made me his Heir, and adopted me to rule over 
ibis Nation. In his Charter, dated 1088, of the 
Liberties of St. Martins the Great, in theManu- 
fcript thereof are thefe Words : In Example of 
Mofes who built the Tabernacle, and of Solomon, 
tvho built the Temple, Ego Gulielmus Dei Difpofi- 
tione, y Confanguinitatis H&reditate, Anglorum 
Bafileus, &c. 

4 The Charter of Henry the Firft, his Son, to 
this Abbey, In Honour of Edward my Kinfaan, 

Of ENGLAND. 429 

adopted my Father and his Children to be Heirs to this Inter-regnnni. 
Kingdom, &c. In another Charter of Henry the l6 5- 
Firft, in the Book of Eli, he calls himfelf the Son I *T"" V T"""'' 
of Kin William the Great, who, by hereditary * 
Right, fucceeded King Edward. 

' It is true, that as to his Pretence of Title by 
the Will of the Confeffor, Matthew Paris objecl:- 
eth, That the Device was void, being without the 
Confent of the Barons. 

' To which may be anfwered, That probably 
the Law might be fo in Henry the Firft's Time, 
when Paris wrote, and was fo taken to be in the 
Statute of Carlijle, and in the Cafe of King John : 
But at the Time of Duke William's Invafion, the 
Law was taken to be, That a Kingdom might be 
transferred by Will. So was that of Sixtus Rufusi 
and Afia came to the Romans by the Will of King 
Attains ; the Words by Anntsus Florus are, Popu- 
lus Romanus bonorum meorum Hares efto. Bythi* 
nia came to the Romans by the laft Will of their 
King Nicomedes, which is remembered by Eutro- 
pius, together with that of Lybia. Cicero, in his 
Orations, tells us, That the Kingdom of Alexan- 
dria, by the laft Will of their King, was devolved 
to Rome. And Prafoagus Rex Icenorum in Eng- 
land, upon his Death-Bed, gave his Kingdom to 
the Emperor Nero. 

' As to Examples in this Point at home, this 
King William the Firft, by his Will, gave Eng- 
land to his younger Son William Rufus. King 
Stephen claimed by the Will of Henry the Firft. 
King Henry the Eighth had Power by Act of Par- 
liament to order the Succeffion of the Crown as he 
pleafed by Will. And the Lords of the Council, 
in Queen Mary's Time, wrote to her, That the 
Lady Jane's Title to the Crown, was by the Will 
and Letters of Edward the Sixth. 

* As the Cafe of Henry the Eighth was by Acl: 
of Parliament} fo Duke William, after he had con- 
quered Harold, was, by the general Confent of the 
Barons and People of England, accepted for their 
King, and fo his Title by Will confirmed j and he 




43 o The Parliamentary HISTORY- 

both claimed and governed the Kingdom, as air 
Heir and Succeflbr j confirmed their antient Laws, 
and ruled according to them. 

' This appears by Chronica Chronicorum, fpeak- 
ing of William the Baftard, King of England and 
Duke of Normandy, he faith, That whereas St. Ed- 
ward had no Heir <7/"England, William, having con- 
quered Harold the Ufurper, obtained the Crown un- 
der this Condition, That he Jhould inviolably obfervt 
thefe Laws given by the faid Edward. 

' It is teitified likewife by many of our Hifto- 
rians, That the antient Laws of England were 
confirmed by Duke William. Jornalenfis faith, 
That out of the Merchen-Lage, Weft-Saxon-Lage, 
and Dane-Lctge, the ConfefTor compofed the Com- 
mon Law, which remains to this Day. Malmf- 
lury, who lived in Duke William's Time, faith, 
That the Kings were fvvorn to obferve the Laws 
of the Confeflbr, fo called, faith he, becaufe he 
obferved them moft religioufly. 

' But to make this Point clear out of Ingulphm. 
He faith, in the End of his Chronicle, / Ingulphus 
brought with me from London, into my Monaftery^ 
(Crowland) the Laivs of the moft righteous King 
Edward, which my Lord King William did com- 
mand by his Proclamation to be authentic and per- 
petual^ and to be obferved throughout the whole 
Kingdom of England, upon Pain of moft heinous 
Punijhment. The Ledger-Book of the Abbey of 
Waltham commends Duke William, for reftoring 
the Laws of the Englijhmen out of the Cuftoms of 
their Country. Radburn follows this Opinion ; 
and thefe Laws of Edward the Confeflor are the 
fame, in part, which are contained in our Great 
Charter of Liberties. A Manufcript, intitled De 
Geftis Anglorum, faith, That, at a Parliament at 
London^ 4. William the Firft, the Lawyers alfo 
prefent, that the King might hear their Laws, he 
cftablifhed St. Edward's Laws, they being for- 
merly ufed in King Edgar's Time. There is 
alfo Mention of the twelve Men out of every 
County, to deliver truly the State of their Laws. 


Of ENGLAND. 431 

The fame is remembered by Selden, Hiftory of Inter-regnum, 
Tythes, and Titles of Honour, and in a MSS. Chro- 
nicle, bound with the Book of Eli in Cotton's Li- 

' One of the worthy Gentlemen from whom I 
differ in Opinion, was plea fed to fay, That if 
William the Conqueror did not introduce the Laws 
of Normandy into England, yet be conceives our 
Laws to be brought out of France hither in the Time 
cf fome other of our Kings, who had large Terri- 
tories in France, and brought in their Laws hither^ 
fife he -wonders how our Laws Jhould be in French. 

* Sir, I (hall endeavour to fatisfy his Wonder 
therein by- and- by ; but, firft, with your Leave, 
I fhall offer to you fome Probabilities out of 
Hiftory, That the Laws of England were by fome 
of thole Kings carried into France, rather than the 
Laws of France brought hither. This is exp r cfly 
affirmed by P-aulus Jovius, who writes, That when 
the Englijh Kings reigned in a great Part of France^. 
they taught the French their L \/s. Sabellicus, a 
Venetian Hiilorian, writes, That the Norman;, in 
their Manners and Cufloms, and Laws, followed 
the Englijh. Polydore Vergil, contradicting him- 
felf in another Place then before cited, relates, 
That, in our King Henry the Firft's Time, the 
Duke of Bedford called together the chief Men of 
all the Cities in Normandy ; and delivered, in his 
Oration to them, the many Benefits that uic Eng- 
lijh afforded them, efpecially in that the Englijh 
gave to them their Cuftoms and Laws. By the 
Chronicle of Eltham, Henry the Fifth fent to 
Caen in Normandy, not only Divines but Englijh 
common Lawyers, by the Agreement at Troys. 
So there is much more Probability that the Laws 
of England were introduced into France and Nor- 
mandy, than that the Laws -of Normandy, or any 
other Part of France, were* introduced in Eng- 

4 If the Normans had been Conquerors of Eng- 
land, as they were not, but their Duke was only 
Conqueror of Harold, and received as hereditary 


432 7he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. King of England, yet it is not probable they would 

1650. have changed our Laws, and have introduced 

Vr"" v T" 11 ' theirs, becaufe they did not ufe to do fo upon other 

Jiovember. ^ n ^, ' , T in ^ 

Conquefts. The Normans conquered the Ifles of 
Guernfey and Jerfey, yet altered not their Laws ; 
which, in their local, are like unto ours. 
The like they did in Sicily, Naples, and Apulia, 
where they were Conquerors, yet the antient Laws 
of thofe Countries were continued. 

' I hope, Mr. Speaker, I have, by this Time, 
given fome Satisfaction to the worthy Gentlemen 
who differed from me, That the Laws of Eng- 
land were not impofed upon us by the Conqueror, 
nor brought over hither, either out of Normandy, 
or any other Part of France; but are our antient 
native Laws. I muft now come to endeavour alfo 
to fatisfy the Wonder, If they were not brought out 
of Normandy, or fome other Part of France, bow 
come they then to be written in the Frenqh /.- 
guage ? 

4 Sir, It is to me an Argument, that becaufe 
they are written in French, therefore they were not 
brought in by Duke William the Norman; for the 
French Tongue was not the Language of Duke 
William and the Normans. They had not been 
then, in Duke William's Time, paft four Defcents 
in that Part of France ; and it is improbable that 
they, in fo (hort a Time, fhould lofe their native 
Tongue, and take up and ufe the Language of an- 
other Country which was conquered by them. 

' The Normans came from Sweden, Gothland, 
Norway, and Denmark; between whofe Languages, 
and with the High-Dutch, their Neighbours, there 
is a great Affinity; but between thefe Languages 
and the French there is none at all. Ulphilus holds, 
That the Dutch Tongue came from the Goths. 
Jornandus faith, The Goths Tongue came from the 
Dutch. All agree, that between thefe Languages 
and the French there is no Affinity. 

' It is fo improbable that Duke William fliould 
caufe our Laws to be in French, that, when he 
proclaimed them, as Ingulphut teftifies, he com- 

Of ENGLAND. 433 

fcianded that they fliould be ufed in the fame Lan- Inter- regnum, 
guage they were written (in Engli/h) to his Juf- 1650. 
tices; and gives the Reafon, left, by Ignorance, I ^^ V T~ J 
we fhould happen to break them. 

* But it hath been further obje&ed, If Duke 
William did not caufe our Laws to be written in 
French, what then Jhould be the Reafon that the 
Grand Cuftomary of his Norman Laws were writ- 
ten in the French Tongue ? 

' The Reafon thereof is given, That the Nor- 
mans, being a rough and martial People, had few 
Clerks among them ; but made Ufe of thole French 
among whom they then lived, and whofe Language 
they then began to be acquainted with and to un- 
derftand : But when they were in England, they 
had not fo much Ufe of thofe Clerks, and that 
Language, but more of the Englijh \ and probably 
it might be, that the Confeflbr had been fo long 
in France, that he was more Mafter of that Lan- 
guage than of the Norman ; and that the Normans 
underftood that Language better than the Englijh ; 
and thereupon the Cuftomary was written in the 
French Tongue : But it doth not therefore follow, 
that Duke William muft caufe the Englijh Laws 
to be written in the French Tongue ; but it is more 
likely that he might caufe them to be continued in 
their native Idiom, which was much nearer in 
Affinity to his own Northern Language than the 
French was. 

* That the French Tongue was not introduced^ 
as to our Laws and other Things, by Duke Wil- 
liam into England, appears in that the French was 
in great Ufe with us here, both before and fome 
Time after his Invafion. 

' Beda affirms, That, in Anno 640, it was the 
Guftom of England to fend their Daughters into 
the Monafteries of France, to be brought up there j 
and that Ethelbert, Ethelwoulf, Ethelred, and other 
Saxon Kings, married into the Royal Blood of 
France. Glabor notes, That, before the Time of 
Duke William, the Normans and Englijh did fo 
link together, that they were a Terror to foreign 

VOL. XIX E e Nations. 

434 < ^ )e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. Nations. Ingulphus faith, That the Saxon Hand 
1650. was u f ec | un till the Time of King Alfred, long be- 
**7""" v ~""~ ; fore the Time of Duke William ; and that he be- 
Novembcr. ^ brought up by French Teachers, ufed the 
French Hand : And he notes many Charters of 
Edredznti Edgar, written in the French Hand, and 
fome Saxon mix'd with it, as in the Book of Doomf- 
daf: That Edward the Confeflbr, by reafon of his 
long being in France, was turned into the French 
Faihion, and all England with him: But that Wil- 
liam the Firfi commanded our Laws to be written 
in the Englijb Tongue, becaufe moft Men under* 
flood it ; and that there be many of his Patents in 
the Saxon Tongue. 

1 J fuppofe we may be fatisfied that William the 
Firft did not caufe our Laws to be written in 
French, though the French Language was much in 
Ufe here before his Time. And if he did not in- 
troduce the French Language into England, the Ar- 
gument falls, That becaufe they are written in 
French, therefore he brought them In. 

But, Sir, I {hall offer you fome Conje&ures, 
how it came that our Laws were written in 
French ; which I fuppofe might be begun in the 
Time of our King Henry the Second, who was a 
Frenchman born, and had large Territories and Re- 
lations in France ; many of his Succeffors had the 
like, and very much to do in France, and with 
Frcnchnun, of whom great Numbers came into 
England; and they and the Englifo matched and 
lived together, both here and in fome Parts of 
France. Hence it came to pafs, as Giraldus Cam- 
brenfis notes, that the Engliji) Tongue was in great 
Ufe in Bourdeaux, and in other Parts of Franc* 
where the Englifamen were refidcnt and conver- 
fant ; the like was when the Frenchmen were fo 
converfant in England. 

* Matthew IVeJimlnfter writes, That he was in 
Hazard of lofing his Living, becaufe he understood 
not the French Tongue ; and that in King Henry 
the Second and King; Sttpben's Time, who had 
large Dominions in France y their native Coun- 

Of ENGLAND. 435 

try, the Number of French, and of Matches with 
them, was fo great, that one could hardly know 
who was French and who was Englijh. Gervajius 
Tilburienfis obferves the fame ; and Brackland 
writes, That in Richard theFirft's Time Preach- 
ing in England was in the French Tongue ; pro- 
bably Pleading might be fo likewife : And, in King 
"John's Time, French was accounted as the Mother 

* There are fcarce any Deeds of our Kings in 
French, before Henry the Second's Time ; the 
nioft are in Edward the Firft and Edward the Se- 
cond's Time. 

4 That our Laws were pleaded and written in 
French before Edward the Third's Time, appears 
by the Statute, 36. Edw. III. cap. 15, which re- 
cites the Mifchief of the Law being in French ; 
and enacts, That the Law fliall hereafter be plead- 
ed in Englijh, and enrolled in Latin. 

' This is one Ground of the miftaken Opinion 
of Lambert, Polydore, Speed, and others, that Duke 
William brought in hither both the Norman Laws 
and Language ; which I apprehend to be fully an- 
fwered, and the contrary manifefted, by what I 
have laid before on this Subject. 

' Polydore's Miftake may appear the more when 
he afierts, That by this Statute 36. Edw . III. 
Matters are to be enrolled in Englijh ; which is 
contrary to the exprefs Words, That they are to 
be enrolled in Latin. Many of our Law-Books 
were written in Latin, before the Norman Inva- 
fion, as appears by the antient Rolls of Manors 
and Courts Baron, and our old Authors, Glanvilly 
Brafton, Tilbury, Hengham, Fleta, the Regifter* 
and Book of Entries. The Records at Wejlminfter 
and the Tower, and other Records yet extant, are 
in Latin ; and many Books of our Law, in Latin* 
were tranflated into' EngliJJi about Edward the 
Third's Time. 

' Moft of our Statutes, from Edward the Firft's 

Time, till about the Middle of Henry the Seventh's 

Reign, are enrolled in French, potwithftanding 

E e 2 this 

436 *fbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

mer-regmijn. this Statute 36. Edw. III. except the Statute, 
l6 5- 6. Rich. II. and fome others, in Latin. Ricbara 

November^ t ^ ie Second, Henry the Fourth, Henry the Fifth, 
and Henry the Sixth, ufed to write their Letters in 
French, and fome of our Pleadings are in French ^ 
and in the Common-Pleas, to our Time. But, 
Sir, our Law is Lex non fcripta, I mean our Com- 
mon Law : And our Statutes, Records, and Books 
which are written in French, are no Argument that 
therefore the Original of our Laws is from France ; 
for they were in being before any of the French 
Language was in our Laws. 

s rorttfcuevn\te& 9 ThattheE?igli/& kept their Ac- 
counts in French ; yet doubtlcfs they had Accounts 
here, and Revenues, before the French Language 
was in ufe here. Lord Coke faith, That the Con- 
queror taught the Englijh the Norman Terms of 
Hawking, Hunting, Gaming, c5V. yet no doubt 
but that thefe Recreations were in ufe with us be- 
fore his Time. And though Duke William, or 
any other of our Kings before or after his Time, 
did bring in the French Tongue amongft us ; yet 
that is no Argument that he or they did change or 
introduce our Laws, which undoubtedly were here 
long before thofe Times; and fome of them, when 
the French Tongue was fo much in ufe here, were 
tranflated, written, and pleaded, and recorded in 
the French Tongue, yet remained the fame Laws 
ftill. And from that great Ufe of the French Tongue 
here, it was that the Reporters of our Law Cafes and 
Judgments which were in thofe Times, did write 
their Reports in French ; -which was the pure 
French in that Time, though mix'd with fome 
Words of Art. Thofe Terms of Art were taken 
many of them from the Saxon Tongue, as may be 
feen by them yet ufed. And the Reporters of later 
Times, and our Students at this Day, ufe to take 
their Notes in French ; following the old Reports 
which they had ftudied, and the old French, which, 
as in other Languages, by Time came to be va- 

4 I 

Of E N G L A N D. 437 

4 I (hall not deny but that fome Monks in elder inter-regnum. 
Times, and fome Clerks and Officers, might have i 6 5 c - 
a Cunning, for their private Honour and Profit, * "V 1 -^ 
to keep up a Myftery, to have as much as they could 
of our Laws to be in a Kind of Myftery to the Vul- 
gar, to be the lefs underftood by them ; yet the 
CounfellorsatLaw, and Judges, could have no Ad- 
vantage by it : But perhaps it would be found, that 
the Law's being in Englifn^ and generally more 
underftood, yet not fufficiently, would occafion 
the more Suits : And poffibly there may be fome- 
thing of the like Nature as to the Court-Hand ; 
yet if the more common Hands were ufed in our 
Law Writings, they would be the more fubjecl: to 
Change, as the Englijh and other Languages are, 
but not the Latin. Surely the French Tongue, ufed 
in our Reports and Law-Books, deferves not to 
be fo envioufly decried as it is by Polydore, Eliot y 
Daniel ', Hotoman, Coivel^ and other Cenfurers. 

* But, Mr. Speaker, if I have been tedious, I 
humbly afk your Pardon, and have the more Hopes 
to obtain it from fo many worthy Englijh Gentle- 
men, when that which I have faid was chiefly in 
Vindication of their own native Laws, unto which 
I held myfelf the more obliged by the Duty of my 
Profefiion ; and I account it an Honour to me to 
be a Lawyer. 

' As to the Debate and Matter of the AcT: now 
before you, I have delivered no Opinion againft it; 
nor do I think it reafonable that the Generality of 
the People of England mould, by an implicit Faith, 
depend upon the Knowledge of others in that which 
concerns them moft of all. It was the Romijh 
Policy to keep them in Ignorance of Matters per- 
taining to their Souls Health ; let them not be in 
Ignorance of Matters pertaining to their Bodies, 
Eftates, and all their worldly Comfort. It is not 
unreafonable that the Law mould be in that Lan- 
guage which may beft be underftood by thofe whofe 
Lives and Fortunes are fubjecl: to it, and are to be 
governed by it. Mofes read all the Laws openly 
before the People in their Mother Tongue ; GoJ 
E e 3 directed 

438 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

. dire&ed him to write it, and to expound it to the 
People in their own native Language, that what 
concerned their Lives, Liberties, and Eftates, 
might be made known unto them in the moft per- 
fpicuous Way. The Laws of the Eaftern Nations 
were in their proper Tongue. The Laws at Con- 
Jlantinople were in Greek ; at Rome, in Latin; in 
France, Spain, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and 
other Nations, their Laws are publiflied in their 
native Idiom. For your own Country, there is no 
Man that can read the Saxon Character, but may 
find the Laws of your Anceftors yet extant in the 
Englijb Tongue. Duke William himfelf com- 
manded the Laws to be proclaimed in Englifb, that 
none might pretend Ignorance of them. It was 
the Judgment of the Parliament, 36. Edw. III. 
That Pleadings fhould be in Englijb ; and in the 
Reigns of thole Kings when our Statutes were en- 
rolled in French and Englifa, yet then the Sheriffs 
in their feveral Counties were to proclaim them in 

4 I mail conclude with a Complaint of what I 
have met with abroad from fome military Perfons, 
nothing but Scoffs and Invectives againft our Law, 
and Threats to take it away ; but the Law is above 
the Reach of thofe Weapons which, at one Time 
or another, will return upon thoie that ufe them. 
Solid Arguments, ftrong Reafons, and Authorities, 
are more fit for Confutation of any Error, and Sa- 
tisfaction cf different Judgments. When the Em- 
peror took a JBimop in complete Armour, in a 
Battle, he fent the Armour to the Pope, with this 
Word, Heeccinejunt Vejles Filii tui? So may I fay 
to thofe Gentlemen abroad, as to their Railings, 
Taunts, and Threats againft the Law, Hceccine 
funt Argument a borumAntinomiancrum^ They will 
be found of no Force, but recoiling Arms. Nor 
is it ingenuous or prudent for Englijhmen to deprave 
(heir Birth-right, the Laws of their own Country. 

* But to return to the Matter in Debate : I can 
find neither Strangenefs, nor forefee great Incon- 
venience, by paffing of this A&j and therefore,!/ the 


Of ENGLAND. 439 

Houfe fhall think fit to have the Queftion put for Inter-regnur. 

the palling of it, I am ready to give my Affirma- 

tlV6 ' November. 

The Arguments advanced by our learned Me- 
morialifthad fuch Weight, that the Bill pafs'd una- 
nimoufly into a Law. And tho' this Act, made by 
a Commonwealth, fell of itfelf at the Reftoration, 
when antient Forms began again, and ran on in 
their ufual Courfe and Channel : Yet the Thought 
of it has been revived in our own Days, brought 
again into an Act, and is likely to be fent down to 
Pofterity. But whether a noble dead Language, 
which has fuffer'd no Variation in it for above thefe 
thoufand Years lart paft, is not better to prefervc 
Records in than fo flux a one as Englljh, we leave to 
the Lawyers ; efpecially when 'tis well known that 
the polite Language of the Court in Chaucer's Days 
is fcarce intelligible now ; and our own, thought 
we think it brought up to the higheft Perfection, 
may be as little underftood 400 Years hence. 

Nov. 26. A Letter of Advice of a great Victory', 
obtained by the Parliament's Forces in Ireland^ ad- 
drefs'd to the Prefident of the Council of State, was 
this Day read in the Houfe as follows : 

My Lord ', Kilkenny , Nov. 4, 1650. 

THE State of Affairs here, fmce my laft unto Account of a 
r in- r r *c \. TT Victory gain d 

your Lordfliip, prefents itfelf thus : Upon by t he Parlia- 
the 6th of Oftober laft Col. Axtell, Governor of ment's Forces, 
Kilkenny, drew what Forces could be fpared butagainfttheMar- 

r L- TJI , , ,. f ^ r quisor Clannck- 

of this Place, and other adjacent Garnfons, wz.^ r< / j a j/W. 
800 Horfe and Foot, and march'd towards King's 
County ; both to fupply and fettle our Garrifons 
in thofe Parts, lying upon the Shannon Side, be- 
ing Frontiers upon the Enemy, as alfo to put 
them into a tenable and defenfive Pofture, as well 
to prevent the Enemy from quartering there, as 
to fecure our own Quarters from their Incur- 

< Before 

44 Ihe Parliamentary HISTORY 

' Before he came thither he had certain Intelli- 
1650. gence that, upon our Northern Forces drawing 

* themfelves from Athlone, the Enemy in Con- 
' naught^ taking that Advantage, came over the 

* Shannon ; their Number was 3000 Foot and 
' about 300 Horfe, all under the Command of 
' Clanrickard) whom Ormond had lately made his 
' Deputy, and had befieged Kilkolgan) a Garrifon 
' of ours ; and the Night before had taken Forbawne 
' Caftle, another of our Garrifons, and block'd up 

* a Pafs which is an Inlet to Kilkolgan. Col. Ax- 

* tell) with a fmall Body, faced the Pafs, and drew 
' back with his main Body to attempt another Pafs; 
' but when he came thither he found it ftrongly 
' fortified with Breaft-works, and mann'd with 
' Horfe and Foot ; befides there was a deep River, 

* tho' but narrow, between him and the Enemy. 
' They had an Hour's Difpute, each being drawn 
' up in full Bodies on either Side the River. The 
' Enemy loft 150 Men, of Horfe and Foot ; we 

* only one Lieutenant, befides five or fix Soldiers 
' that were wounded. In refpect of the Depth of 
' the Water, and Steepnefs of the Banks, ours 
' could not get over, but retreated about half a 

* Mile to invite the Enemy over to a Champain 

* Ground, but they declined it. 

' Immediately upon this there came an addi- 
' tional Strength to the Enemy. For young Pref- 

* ton with thofe which marched out of IVaterford 
' with him, and others whom he had raifed fince, 
' together with frefh Forces out of Connaught^ all 
' conjoined with the Enemy; fo that they were, in 

* all, upwards of 4000 Foot and 500 Horfe. They 

* marched, with their whole Body, over the For- 

* bawne River, and came within two Miles of Berr, 
' a Garrifon of ours, wherein two great battering 
' Guns were lodged. 

' Col. Axtell) not thinking it fit to engage fo 
e great a Body with fo fmall a Party, retreated in- 
$ to OJfory, both to procure a Conjunction with 

* fliore Forces, and a Supply of Provifions. In 

Of ENGLAND. 441 

* the Interim the Enemy fummoned Berr, and took in 

* in three of our Caftles near thereto, viz. Carrey 1650. 

e Caftle, Streameftown Caftle, and Glegan. But ' \s~~J 
4 Col. Axtell, being conjoined at Rofcrea with an November 

* additional Strength out of the Counties of Tipe- 
4 rary and Wexford, (who for that Purpofe had 

* Notice to rendezvous at Rofcrea the 2ift of Oc- 
4 tober) in all confifting of 1300 Foot and 1000 
4 Horfe and Dragoons, advanced towards Berr$ 
( whereupon the Enemy raifed their Camp, and 
4 retreated to Meleake Ifland, bordering upon the 
4 Shannon, into which there is one Pafs, with Bogs 
4 on each Side, and that alfo fortified in three fe- 
4 veral Places, one behind another, as Referves to 
4 each other, which were all to be got before any 
4 Entry could be obtained into the Ifland. 

4 Upon the 25th of Oflober, half an Hour be- 
4 fore Night, our Forces made an Attempt upon 
4 the Enemy; and, after a fmall Difpute, beat them 

* off from the firft and fecond Guard of the Pafs ; 
4 but at the third the Difpute was fo hot, that they 
4 came to Butt-end of Mufket ; and God being 
' pleafed to give our Forces Entrance into the 
4 Ifland, the whole Body of the Enemy was totally 
4 routed. They loft all their Arms; we alfo took 
4 200 of their Horfe, all their Waggons, Oxen, 
4 Tents, Provifions, and whatever elfe they had 
4 in their Camp, among which were Glanrickard's 
4 Waggon and Tent ; he himfelf the Day before 
4 having gone over the Shannon to give Order to 
4 the reft of his Forces to march towards Limerick , 
4 being confident that the Army which he had left 
4 in King's County, together with thofe whom he 
4 expected to have gathered to their Afliftance, 
4 would have been able to carry all before them in 
4 thefe Parts. 

4 The Number of Men the Enemy loft is not 
4 certainly known, for befides thofe which were 
4 kill'd, Multitudes were drown'd. Five hundred 
4 of them were forced into the Shannon by one Party 

4 of our Horfe, and were all drowned in one Com- 

5 pany together, The Irijh report that there were 


442 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

fnr-regnum. n ot above 300 of the Enemy which efcaped, and 
l6 5- moft of thofe were fuch as fwam over the Shan- 

r^T ' non ; which aerees with the Relation of a Trum- 
Jfovcmber. & rN . . . .. , . 

4 peter who was fent next Day, by their Major-' 

4 General Taaffe^ to inquire after Prifoners, who 
' confefled that all but 300 were loft. We loft 
4 only Capt. Goff with eight common Soldiers, and 
4 20 wounded. 

4 The next Day the Enemy quitted all the be- 

* fore- mentioned Garrilons taken from us, fired 
4 them, and fled away to Connaught. This being 
4 done, Col. Axtell* on the ift Inftant, with Pare 
4 of the Forces, return'd to this Place, (thefe Parts 
4 being much infefted in his Abfence with a Party 

* of Horfe and Foot, confifting of about 500, under 
4 the Command of Dungan, Pierce, Rea, and Ca- 
4 vannah) and the fame Day, at Midnight, with a 
4 Party of Horfe and Foot, drew out toward Tho- 
4 mas-Town^ where he heard the Enemy's laft- 
4 mentioned Forces were gathered together, about 
4 {"even/ Miles from this Place. The other Part of 
4 our Forces marched toward my Lord Deputy, 
4 who had befieged the Ca-ftle of Nenagh in Lower 
4 Qrmond, about four Miles from the Shannon^ 
4 having drawn off the Forces from before Lime- 
4 rick ; the Unfeafonablenefs of the Weather not 
4 admitting our Army to lie in the Fields fo long 
4 as the gaining of a Place of fuch Strength will 
4 require. 

4 At this Inftant News is come that Nenagh 
4 Caftle is furrender'd, and that my Lord Deputy 
4 will take up his Winter Quarters here in a Day 
4 or two. I have nothing elfe to trouble your 
4 Lordfhip withall, but humbly crave Leave to 
' continue, My ^ 

Your Lordjhip''s mojl bumble Servant^ 

This Intelligence was fo highly acceptable to 
the Houfe, that they not only ordered it to be print- 
ed, but alfo fcfolvcd that public Thanks be given 


Of E N G L A N D. 443 

to Almighty God, on the Loid's Day next enfu- Inter-rcgnum. 
ing, in all Churches and Chapels in and about 1650. 
London, for his great Mercy in vouchfafing fo iig- 
nal and feafonable a Victory to the Parliament's 
Army againft the bloody Rebels in Ireland. 


The next Day the Houfe refolved, That the 
Council of State be required to remove out of all 
Garrifons, Cities, and Market Towns, and to 
fuch Diftances from thence as they mall fee fit, all Order againft 
fuch Minifters who refufe to fubfcribe the Engage- Minifters who 
ment to be true to a Commonwealth Govern- p? e ^ en * c 
ment. - We have before taken Notice of a Com- 
plaint being made of fsveral Minifters refufing to 
obferve the Day appointed for a public Thankfgi- 
ving for Cromwell's late Victory at D unbar ; and 
this Refolution was the Confcquence of it. 

The reft of this Month was taken up chiefly 
about the An r eflment-At, before-mentioned, of 
1 2O,OOO /. per jMcnfem^dnd naming Commiflion- 
ers for it, &c. which being all perfected, the Adi: 
was pafled on the ?.6th, and ordered to be forth- 
with printed and publifhed. 

This Month alfo produced an A& For 0/c*rftrr*-A3spaflU 
ing what Fees frail be paid by Lords of Manors on 
faffing their Accounts in the Exchequer ; alfo when, 
c.nd by ^uhom, Fines, Amerciaments, &c. may be mo- 
derated, and when certified. Another For regulating 
Abufes in Norwich Stuff's. And alfo an Aft, De- 
claring alt Ships and Merchandize, belonging to the 
King of Portugal or any of his Subjefts, to be law- 
ful Prize. The pafling of this Act was occafion'd 
by that Monarch's having given Shelter to Prince 
Rupert in his Ports, after his Highnefs's taking 
fome Englijb Ships. 

December. The Houfe proceeded, according to 
Order, every Jfednefday, on the Bill for future 
Parliaments and regulating Elections ; which ge- 
neraljy took up the whole Day, and yet concluded 
upon nothing. The Reafon of which is not hard 
to guefs, 


444 tt* Parliamentary HISTORY 

. Dec. 6. About this Time there had been an In- 
1650. furrection in Nonvich and that County, in which 
'^.^-v ~J jnany People were taken Prifoners. They were 
December. or( ] ei e j at nr fl- to b e tried by a Commiflion of Oyer 
and Ter miner, but afterwards the Houfe did not 
think fit to truft them to a Jury, but confign'd 
them over to the Mercy of a High Court of Juftice ; 
and, to add more Commiflioners to this Court, 
which ftill fubfifted, a Bill was brought in, read 
twice the fame Day, and, upon theQueftion, parted 
into an Adi: without either an Engroflment or a 
third Reading. 

Dec. 10. This Day a Letter, from the Lord-Ge- 
neral Cromwell^ to the Speaker, was communicated 
to the Houfe in btec Verba : 

SIR, Edinburgh, Dec. 4, 1650. 

' T Have now fent you the Refult of fome Trea- 
n * 1 ties amongft the Enemy, which came to my 
of the State of Hands this Day. Major-General Lambert, with 
Affairs in Sett- ' Commiffary- General Whalley, having marched, 
' a few Days ago, towards Glafgoiv, the Enemy 
' attempted his Quarters in Hamilton, and were 
' enter'd the Town ; but, through the Blelling of 
' God, and by a very gracious Hand of Providence, 
' without the Lofs of fix Men as I hear, he beat 
' them out, kill'd about an Hundred, and took 
' alfo about the fame Number; amongft which are 
' fome Prifoners of Quality, and near 400 Horie, 
' as I am inform'd ; the Major-General being in 
' the Chace of them, to whom I have alfo fmce 
' fent the Addition of a frefh Party. Colonel Carr, 

* as my Mefl'enger this Night tells me, is taken, 
' alfo his Lieutenant-Colonel, with his Captain- 
' Lieutenant, and the whole Party is fhatter'd. 
' But, give me Leave to fay it, if God had not 

* brought them upon us, we might have march'd 
' 3000 Horfe to Death, and not have lighted on 
' ten of them : And truly it was a ftrange Provi- 
' Jence that brought them on, for I, marching from 

* Edinburgh on the North Side of Clyde, appointed, the 


Of E N G L A N D. 445 

* Major-General to march through Peebles to Ha- Inter-regnum, 
< miltan on the South-Side of Clyde. I came thither 

* by the Time expected, tarried the Remainder of 
' the Day, and untill near Seven the next Morning, 

* apprehending the Major-General would not come 

* by reafon of the Waters. But I being retreated 
' the Enemy took Encouragement, march'd all 

* that Night, and came upon the Major-General's 

* Quarters about two Hours before Day, where it 
' pleafed the Lord to order as you have heard. 

' The Major-General (as he fent me Word) 
' was ftill going on in the Profecution of them, to- 
' gether with the Commifiary-General ; and faith, 

* that, except 150 Horfe in one Body, he hears 

* they are fled by 16 and 18 in a Company, all the 
' Country over. 

* Robin Montgomery was come out of Stirling 
' with four or five Regiments of Horfe and Dra- 
' goons, but was put to a Stand when he heard the 

* Iflue of this Affair. Strachan and fome other Of- 
c fleers had quitted, fome three Weeks or a Month 
' before, this Bufmefs ; fo that Carr commanded 
4 the whole Party in chief. 

' It is given out the Malignants will be, almofl 

* all, receiv'd, and rife unanimoufly and expeditiouf- 
' ly. I can affure you, thofe that ferve you here 

* find more Satisfaction in having to deal with Men 
' of that Stamp than with others ; and it is our 
6 Comfort, that the Lord hath hitherto made it the 
c Matter of our Prayers, and of our Endeavours, 

* (if it might have been the Will of God) to have 
c had a Chriftian Underftanding between thofe that 
' fear God in this Land and ourfelves; and yet we 
6 hope it hath not been carried on with a willing 
c Failure of our Duty to thofe that truft us ; and I 
4 am perfuaded that the Lord hath look'd favour- 
' ably upon our Sincerity herein, and will ftill do 
' fo, and upon you alfo, whilft you make the In- 
' tereft of his People yours. 

' Thofe religious People of Scotland, that fall 
' in this Caufe, we cannot but pity and mourn for 
c them; and we pray that all good Men may do 

6 fo 

446 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inier-regmim, ^ f o too. Indeed there is, at this Tims, very great 

^5 5 o. Diftradions and mighty Workings of God upon 

DecemberT t the Hearts of divers, both Minifters and People, 

much of it tending to the Juftification of your 

t Caufe : And although fome are as bad and as 

t bitter as ever, making it their Bufmefs to fhuffle 

t hypocritically with their Confciences and the 

4 Covenant, to make it lawful to join with Malig- 

t nants, which now they do, as well they might 

4 long before, having taken in the Head of them, 

( yet truly, others are flartled at it; and fpme have 

been conftrain'd, by the Work of God upon their 

Confciences, to make fad and folemn Accufations 

* of themfelves, and Lamentations in the P'ace of 

* their fupreme Authority, charging themfelves as 
' guilty of the Blood fhed in this War, by having 
' a Hand in the Treaty at Breda, and by bringing 
' in the King amongft them. This lately did a 
' Lord of the Seflion, and withdrew ; and lately 

* Mr. James Levingjion, a Man highly efteemed 
' for riety and Learning, who was a Cominif- 
' fioner for the Kirk at the faid Treaty, charg'd 
' himfclf with the Guilt of the Blood of this War, 
' before their Aflembly, withdrew from them, and 

* and is retired to his own Houfe. 

' It will be very necefTary, to encourage Vi&u- 

* allers to come to us, that you take off Cuftoms 

* and Excife from all Things brought hither for the 

* Ufe of the Army. 

' I beg your Prayers, and reft 

Your bumble Servant, 

The foregoing Letter was referred to the Coun- 
cil of State, to confider of the Particulars contain- 
ed therein, and to determine what might beft con- 
duce to the Service of the Army in Scotland. 

The Houfe had ordered, fome Time ago, that 
the Proceedings of the High Court of Juftice, for 
the Trial of the late King, fhould be laid before 
them: Accordingly this Day, Dec. 12, Mr. Say 

Of E N G L A N D. 447 

reported the Records thereof, which were read, at inter-regnum, 
large, by the Clerk, viz. The Act for Trial of the i 6 5 
King ; the Precept for the Trial ; the Charge '< v^ ' 
againft the King, exhibited, received, and read 
January 20, 1648, and the Sentence againft him 
on the 27th of that Month. After which it was 

1. ' That the Parliament doth declare, ThatThe Proceedings 
the Perfons intrufted in this great Service, of the at the Trial of 
Trial of the late King, have difcharged the Truft^^f^ 
in them repofed, with great Courage and Fidelity itcred on Record. 
And that the Parliament is well fatisfied in this 

Account of the Particulars, and Proceedings there- 
upon, and do approve thereof; and order that the 
fame be recorded, to remain among the Records 
of Parliament, for the tranfmitting the Memory 
thereof to Pofterity. 

2. ' That all the faid Proceedings be engrofs'd, 
and recorded among the Parliament-Rolls. 

3. ' That the Lords Commiffioners for the 
Great Seal of England do iflue forth a Certiorari to 
the Clerk of Parliament, to tranfmit the faid Pro- 
ceedings into the Chancery, to be there kept of 
Record ; and that the fame be tranfcribed, and fent 
by Mittimus from thence into the Courts of the 
Upper Bench, Common Pleas, and public Exche- 
quer ; and alfo to the Cujlos Rotulorum in the re- 
fpeclive Counties of this Commonwealth, to be 
recorded in each of them.' 

Thus ftands the Entry of this extraordinary Af- 
fair in the Journals : But why this bloody Bu- 

fmefs mould be now again brought upon the Car- 
pet, at near two Years Diftance, is a Secret ; un- 
lefs it was by way of Defiance to the Scots ; and 
to let their King know, that if he mifcarried in his 
Enterprise now on Foot, he fhould be fure to (hare 
the like Fate with his Father. 

To {hew likewife that the new Republic of Eng- 
land was recognized, at this Time, by foreign 

Dec. 24. The Speaker acquainted the Houfe that 
the Secretary to an AmbafTador. lately come from. 


44 8 The Parliamentary His rosy 

Juter-regnum. from Spain, had attended him, and deliver'd to him 
1650. Copies of his Letters credential, in Latin^ and a 
* v- ' Tranflation thereof in Englijh j which being read, 
December. it was re f o j ve( j b y tne Parliament, That the Lord 
AmbafTador of the King of Spain mould have Au- 
dience in the Houfe ; and that Sir Oliver Fle- 
ming^ Matter of the Ceremonies, do attend him, 
thither on the 26th. Accordingly, 

On the Day appointed the Spani/b Ambaflador j 
Don Alonfo de Cardenas a , was admitted to an 
Audience, with the following Ceremonies : 
The Spanijh The Houfe being informed by their Serjeant, 
Ambaflador ad- f hat the Lord Ambaflador from the King of Spain, 
dienct of a d U ~ attended to Patent himfelf to the Parliament, the 
Parliament. Serjeant with his Mace, went to conduct his Ex- 
cellency into the Houfe.- 

So foon as the Lord Ambaflador was entered, he 
uncovered himfelf: And Mr. Speaker and all the 
Members flood up bare. When his Excellency 
was come as far as the Bar, the Mafter of the Ce- 
remonies and the Serjeant attended him, the one 
on the Right Hand and the other on the Left, untill 
he came to the Chair appointed for that Purpofe, 
which was placed on the North Side of the Houfej 
upon ^Turkey Carpet, with a Cufhion in it, and a 
Foot- Stool before it. 

After a few Words addrefied to Mr. Speaker, 
the Ambaflador prefented his Letters Credential ; 
which being delivered, by the Mafter of the Cere- 
monies, to Mr. Speaker, his Excellency declared 
the Subftance of his Embafly ; which was to exprefs 
the King of Spain's great Defire of eftabliming a 
Peace and e;ood Correfpondency with the Common- 
wealth of England : He likewife delivered a Copy 
in Englijh, of what he had before exprefled by 
Word of Mouth, and two other Papers mentioned 
in his Speech. 


* Lord Clarendon gives a very minute and particular Account of 
the Occafion of the King of Spain's fending this Ambaflador into 
England, and of the fruitlefs Negotiation of Lord Cottingtcn and him- 
felf on Behalf of King Charles II. after above a Year's Refidence 
in that Kingdom. Hijiery, Vol. V. p. 301, et fey. 

Of ENGLAND. 449 

Mr. Speaker having inform'd the Ambaflador, Jnter-regnurn 
by the Mafter of the Ceremonies, that he would 1650. 
acquaint the Parliament with the Purport of his V " r T~ v ~""""""' 
Ambafly, his Excellency, attended in "the fame 
Manner as before, withdrew. Then the Letters ' 
Credential, in Latin, under the Hand and Seal of the 
King of Spain, were read ; the Superfcription 
whereof was, Parliament Reipublicee Anglice, and 
fubfcrib'd Philippus. 

The next Day the Speaker inform'd the Houfe, 
That he had receiv'd a Letter from Joannes de 
Guimaraes, a public Minifter from the King rf Por- 
tugal, directed thus, Illujlrtjjimo Domino, Domino 
Orator: Parliament! Reipublices Anglite ; alfo Co- 
pies of his Letters Credential, \nLatin, Portuguefe, 
and Englijh, inclofed in another Paper infcrib'd, 
Parliamento Reipublicte dnglite. All thefe being 
read, the Houfe appointed a Committee to confider. 
of the Manner of giving Audience to the Portu- 
guefe Minifter, and alfo all Ambafladors, Agents, 
and other public Minifters, and to report their 
Opinion thereupon to the Houfe. 

Victory ftill waited on Cromwell in his Wars in 
Scotland,, Succefs attending him every Step. By a? 
Letter received from him, and read in 'the Houfe 
the 3 1 ft of this Month, he inform'd the Parliament 
of the Surrender of Edinburgh Caftle, with the 
Articles thereof inclofed, and fevcral Papers which 
pafs'd between Walter Dimdas, Efq; the Gover- 
nor, and himfelf, relating to that Surrender. 
But the General's own Letter, addrefs'd to the 
Speaker, is fufficient for our Purpofe. 

SIR, Edinburgh, Dec. 24, 1650. 

' T T having pleafed God to caufe the Caftle of Gefl ' Cromwell** 
' J[ Edinburgh to be furrendered into our Hands,f u c r c r e ^ r o f f l ] 
* this Day about Eleven o'Clock, I thought fit to dmlurgh Caftle i 
' give you fuch Account thereof as I could, and 
' the Shortnefs of Time would permit. I fent a 
' Summons to the Caftle upon the I2th Inftant, - 

VOL. XIX. F f < which 

Jntpr-rer num. 


450 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

which occafioncd fevcral Exchanges of Returns 
and Replies ; which, for their Unufualnefs I alfo 
thought fit humbly to prefent to you r . Indeed 
the Mercy is very great and feafonahle. I think 
I need fay little of the Strength of the Place, 
which if it had not come as it did, would have 
coft, very much Blood to have attained, if at all 
to be attained ; and did tye up your Army to that 
Inconvenience, that little or nothing could have 
been attempted whilft this was in Deiign, or little 
Fruit had of any Thing brought into your Power 
by your Army hitherto, without it. I muft needs 
fay, not any Skill or Wifdom of ours, but the 
good Hand of God hath given you this Place. 
1 believe all Scotland hath not in it fo much Brafs 
Ordnance as this Place. I fend you here inclofcd 
a Lift thereof, and of the Arms and Ammunition, 
fo well as they could be taken on a fudden. Not 
having more at prefent to trouble you with, I 
take Leave, and reft, 


Ybur moft bumble Servant^ 

A LIST of the ORDNANCE, &c. in the Co/lie. 
' Brafs Pieces ; five French Cannons, or Cannons 

* of feven ; nine Dutch half Cannon, or Twenty - 
.* four-pounders; two Culverins, two Demi Culve- 

* rins, two Minions, three Three-pounders, two 
4 Falcons, twenty-eight Drakes, call'd Monkeys. 

' Iron 

* The main Purport of the Papers on the Governor's Part w.i?, 
That being intrufted by the States of Scotland, and fworn not to de-i 
liver up the Caftle to any Perfon without their Warrant, he there- 
fore defired ten Days Time to obtain their Confent : To this Crcw- 
iveirs Anfweis were, That he would not give the Governor Liber- 
. ty to coniult with the Committee of Eftates, becaufe he had heard 
that many of the honeft Party had left them, being unfatisfied 
their prefent Proceedings; and that the reft were piirfuing an Inte- 
refl different from what they had. formerly pretended to, by making 
Way for the Reception of profefs'd Malignants both in their Par- 
liament and Army. AH thefeMeffages, Anfwers, &c. are print- 
ed at large by Dr. Grey in his Appendix to the 4th Volume of 
Work, intituled An impartial Examination of Mr, Neal'j Hiftory 
/" the Puritans, p. 54, et fey. 

Of ENGLAND. 451 

' ' Iron Guns; the great Murderer, call'd Muckle Inter-regnum, 
' Meg\ four Cannon; ten Drakes, call'd Monkeys; .^%~*~4 
' two Petards. About feven or eight thoufand T anuar 
' Arms, between three and fourfcore Barrels of 
' Powder, and great Store oi Cannon Shot.' 

The foregoing Letters and Papers from the Ge- whereupon the 
neral being read, the Iloufe refolved (as if it was to P av '' amcnt a P~ 
fhew the prefent King of Scotland, and the Royal jf^^Vfor a 
Party there and ellewhere, in what great Con- Day of Thankf- 
tempt they held them) that the 30th Day of Ja- giving. 
nnary enfuing be fet a-part as a Day of public 
Thankfgiving, to be obferved through the whole 
Nation, for the great Mercies of God vouchfafed 
to the Commonwealth of England^ both by Sea and 
Land, and carrying on the Affairs thereof with fo 
great Succefs ; and, in particular, in the Rendition 
of the Caftle of Edinburgh ; the Defeat of the 
Scots Forces in the Weft of Scotland, by the Par- 
liament's Forces under the Command of Major- 
General Lambert ; as alfo in the Difcovery of the 
late horrid Defign, here at home, to raife a new 

No A&s pafs'd this Month worth our Notice, 
except that already mentioned, touching the High 
Court of Juftice. 

January. We have lately taken Notice of a Their Refold- 
Committee's being appointed to confider of the tions touching 
Reception of Ambaffadors, Agents, and other pu-*^j"| 
blicMinifters from foreign Princes: The Pioceed-Minifters, 
ings of this Month begin with a Report made from 
that Committee, confifting of the following Re- 
folutions, which were agreed to by the Houfe : 

1. ' That Ambafladors, Ordinary and Extraor- 
dinary, fent from Commonwealths, Kings, Princes, 
2nd States, be admitted to public Audience in Par- 
liament, fo often as the Parliament fhall think fit. 

2. * That all other public Minifters, under the 
Quality of Ambafladors, have Audience by a Com- 
mittee of Parliament, fent out of the Parliament 

F f 2 for 

452 *flje Parliamentary HISTORY 

tnter-regnum. for tnat P ur P^ e i who are to return and tender 

1650. ' their Report before the Houfe rile. 
t ->, -J 3. ' That the Day and Hour he appointed by 
January. Parliament, at which Time the Mufter of the Ce- 
remonies is to conduct fuch public Minifter to the 
Place lately called the Inner Court of Wards; 
and then immediately to certify the Parliament 

4. * That the late Houfe of Lords be the Place 
for the Committees of Parliament to give Audi- 
ence in, and to be'fitted up for that Purpofe. 

5. ' That it be referred to the Council of State 
to take efpecial Care to provide convenient Hang- 
ings for this Houfe, and for the Inner Court of 
Wards ; and that the Suit containing the Story of 
1588, be referved for the Service of the State, and 
hung up in the late Houfe of Lords ; and that all 
Jiich other Accommodations be made, as are ne- 
celTary for the Ufcs above voted. 

6. c That Audience be given to the Public Mi- 
nifter from Portugal, the enfuing Tuefday^ at Ten 
in the Morning, by a Committee of Parliament, 
according to the foregoing general Rules for giving 
Audience ; and that Sir Oliver Fleming give him 
Notice thereof.' 

Matters of Moment enough for thefe Inquiries 
having of late been, and ftill continuing, very fcacce 
in the 'Journah^ we muft be content to pick up 
fuch as feem moft likely to illuftrate the Hiftory of 
thefe Times. Delinquents Eftates were ftill an 
inexhaufcible Fund to thefe new Lords and Ma- 
ilers ; and as they had allowed large Premiums to 
thofe Perfons who could, inform of any concealed 
Lands or Monies not given in by the unhappy Suf- 
ferers, new Difcoveries were frequently making 
by thofe Wretches who had hunted about to make 
Gain of the others Misfortunes. 

To carry up their Inquiries as high as they could, 
an Act for the Sale of Delinquents Eftates being 
this Day, "Jan. 9, reported to the Houfe, with 
feme Amendments to it;, one of which was, That 


Of E N G L A N D. 453 

the Forfeitures of thofe Eftates named in the Act i n ter-regnum 
fhould be from the Time of their refpe&ive Trea- 1650. 
fons ; on the Queftion it was carried in the Ne- < v*~"-^ 
gative. Then another Queftion being put, That J anuai 7- 
the Time of 'their Forfeiture be from the 4th of 
January, 164.4, the Houfe divided into Yeas, 23; And the Sa]c of 
JNoes, 20 ; 10 that the greateit Latitude was given Delinquents E- 
to thefe DiftrefFes that was poffible to be done, ftates, 
And, by the Numbers on this Divifion, may be 
feen into how few Hands this exorbitant Power 
was got of laying fuch heavy Burthens on their 
Fellow- Subjects ; though, fome Days after, the 
Time of Forfeiture was altered, by another Vote, 
to be from the 20th of May, 164.2. And that 
whatfoever Perfon fhould be found guilty of com- 
mitting any Treafon againftthis Commonwealth, 
flnce the ill of February, 1648, or at any Time 
henceforth, fhould not be admitted to any Com- 
pofition at all. 

yan. 10. We have lately given the Parliament's 
Manner of receiving the Sphnijh AmbafFador, we 
fliall now fee how the Portuguefe Agent was ad- 
mitted; which was by a Committee of eleven 
Members appointed for that Purpofe. It feems the 
Parliament had been difgufted at the King of Por- 
tugal, for allowing great Liberties to Prince Ru- 
pert and the Fleet under him, to man and victual 
in all his Ports : And Admiral Blake had Orders to 
fink and take the Portuguefe Ships wherever he 
met them ; by which Means the Brazil Fleet fell 
into his Hands. Hereupon all the Englijh Mer- 
chants were feized in Portugal: But on the News 
of the great Victory gained by the Parliament in 
Scotland, the Portuguefe King thought proper to 
releafe the Merchants, and fend an Agent to Eng- 
land, the Manner of whofe Audience was thus 
reported to the Houfe by the Lord Commiffioner 

e The Committee appointed for that Purpofe 

met, on the loth of this Month, in the late Houfe 

of Lords ; anjd the Agent from Portugal) attended 

F f 3 thither 

454 The Parliamentary HISTORV 

Inter- regnum. thither by the Mafter of the Ceremonies, the Com- 
1650. mittee being fet, came in uncovered; whom the 
* "v ~* Committee received with the like Compliment j 
January. ^^ a ^ er mutual Salutations perform'd, he fat 
down in a Chair appointed ior that Purpofe, and, 
JiJSJgjJ covering his Head, the Committee did the like : 
to aa Audience. Then the Lord Commiflioner ["hillocke^ their 
Chairman, declared to the Agent, that they were 
authorized by the Parliament to give him Audience, 
and the Order for that Purpofe was read. Notice 
being alfo given him by tht Mailer of the Cere- 
monies, to whom he fhould addrefs'himfelf, the 
Agent prefentcd his Letters Credential from the 
King oiParttgaJj and, by Word of Mouth, decla- 
red to the Committee, in the Portuguefe Language, 
the Grounds and Ends for which he was fent ; 
which he likewife prefented to them, in Writing, 
both in Latin and Englijh: And being, with the 
like Attendance, withdrawn, it was ordered that the 
Council of State do prepare all Papers, Letters, and 
Matters concerning the Tranfa6tions between the 
Parliament of England and the King of Portugal y 

from firft to laft, to be reported to the Houfe. 

This Minifter had fent a Letter to the Speaker, on 
the jth, defiring to be admitted as an amba$ndor 3 
but the Houfe refolved to admit him only as an 
Agent. By which Diftinction they exprefs'd their 
Refentment againft the Crown of Portugal^ and 
paid a Compliment to that of Spain. 

The Parliament ^ ne ^ ame Ceremony of Introduction was ufed 
ppoint Meff . when thefe public Minifters receiv'd their Anfwers. 
St. jobn and But neither the Reafon of their Miffion, nor the 

SSfAmblfla^A 11 ^ 618 S iven tO them b 7 lh ? Hoi ' fe are ^& 

dors to the States i n tne Journals. As the Parliament received thefe 
Genera], Teftimonies of Recognition from foreign States, fo 

they thought proper to fend out Minifters of their 
own ; and Oliver St. Jobn, Efq; formerly Sollicitor- 
General to the late King, but now Lord Chief 
Tuftice of the Common Pleas, with Walter Strick- 
land, Efq; their late Agent in Hdland, were con- 
flituted AmbaiTadors Extraordinary to the United 
Provinces. The Council of State were ordered to 


Of ENGLAND. 455 

provide their Credentials, Infrruclions, &c. and all -Inter-regnum. 
other Things necefiary for that Service, with due 1650. 
Refpect to the Honour of this Commonwealth. 

However, a few Days after, a Petition was pre- 
fented by Mr. St.Jobn, praying to be excufed from 
this Embafly. The "Journals make no Mention 
what were the Allegations of this. Petition, but we 
are inform'd by one of the Diaries r of thefe Times, 
that the Chief Juftice urg'd his prefent Indifpofi- 
tion, and the Opinion of his Phyiicians that the 
Air of Holland would be prejudicial to his Health ; 
tho' it feems as if the Houfe look'd upon this meer- 
ly as a Pretence; for, upon a Divifion, it was re- 
folved, by a Majority of 42 againft 29, that he 
fhould go : And it is highly probable the true Rea- 
fon was, that he dreaded rjie Fate of Darijlaus^ the 
Parliament's firft' Agent to- the S'catee. 

"Jan. 14. This Day the following Extracts of 
Letters from Crominell and Lambert to the Coun- 
cil of State, dated from Edinburgh the 4th and 
8th of this Month, intimating a Defign of the Scqts 
to attempt an Invafion of England) were read in 
the Houfe : 

the I ft of January Charles Stuart wasL etters ; nt ; ma . 
_ crown'd King of Scotland at Scoone. He ting a Defign of 
4 had great Ceremonies of Honour from the Guns, ^ ^^^ 

* but lefs than others from the Kirk and State. H^th^c^rnmandTf 

* is tied to a ftri&er Covenant than any of his Pre- King Charles 11. 

* deceflbrs, and is now gone to raife his Standard 
' at Aberdeen. All the Train'd Bands are fum- 
' moned to be in Readinefs, and Recruits are rai- 

* fmg to complete him, if .poffible, 20,000 Horfe 

* and Foot. The Scots now with him lay down 

* Religion, and make it not a Religious War, but 

* a National Quarrel. Malignants are the only 

* Men now fwaying, and a merePrefbyteriancan- 
' not be trufted, no not Argyle himfelf. The new 


r Nou-veHes Qrdinaires de Londrts, published by Authority every 
Tour/day, in French, by William Dii-Gard, Printer to the Council 
of State, for the Information of Foreigners. 

456 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' King is to be in the Head of the Army Gcne- 

1650. t raliUimo ; and under him Duke Hamilton^ Lieu- 

" v ' tenant-General of the Scots whole Army ; Da- 

4 i)id Lejley^ Major-General ; and Middleton^ 

' Lieutenant- General Of the Scots Horfe. Mafjey 

' is to have Commiflion to be Major-General of 

' the Engiijb. They have chofen all their new 

' Colonels, being the moft popular and beloved 

' Men, with whom we hear the People rife very 

' willingly ; fo that I think we may certainly con- 

* elude they will have a numerous Army before 

* long. It is confidently reported they have En- 

* couragement, and do intend to fend a Party for 
' England; which though we fhall endeavour to 
' prevent, yet it will be our Duty not to be too 
' fecure ; at leaft in preventing Infurre&ions and 

* Rifings in our own Bowels, which I conceive is 
' moft to be feared. 

' We have had great Thoughts how to prevent 

* thefe new Levies, and, if polTible, to have con- 

* trived a Way for our getting over the Water ; 
' but Providence denying that all this Time, makes 
' us wait the Lord's Leifure, who will bring it 

* about at a better Opportunity.' 

Who is crown'd. The Form and Order of the King's Coronation 
jKinof.SrWW,at Scoone, mentioned in the foregoing Letters, was 
t Scoone, publifhe'l about this Time at Aberdeen ; to which 
was annex'd a Copy of his Majefty's Declaration 
to all his Subjedts, from Dumfermling*, and a 
Sermon upon the Occafion, by Mr. Robert Dou- 
glas, Minifter of Edinburgh? and Moderator of the 
Commiffion of the General Aflembly ; wherein the 
Preacher, in the Name of ^fefus Chriji, and as his 
Servant, had the Aflurance to tell the King to his 
Face, 4 That if he did not 'continue ftedfaft to 
the Ends of the Covenant -(which he had then 
again fworn in the moft folemn Manner to obferve) 
the Controverfy was not ended between God and 
Jus Family ;' with many other Threats, which 

k Already given in this Volume, p. 362, tt fetg. 

Of E N G L A N D. 457 

the King was forced to hear at this Time with Inter-regnum. 
Patience. We have before mentioned fome In- 1650. 
fiances of the infolent and tyrannical Behaviour 1---V * 
of the Scots Clergy to their King : And how much l anuar ^ 
he then refented their Ecclefiaftical Vaffalage is 
evident from his making his Efcape from St. "John- 
Jlon into the Highlands, a few Months before, even 
when they were concerting Meafures for his Co- 
ronation. Lord Clarendon ' gives us a very parti- 
cular Account of this Elopement, which was call'd 
the Start, and of the King's being fetch'd back by 
Major- General Montgomery. 

A modern Hiftorian m attributes the diflblute 
Life of King Charles II. and his Indifference in 
Matters of Religion, to his firft letting off with fo 
fcandalous an Inftance of Hypocrify as that of fub- 
fcribing the Covenant, for which no Excufe was 
ever attempted but the Neceffity of his Affairs. 

Thus much for Scotland, return we now to 

The Acts parted this Month of a public Na- Aas paffed ^ 
ture were thefe, For encouraging the Importation of January. 
Bullion. By this Act all the Merchants, Stran- 
gers as well as Natives, who imported Bullion or 
foreign Coin, were allowed to export two Thirds 
of the Quantity imported, on Payment of One 
per Cent. Cuftom, and carrying the other Third to 
the Mint in the Tower to be coined. Convoys 
were alfo to be granted for guarding the faid two 
Thirds to any Part of Flanders or Holland. 

An A <5l again ft forcible and pretended Marriages^ 
whereby it was enacted, ' That if any Woman hath 
been, or {hall be, by Force, feized on, or carried 
away againft her Will, or have Words wrefted 
from her, either in this Nation, or b